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Allegheny Center Allegheny West Allentown Arlington Arlington Heights Banksville Bedford Dwellings Beechview Beltzhoover Bloomfield Bluff (also known as Uptown or Soho) Bon Air Brighton Heights Brookline California-Kirkbride Carrick Central Business District (Downtown) (also known as The Golden Triangle) Central Lawrenceville Central Northside (including the Mexican War Streets) Central Oakland Chartiers Chateau Chinatown Crafton Heights Crawford-Roberts Duquesne Heights East Allegheny (also known as Deutschtown) East Carnegie East Hills East Liberty Elliott Esplen Fairywood Fineview Friendship Garfield Glen Hazel Greenfield Hays Hazelwood Highland Park Homewood North homewood South Homewood West Knoxville Larimer Lincoln–Lemington–Belmar Lincoln Place Lower Lawrenceville Manchester Marshall-Shadeland (also known as Brightwood) Middle Hill Morningside Mount Oliver (not to be confused with the neighboring borough Mount Oliver) Mount Washington New Homestead North Oakland North Point Breeze North Shore Northview Heights Oakwood Overbrook Panther Hollow (officially part of South Oakland) Perry North (also known as Observatory Hill) Perry South (also known as Perry Hilltop) Point Breeze Polish Hill Regent Square Ridgemont Saint Clair Shadyside Sheraden South Oakland Southshore South Side Flats South Side Slopes Spring Garden Spring Hill–City View Squirrel Hill Stanton Heights Strip District Summer Hill Swisshelm Park Terrace Village Troy Hill Upper Hill Upper Lawrenceville Washington's Landing (A sub-neighborhood of Troy Hill) West End West Oakland Westwood Windgap Ben Avon Sewickley Moon Township Emsworth Edgeworth Coraopolis Mt Nebo Avalon Perrysville Jesse Ventura Rage Against The Machine 2016 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People hides MASS GENOCIDE FOR ORGANS...MURDER FOR ORGANS UP ROCKEFELLER'S ASS...THE KITE RUNNER From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Page semi-protected National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Naacplogo.png Abbreviation NAACP Formation February 12, 1909 Purpose "To ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination." Headquarters Baltimore, Maryland Membership 300,000[1] Chairwoman Roslyn Brock President/CEO Cornell William Brooks Budget $27,624,433[2] Website naacp.org African American topics History[show] Culture[show] Religion[show] Political movements[show] Civic / economic groups[show] Sports[show] Ethnic subdivisions[show] Languages[show] Diaspora[show] Lists[show] Category: African American Portal icon African American portal v · t · e The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909.[3] Its mission is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination".[4] Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people. The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. It has its headquarters in Baltimore, Maryland.[5] Contents [hide] 1 Organization 2 Predecessor: The Niagara Movement 3 History 3.1 Formation 3.2 Anti-lynching campaigns 3.3 Jim Crow and disfranchisement 3.4 Legal Defense Fund 3.5 Desegregation 3.6 The 1990s 3.7 Lee Alcorn controversy 3.8 George W. Bush 3.9 Tax exempt status 3.10 LGBT rights 4 Current activities 4.1 Youth 4.1.1 Youth & College Division 4.1.2 ACT-SO program 5 Criticism 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links 9.1 Archives Organization The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. Local, youth, and college chapters organize activities for individual members. In the U.S., the NAACP is administered by a 64-member board, led by a chairperson. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Gordon, who resigned in March 2007. Civil Rights Movement activist and former Georgia State Senator Julian Bond was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by health-care administrator Roslyn Brock.[7] Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. The Washington, D.C., bureau is responsible for lobbying the U.S. government, and the Education Department works to improve public education at the local, state and federal levels. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education. As of 2007, the NAACP had approximately 425,000 paying and non-paying members.[8] In 2011, the NAACP teamed up with the digital repository ProQuest to digitize and host the NAACP's archives, which includes over 2 million pages of "internal memos, legal briefings and direct action summaries from national, legal and branch offices throughout the country — charts NAACP's work and delivers a first-hand view into crucial issues: lynching, school desegregation, and discrimination in the military, the criminal justice system, employment, and housing, among others."[9] Modules are being added on a continual basis, with the NAACP Papers: Special Subjects being released in March 2014.[10] Predecessor: The Niagara Movement In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register. Because hotels in the U.S. were segregated, the men convened in Canada at the Erie Beach Hotel[11] on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario. As a result, the group came to be known as the Niagara Movement. A year later, three whites joined the group: journalist William E. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. They met in 1906 at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, and in 1907 in Boston, Massachusetts.[12] The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict, and disbanded in 1910.[13] Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909.[12] Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement was a separate organization. Historically it is considered to have had a more radical platform than the NAACP. The Niagara Movement was formed exclusively by African Americans. The meeting that inspired the NAACP included three European Americans. History Crystal Clear app kedit.svg This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. You can help. The discussion page may contain suggestions. (January 2012) See also: African-American–Jewish relations Formation Founders of the NAACP: Moorfield Storey, Mary White Ovington and W.E.B. Du Bois. The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois, had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. This event is often cited as the catalyst for the formation of the NAACP. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization. The NAACP was founded on February 12, 1909, by a diverse group composed of W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells, Archibald Grimké, Henry Moskowitz, Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villard, William English Walling (the last son of a former slave-holding family),[14][15] Florence Kelley, a social reformer and friend of Du Bois,[16] and Charles Edward Russell, a renowned muckraker and close friend of Walling who helped plan the NAACP and served as acting chairman of the National Negro Committee (1909), a forerunner to the NAACP.[17] On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. Du Bois played a key role in organizing the event and presided over the proceedings. Also in attendance was African-American journalist and anti-lynching crusader Ida B. Wells-Barnett. At its second conference on May 30, 1910, members chose as the organization's name the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and elected its first officers, who were:[18] National President, Moorfield Storey, Boston Chairman of the Executive Committee, William English Walling Treasurer, John E. Milholland (a Lincoln Republican and Presbyterian from New York City and Lewis, NY) Disbursing Treasurer, Oswald Garrison Villard Executive Secretary, Frances Blascoer Director of Publicity and Research, Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois. The NAACP was incorporated a year later in 1911. The association's charter delineated its mission: To promote equality of rights and to eradicate caste or race prejudice among the citizens of the United States; to advance the interest of colored citizens; to secure for them impartial suffrage; and to increase their opportunities for securing justice in the courts, education for the children, employment according to their ability and complete equality before law. The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African-American. The Jewish community contributed greatly to the NAACP's founding and continued financing. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch and Wise. According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Stressing the similarities rather than the differences between the Jewish and Black experience in America, Jewish leaders emphasized the idea that both groups would benefit the more America moved toward a society of merit, free of religious, ethnic and racial restrictions."[20] Pbs.org further states, "The American Jewish Committee, the American Jewish Congress, and the Anti-Defamation League were central to the campaign against racial prejudice. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. About 50 percent of the civil rights attorneys in the South during the 1960s were Jews, as were over 50 percent of the Whites who went to Mississippi in 1964 to challenge Jim Crow Laws."[20] As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of more than 30,000. Moorfield Storey, who was white, was the president of the NAACP from its founding to 1915. Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions). Anti-lynching campaigns Wiki letter w.svg This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (February 2014) Jim Crow and disfranchisement An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City. In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring. By 1914, the group had 6,000 members and 50 branches. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. W. Griffith's silent movie Birth of a Nation, a film that glamorized the Ku Klux Klan. As a result, several cities refused to allow the film to open. The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. It played a significant part in the challenge of Guinn v. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. It persuaded the Supreme Court of the United States to rule in Buchanan v. Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. New York. In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. Johnson was a former U.S. consul to Venezuela and a noted scholar and columnist. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. In 1920, Johnson was elected head of the organization. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro". The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The organization sent its field secretary Walter F. White to Phillips County, Arkansas, in October 1919, to investigate the Elaine Race Riot. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. It gained a groundbreaking Supreme Court decision in Moore v. Dempsey 261 U.S. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. White investigated eight race riots and 41 lynchings for the NAACP and directed its study Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States.[24] NAACP leaders Henry L. Moon, Roy Wilkins, Herbert Hill, and Thurgood Marshall in 1956. The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching. In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. It organized support for the Scottsboro Boys. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case. The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. In 1944 in Smith v. Allwright, the Supreme Court ruled against the white primary. Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks. Legal Defense Fund The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. It functioned as the NAACP legal department. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. After 1961 serious disputes emerged between the two organizations, creating considerable confusion in the eyes and minds of the public.[25] Desegregation Question book-new.svg This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2011) NAACP representatives E. Franklin Jackson and Stephen Gill Spottswood meeting with president Kennedy at the White House in 1961 With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Pearson case argued by Marshall. Houston's victory in Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada (1938) led to the formation of the NAACP Legal Defense fund in 1940. Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The bomb exploded on September 4th, the previous day, injuring Shores' wife. The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. Bolstered by that victory, the NAACP pushed for full desegregation throughout the South. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. The boycott lasted 381 days. The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. The NAACP feared members could be fired or face violent retaliation for their activities. Although the Supreme Court eventually overturned the state's action in NAACP v. Alabama, 357 U.S. 449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama. New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Roy Wilkins, NAACP's executive director, clashed repeatedly with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and other civil rights leaders over questions of strategy and leadership within the movement. The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas. By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place on August 28, 1963. That fall President John F. Kennedy sent a civil rights bill to Congress before he was assassinated. President Lyndon B. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low. After Kivie Kaplan died in 1975, scientist W. Montague Cobb became President of the NAACP and served until 1982. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins. The 1990s In the 1990s, the NAACP ran into debt. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis. In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds. In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty. In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. presidential elections. 10.5 million African Americans cast their ballots in the election. This was one million more than four years before,[26] and the NAACP's effort was credited by observers as playing a significant role in Democrat Al Gore's winning several states where the election was close, such as Pennsylvania and Michigan.[26] Lee Alcorn controversy During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Does it have anything to do with the failed peace talks?" ... "So I think we need to be very suspicious of any kind of partnerships between the Jews at that kind of level because we know that their interest primarily has to do with money and these kind of things."[27] NAACP President Kweisi Mfume immediately suspended Alcorn and condemned his remarks. Mfume stated, "I strongly condemn those remarks. I find them to be repulsive, anti-Semitic, anti-NAACP and anti-American. Mr. Alcorn does not speak for the NAACP, its board, its staff or its membership. We are proud of our long-standing relationship with the Jewish community and I personally will not tolerate statements that run counter to the history and beliefs of the NAACP in that regard."[27] Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn criticized the NAACP, saying, "I can't support the leadership of the NAACP. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. For this reason I gladly offer my resignation and my membership to the NAACP because I cannot work under these constraints."[28] Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. Bush's rival Republican presidential campaign. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Lieberman was to be welcomed as a positive step."[29] The leaders of the American Jewish Congress praised the NAACP for its quick response, stating that: "It will take more than one bigot like Alcorn to shake the sense of fellowship of American Jews with the NAACP and black America... Our common concerns are too urgent, our history too long, our connection too sturdy, to let anything like this disturb our relationship."[30] George W. Bush Louisiana NAACP leads Jena 6 March. In 2004, President George W. Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. You've heard the rhetoric and the names they've called me."[32] Bush also mentioned his admiration for some members of the NAACP and said he would seek to work with them "in other ways."[32] On July 20, 2006, Bush addressed the NAACP national convention. He made a bid for increasing support by African Americans for Republicans, in the midst of a midterm election.[33][34] Tax exempt status The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. Bush as well as other political figures.[35][36] In general, the US Internal Revenue Code prohibits organizations granted tax-exempt status from "directly or indirectly participating in, or intervening in, any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for elective public office."[37] The NAACP denounced the investigation as retaliation for its success in increasing the number of African Americans who vote.[35][38] In August 2006, the IRS investigation concluded with the agency's finding "that the remarks did not violate the group's tax-exempt status."[39] LGBT rights As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. This was in contradiction to their mother's longstanding support for the rights of gay and lesbian people.[40] In a 2005 speech in Richmond, Virginia, Bond stated: African Americans... were the only Americans who were enslaved for two centuries, but we were far from the only Americans suffering discrimination then and now.... Sexual disposition parallels race. I was born this way. I have no choice. I wouldn't change it if I could. Sexuality is unchangeable.[41] In a 2007 speech on the Martin Luther King Day Celebration at Clayton State University in Morrow, GA, Bond said, "If you don't like gay marriage, don't get gay married." His positions have pitted elements of the NAACP against religious groups in the Civil Rights Movement who oppose gay marriage mostly within the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) who was blamed partly for the success of the 2008 gay marriage ban amendment in California.[citation needed] The NAACP became increasingly vocal in opposition against state-level constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage and other rights, with state NAACP leaders such as William J. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012. On May 19, 2012, the NAACP's board of directors formally endorsed same-sex marriage as a civil right, voting 62-2 for the policy in a Miami, Florida quarterly meeting.[42][43] Benjamin Jealous, the organization's president, said of the decision, "Civil marriage is a civil right and a matter of civil law.... The NAACP's support for marriage equality is deeply rooted in the 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution and equal protection of all people." Possibly significant in the NAACP's vote was its concern with the HIV/AIDS crisis in the black community; while AIDS support organizations recommend that people live a monogamous lifestyle, the government did not recognize same-sex relationships.[44] As a result of the endorsement of same-sex marriage, Rev. Keith Ratliff Sr. of Des Moines, Iowa resigned from the NAACP board.[45] Current activities Benjamin Jealous, president of the NAACP from 2008 to 2013. Youth This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. Sometimes volunteer work expands to a more international scale. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships. In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Brown serves as the NAACP's National Youth & College Division Director. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP. Youth & College Division "The mission of the NAACP Youth & College Division shall be to inform youth of the problems affecting African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities; to advance the economic, education, social and political status of African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities and their harmonious cooperation with other peoples; to stimulate an appreciation of the African Diaspora and other people of color's contribution to civilization; and to develop an intelligent, militant effective youth leadership." ACT-SO program Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. Winners at the national competition receive national recognition along with cash awards and various prizes.[47] Criticism Main article: Resignation of Shirley Sherrod When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized. See also Portal icon African American portal Association for the Study of African American Life and History Black Rock Coalition The Crisis NAACP Image Awards NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund NAACP Theatre Awards Niagara Movement Racial integration Resignation of Shirley Sherrod Spingarn Medal References 1.Jump up ^ naacp.org, 4 August 2011, "NAACP Passes Resolution Supporting Strong Clean Air Act". Accessed 8 December 2011. 2.Jump up ^ Charitynavigator.org 3.Jump up ^ Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). ISBN 0-465-00071-1. 4.Jump up ^ "NAACP - Our Mission". Retrieved 2008-09-05.[dead link] 5.Jump up ^ "Contact Us". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Retrieved November 17, 2009.[dead link] 6.Jump up ^ NAACP, "Youth and College - Advisor's Manual", p 9. 7.Jump up ^ Ian Urbina, "Health Executive Named Chairwoman of N.A.A.C.P.", The New York Times, February 21, 2010, p. 4. 8.Jump up ^ Texeira, Erin (March 5, 2007). "NAACP president to step down, cites discord with board". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-03-04. 9.Jump up ^ Dempsey, Beth. "NAACP Archives Go Digital". ProQuest. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 10.Jump up ^ "History Vault: 2014 Releases". March 27, 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 11.Jump up ^ "Niagara Movement First Annual Meeting". Retrieved 2012-11-27. 12.^ Jump up to: a b "The story of the Niagara Movement and the N.A.A.C.P.". 13.Jump up ^ "Niagara Movement". W.E.B. DuBois Papers, Special Collections and University Archives W.E.B Du Bois Library, UMass, Amherst, MA. 14.^ Jump up to: a b "NAACP Timeline". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 15.Jump up ^ Simkin, John. "William English Walling biography". Spartacus Educational. 16.Jump up ^ Kathryn Kish Sklar, "Florence Kelley", in Rima Lunin Schultz and Adele Hast (eds), Women Building Chicago, 1790-1990: A Biographical Dictionary, Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, 2001, p. 463. 17.Jump up ^ Library of Congress. "NAACP Founder Charles Edward Russell". Library of Congress. 18.Jump up ^ "NAACP - How NAACP Began". 19.Jump up ^ Howard Sachar. "Working to Extend America's Freedoms: Jewish involvement in the Civil Rights movement". Excerpt from A History of Jews in America, published by Vintage Books. MyJewishLearning.com. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 20.^ Jump up to: a b PBS.org 21.Jump up ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006), Einstein on Race and Racism, Rutgers University Press, 2006. 22.Jump up ^ Warren Washington (2007), Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents. 23.Jump up ^ Kenneth Robert Janken, Walter White: Mr. NAACP, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2006, p.49 24.Jump up ^ Kenneth Robert Janken, Walter White: Mr. NAACP, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2006, p.2 and 42 25.Jump up ^ Benjamin L. Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. 0011-1422 26.^ Jump up to: a b c Marable, Manning (August 2002). "The NAACP's 93rd Convention: An Assessment (archived copy)" (PDF). Along the Color Line. Archived from the original on 2007-01-06. 27.^ Jump up to: a b c d "NAACP Leader Quits Under Fire". CBS News. August 9, 2000. 28.Jump up ^ "Bush campaign denounces Dallas NAACP comments on Lieberman". CNN. August 9, 2000. 29.Jump up ^ Duncan Campbell (August 10, 2000). "Black leader suspended for anti-semitic Lieberman slur". London: The Guardian. 30.Jump up ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000. 31.Jump up ^ "Editorial: No mutual respect: Mr. Bush unwisely forgoes NAACP meeting". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 2004-07-17. 32.^ Jump up to: a b c d Allen, Mike (2004-07-10). "Bush Criticizes NAACP's Leadership". The Washington Post. p. A05. 33.Jump up ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). FORA.tv. 2006-07-20. 34.Jump up ^ Bush invokes civil rights in NAACP speech, Associated Press (reprinted by MSNBC.com), July 20, 2006. (retrieved on October 14, 2008). 35.^ Jump up to: a b Janofsky, Michael (2004-10-29). "Citing July Speech, I.R.S. Decides to Review N.A.A.C.P.". The New York Times. 36.Jump up ^ "NAACP chairman calls for Bush's ouster". CNN. 2004-07-13. 37.Jump up ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". Internal Revenue Service. February 2006. 38.Jump up ^ Anderson, Makebra M (2005-02-08). "NAACP says IRS has no "Legitimate" Claim". National Newspaper Publishers Association (Amsterdam News). 39.Jump up ^ Fears, Darryl (2006-09-01). "IRS Ends 2-Year Probe Of NAACP's Tax Status". The Washington Post. 40.Jump up ^ Black Voices Q&A 09/25/06 http://www.blackvoices.com/black_news/canvas_directory_headlines_features/_a/bv-qanda-with-julian-bond/20060908115409990002 41.Jump up ^ "NAACP chair says 'gay rights are civil rights'". Washington Blade. 2004-04-08. Archived from the original on March 21, 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 42.Jump up ^ Michael Barbaro (May 19, 2012). "N.A.A.C.P. Endorses Same-Sex Marriage". The Caucus/The New York Times. 43.Jump up ^ "NAACP Passes Resolution in Support of Marriage Equality". NAACP. May 19, 2012. 44.Jump up ^ Castellanos, Dalina (May 19, 2012). "NAACP endorses same-sex marriage, says it's a civil right". Los Angeles Times. 45.Jump up ^ After NAACP's Gay Marriage Stance, Discord And Discussion. NPR (2012-06-08). Retrieved on 2014-05-24. 46.Jump up ^ Jet Magazine, April 2003 47.Jump up ^ "NAACP Proudly Announces 30th Anniversary ACT-SO Medalists". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 48.Jump up ^ Rich, Frank (May 28, 2012). "Post-Racial Farce". New York. Further reading Alexander, Shawn Leigh. An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle Before the NAACP. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. Bynum, Thomas L. NAACP: Youth and the Fight for Black Freedom, 1936-1965. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2013. Dalfiume, Richard. "The Forgotten Years of the Negro Revolution," Journal of American History 55 (June 1969): 99-100. fulltext in JSTOR Fleming, Cynthia Griggs. In the Shadow of Selma: The Continuing Struggle for Civil Rights in the Rural South. Rowman and Littlefield, 2004. Goings, Kenneth W. The NAACP Comes of Age: The Defeat of Judge John J. Parker. (1990). Hughes, Langston. Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP. (1962) Janken, Kenneth Robert. White: The Biography of Walter White, Mr. NAACP. New York: The New Press, 2003. Jonas, Gilbert S. Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. (Routledge, 2005). Lewis, David Levering. W.E.B. DuBois. In Two Volumes. (1994, 2001). Mosnier, L. Joseph. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. University of North Carolina, 2005. Ross, Barbara Joyce. J. E. Spingarn and the Rise of the NAACP, 1911-1939. (1972) Sartain, Lee. Borders of Equality: The NAACP and the Baltimore Civil Rights Struggle, 1914-1970. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2013. St. James, Warren D. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. (1958) Schneider, Mark Robert. We Return Fighting: The Civil Rights Movement in the Jazz Age. (2001) Sullivan, Patricia. Lift Every Voice: The NAACP and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: The New Press, 2010. Topping, Simon; "'Supporting Our Friends and Defeating Our Enemies': Militancy and Nonpartisanship in the NAACP, 1936-1948," Journal of African American History, Vol. 89, 2004 in JSTOR Verney, Kevern and Lee Sartain, eds. Long Is the Way and Hard: One Hundred Years of the NAACP. (2009), 16 new essays by scholars Zangrando, Robert. The NAACP Crusade Against Lynching, 1909-1950. (1980) External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to NAACP. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Barack Obama's Remarks at NAACP centennial Official website Events on the NAACP timeline (1939 - Present), naacp.org Civil Rights Greensboro: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Civil Rights Movement Veterans, crmvet.org Youth College Mission, naacp.org Article and Video, The NAACP 100 Years On, governingdynamo.com Annual ACT-SO Contest, naacp-Los Angeles.org Official site of the Brooklyn, New York Branch, brooklynnaacp.org NAACP in Georgia, georgiaencyclopedia.org The Wichita NAACP Blog, wichitanaacpblog.com George W. Bush addresses NAACP national convention for the first time July 20, 2006 (Video) President Obama NAACP Speech: "Your Destiny Is In Your Hands ... No Excuses" - video by The Huffington Post NAACP Turns 100: The History and Future of the Nation's Oldest and Largest Civil Rights Organization, democracywow.org video FBI file on the NAACP Archives Niagara Movement Du Bois Papers, Special Collections and University Archives, Umass Amherst National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region 1 Photograph Collection, ca. 1940-1982 at The Bancroft Library National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Region I, Records, 1942-1986 (bulk 1945-1977) at The Bancroft Library National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Vancouver Branch records. 1914-1967. 2.10 cubic feet (5 boxes). At the Labor Archives of Washington, University of Washington Libraries Special Collections NAACP Convention in Atlanta, Civil Rights Digital Library. [show] v · t · e National Association for the Advancement of Colored People [show] v · t · e African-American Civil Rights Movement [show] v · t · e African American topics [show] v · t · e Racism Categories: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Nonpartisan organizations in the United States Organizations based in Baltimore, Maryland 1909 establishments in the United States Organizations established in 1909 Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read View source View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Wikidata item Cite this page Print/export Create a book Download as PDF Printable version Languages Čeština Cymraeg Deutsch Español Euskara Français Galego 한국어 हिन्दी Hrvatski Íslenska Italiano Lëtzebuergesch Magyar Македонски Nederlands 日本語 Norsk bokmål Polski Português Русский Simple English Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Suomi Svenska தமிழ் 中文 Edit links This page was last modified on 10 January 2015, at 23:48. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view Address: 2203 Wylie Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 Phone:(412) 471-1024</p> _________________________________________ Biography of the Most Reverend David A. Zubik, DD Bishop David A. Zubik was born September 4, 1949, in Sewickley, Pennsylvania, to Stanley and the late Susan (Raskosky) Zubik. He attended Saint Stanislaus Elementary School and Saint Veronica High School, both in Ambridge, before entering Saint Paul Seminary in Pittsburgh. He received an undergraduate degree at Duquesne University in 1971 and went on to study at Saint Mary Seminary and University in Baltimore, Maryland, where he earned a degree in theology in 1975. Bishop Zubik was ordained a priest on May 3, 1975, by Bishop Vincent M. Leonard at Saint Paul Cathedral in Pittsburgh. Bishop Zubik served as Parochial Vicar of Sacred Heart Parish, Shadyside, until 1980. He was then assigned as Vice Principal of Quigley Catholic High School in Baden as well as Chaplain to the Sisters of Saint Joseph Motherhouse and Chaplain to the students at Mount Gallitzin Academy. At the same time, he began graduate studies at Duquesne University where he earned a master’s degree in education administration in 1982. He served in the role of adjunct spiritual director at Saint Paul Seminary from 1984 through 1991 and associate spiritual director at Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, from 1989 through 1996. In 1987, Bishop Zubik was appointed Administrative Secretary to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Anthony J. Bevilacqua. In 1988, he was appointed Administrative Secretary and Master of Ceremonies to then-Pittsburgh Bishop Donald W. Wuerl (now Cardinal Archbishop of Washington, DC), where he served until 1991, when he began his service as Director of Clergy Personnel. In 1995, he was named Associate General Secretary and Chancellor of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, and on January 1, 1996, became Vicar General and General Secretary—a position in which he served until his appointment to the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was consecrated a bishop on April 6, 1997, at Saint Paul Cathedral and was appointed auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Pittsburgh. On October 10, 2003, the Holy Father, Pope John Paul II, named the Most Reverend David A. Zubik as the Eleventh Bishop of the Diocese of Green Bay. Bishop Zubik was installed as Bishop on December 12, 2003. On July 18, 2007, he was named by Pope Benedict XVI as the Twelfth Bishop of Pittsburgh. He was installed at Saint Paul Cathedral in Pittsburgh on September 28, 2007. Bishop Zubik currently serves on the following committees: •USCCB Catholic Communications Campaign Subcommittee •USCCB Protection of Children and Young People Committee •Catholic-Jewish Dialogue of the USCCB •Board of Trustees, Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception, Washington, DC •Chairman, Pilgrimage Committee •Board of Trustees, The Papal Foundation •Board of Trustees, Saint Mary’s Seminary and University, Baltimore, MD •Board of Regents, Saint Vincent Seminary, Latrobe, PA •Chairman, Committee on Priestly Formation •Episcopal Advisory Board, Catholic Athletes for Christ •Episcopal Advisory Board, Catholic Education Foundation •Episcopal Advisory Board, Catholic Leadership Institute •Board of Directors, Sister Thea Bowman Foundation •Advisory Board, Angels’ Place •Board of Directors, Building United of Southwest Pennsylvania •Vice Chair, Council, Christian Associates of Southwest Pennsylvania •Advisory Board, National Catholic Center for Holocaust Education, Seton Hill University, Greensburg, PA •Cabinet, Southwestern Pennsylvania Food Security Partnership •Board of Directors, United Way of Greater Pittsburgh •Board of Directors, Urban League of Pittsburgh In addition, Bishop Zubik serves as … •Episcopal Liaison, Catholic Charities USA •Episcopal Moderator, Catholic Purchasing Services •Episcopal Chair, Ladies of Charity of the USA •Episcopal Liaison, National Association of Church Personnel Administrators _______________________________________________________________________

NEED 7 TO DEMAND TRUTH FROM KDKA...

HUFFINGTON POST COOBORATION, CLICK HERE.

FLEETWOOD MAC LE-JIT JITNEY 15202...412-313-3080

If you people elect Hillary in 2016, the AMA will

murder 1000/ hour of yinz, instead of 1000/day,

AS THEY DO NOW.

JFK predicted this shit in 1961, which resulted

in your beloved ELITE shooting him in the head...

53 years later, and you Media/Clergy-pacified

ZOMBIES still don't get it.

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The purpose of the petition is to demonstrate that KDKA

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NOW-HIDDEN ARTICLE REGARDING YOUR FLAT-OUT

MURDER BY THE AMA ET AL INTER ALIA.

Pick a medical scam...any scam below:

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Edward Snowden From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Edward Snowden Edward Snowden-2.jpg Screen capture from the interview with Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras on June 6, 2013 Born Edward Joseph Snowden June 21, 1983 (age 30) Elizabeth City, North Carolina, United States Residence Russia (temporary asylum) Nationality American Occupation System administrator Employer Booz Allen Hamilton Kunia, Hawaii, US (until June 10, 2013) Known for Revealing details of classified United States government surveillance programs Home town Wilmington, North Carolina Criminal charge Theft of government property, unauthorized communication of national defense information, and willful communication of classified intelligence to an unauthorized person (June 2013). Awards Sam Adams Award[1] National Security Agency.svg National Security Agency surveillance Programs[show] · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · (· ) · · (· ) Legislation[show] · · · Institutions[show] · Lawsuits[show] · · · · · Whistleblowers[show] · · · · · Publication[show] · Related[show] · · · · · Concepts[show] · Collaboration[show] Central Security Service· United States Cyber Command· Department of Justice· Federal Bureau of Investigation· Central Intelligence Agency· Department of Homeland Security· Information Awareness Office Canada· United Kingdom· Australia· New Zealand France· Germany v· t· e Further information: Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present) Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional, former employee of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and former contractor for the National Security Agency (NSA). He came to international attention when he disclosed thousands of classified documents to several media outlets, which he had acquired while working for the American consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton.[2][3] Snowden's release of classified material has been described as the most significant leak in US history by Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg. In May 2013, Snowden flew from Hawaii to Hong Kong, where he met with journalists Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras and released his documents to them. With his permission, the journalists later revealed his identity to the international media. The United States federal government charged Snowden with espionage on June 21,[4] and revoked his passport. On June 23, likely using a safe passage document issued by Ecuador's London consulate where Julian Assange was living,[5] Snowden flew to Moscow's Sheremetyevo International Airport so that he could take another flight to Latin America, because he had previously requested asylum in Ecuador, and may have been seeking refuge in Venezuela.[6] He was then stuck in the transit zone for 39 days, most likely because his safe passage had been canceled by Ecuador and he had no other valid travel documents.[5][7] On August 1, Russian authorities granted him a one-year temporary renewable asylum. Snowden's leaked documents uncovered the existence of numerous global surveillance programs, many of them run by the NSA and the Five Eyes with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments. In 2013, the existence of the Boundless Informant was revealed, along with the PRISM electronic data mining program, the XKeyscore analytical tool, the Tempora interception project, the MUSCULAR access point and the massive FASCIA database, which contains trillions of device-location records. In the following year, Britain's Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group was revealed, along with the Dishfire database, Squeaky Dolphin's real-time monitoring of social media networks, and the bulk collection of private webcam images via the Optic Nerve program. A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero,[8][9][10] a whistleblower,[11][12][13][14] a dissident,[15] a traitor,[16][17][18] and a patriot.[19][20][21] Snowden's "sole motive" for leaking the documents was, in his words, "to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them."[22] The disclosures have fueled debates over mass surveillance, government secrecy, and the balance between national security and information privacy. Two court rulings since the initial leaks have split on the constitutionality of the NSA's bulk collection of telephone metadata. Snowden is considered a defendant by American authorities.[23] In early 2014, some media outlets and politicians called for leniency in the form of clemency, amnesty or pardon, while others called for him to be imprisoned, ex-CIA director James Woolsey said that Snowden should be hanged if convicted of treason,[24] and anonymous "spies" want him murdered.[25][26] He lives in an undisclosed location in Russia, and is seeking asylum in the European Union.[27] Snowden currently holds a three-year post as Rector of the University of Glasgow and serves on the Freedom of the Press Foundation board of directors.[28][29][30][31] In March 2014, Snowden participated by teleconference as a featured speaker before two prominent technology conferences: South by Southwest Interactive and TED. Contents [hide] 1 Background 1.1 Childhood, family, and education 1.2 Political views 1.3 Career 2 Global surveillance disclosures 2.1 Release of documents 2.2 Publication 2.3 Revelations 2.4 Motivations 3 Flight from the US 3.1 Hong Kong 3.2 Russia 3.2.1 Morales plane incident 3.2.2 Asylum applications 4 Criminal charges 5 Temporary asylum in Russia 6 Reaction 6.1 Debate 6.1.1 International community 6.1.2 United States 6.1.2.1 Presidential panel 6.1.2.2 Court rulings 6.1.2.3 Public opinion polls 6.2 Recognition 6.2.1 Rector of the University of Glasgow 6.2.2 German "Whistleblower Prize" 6.2.3 Sam Adams Award 6.2.4 Alternative Christmas Message 6.2.5 Conference speaking engagements 6.2.6 Ridenhour Truth-Telling Prize 6.3 Snowden Effect 6.3.1 Tech 6.3.1.1 Lavabit 6.4 In popular culture 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Background[edit] Childhood, family, and education[edit] Anne Arundel Community College, Glen Burnie branch Edward Joseph Snowden was born on June 21, 1983,[32] in Elizabeth City, North Carolina[33] and grew up in Wilmington, North Carolina.[34] His father, Lonnie Snowden, a resident of Pennsylvania, was an officer in the United States Coast Guard,[35] and his mother, a resident of Baltimore, Maryland, is a clerk at the United States District Court in Maryland.[34][36] His parents are divorced, and his father has remarried.[37] Friends and neighbors described Snowden as shy, quiet and nice. One longtime friend said that he was always articulate, even as a child.[36] Speaking in an interview, Snowden's father described his son as "a sensitive, caring young man", and "a deep thinker".[38] By 1999, Snowden had moved with his family to Ellicott City, Maryland.[34] He studied at Anne Arundel Community College[34] to gain the credits necessary to obtain a high-school diploma but he did not complete the coursework.[39][40] Snowden's father explained that his son had missed several months of school owing to illness and, rather than return, took and passed the tests for his GED at a local community college.[22][38][41] Snowden worked online toward a Master's Degree at the University of Liverpool in 2011.[42] Having worked at a US military base in Japan, Snowden was reportedly interested in Japanese popular culture, had studied the Japanese language,[43] and also worked for an anime company domiciled in the US.[44][45] He also said he had a basic understanding of Mandarin Chinese and was deeply interested in martial arts and, at age 19 or 20, listed Buddhism as his religion on a military recruitment form, noting that the choice of agnostic was "strangely absent".[46] Snowden told The Washington Post that he was an ascetic, rarely left the house and had few needs.[47] Before leaving for Hong Kong, Snowden resided in Waipahu, Hawaii, with his girlfriend.[48] According to local real estate agents, they moved out of their home on May 1, 2013.[40] Political views[edit] Snowden has said that in the 2008 presidential election, he voted for a third-party candidate. He has stated he had been planning to make disclosures about NSA surveillance programs at the time, but he decided to wait because he "believed in Obama's promises". He was later disappointed that Obama "continued with the policies of his predecessor".[49] For the 2012 election, political donation records indicate that he contributed to the primary campaign of Republican candidate Ron Paul.[50][51] Several sources have alleged that Snowden, under the pseudonym "TheTrueHOOHA", authored hundreds of posts on technology news provider Ars Technica's chat rooms.[52][53][54] The poster discussed a variety of political topics. In a January 2009 entry, TheTrueHOOHA exhibited strong support for the United States' security state apparatus and said he believed leakers of classified information "should be shot in the balls".[55] However, in February 2010 TheTrueHOOHA wrote, "Did we get to where we are today via a slippery slope that was entirely within our control to stop, or was it an relatively instantaneous sea change that sneaked in undetected because of pervasive government secrecy?"[56] In accounts published in June 2013, interviewers noted that Snowden's laptop displayed stickers supporting internet freedom organizations including the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and the Tor Project.[22] Snowden considers himself "neither traitor nor hero. I'm an American".[57] Career[edit] On May 7, 2004, Snowden enlisted in the United States Army Reserve as a Special Forces recruit but did not complete any training.[32][58] He said he wanted to fight in the Iraq War because he "felt like [he] had an obligation as a human being to help free people from oppression."[22] In an email to The Guardian, the US Army confirmed his enlistment as Special Forces recruit and said he was discharged on September 28, 2004. The email said, "He did not complete any training or receive any awards".[59] Snowden stated that this was the result of breaking both of his legs in a training accident.[60] His next employment was for less than a year in 2005 as a "security specialist" at the University of Maryland's Center for Advanced Study of Language, a partnership with the U.S. Government that is not a classified facility.[61] In 2006 he joined the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)[62] as a systems administrator and telecommunications systems officer.[63] In May 2006 Snowden wrote in Ars Technica that he had no trouble getting work because he was a "computer wizard." In August he wrote about a possible path in government service, perhaps involving China, but said it "just doesn't seem like as much 'fun' as some of the other places".[58] Geneva, Switzerland In 2007, the CIA stationed Snowden with diplomatic cover in Geneva, Switzerland, where he was responsible for maintaining computer network security.[64] Snowden described his CIA experience in Geneva as "formative", stating that the CIA deliberately got a Swiss banker drunk and encouraged him to drive home. Snowden said that when the latter was arrested, a CIA operative offered to intervene and later recruited the banker.[65] Swiss Federal Council President Ueli Maurer said it did not seem likely "that this incident played out as it has been described by Snowden and by the media".[66] The revelations were said to have come at a sensitive time as the United States was pressing the Swiss government to increase banking transparency.[67] Eric Schmitt of The New York Times stated that "two senior American officials" told him that, prior to the end of Snowden's term, Snowden's supervisor wrote a negative report that stated suspicions of Snowden attempting to obtain classified information not authorized to him.[68] The Times later reported that the CIA had sent a statement, clarifying: "The CIA did not file any report on Snowden indicating that it suspected he was trying to break into classified computer files to which he did not have authorized access while he was employed at the CIA...".[69] When Snowden talked about the report to the Times' James Risen, a different story emerged. He said that he had tried to go through proper channels of reporting a flaw, and the result was a critical report in his file.[70] Snowden resigned from the CIA in February 2009[56] and began work for Dell, a private contractor, inside an NSA facility on a US military base in Japan.[22] Snowden remained on the Dell payroll until early 2013.[71] He was one of around 1,000 NSA "sysadmins" allowed to look at many parts of the system without leaving an electronic trace and able to argue for the use of thumb drives in a secure environment.[56] Persons familiar with the 2013 government investigation into Snowden's history said that Snowden had downloaded sensitive NSA material in April 2012.[72] NSA Director Keith Alexander told the U.S. House Intelligence Committee that Snowden "moved into the Booz Allen position in March [2013], but he had worked in an information technology position for the 12 months preceding that at NSA Hawaii. So he'd actually been there 15 months. He had moved from one contract to another."[73][74] In those contractor positions, Snowden held top secret Sensitive Compartmented Information clearances.[75] Snowden took a six-day Certified Ethical Hacker training course in 2010 in India.[76][77][78][79] USIS completed a background check on Snowden in 2011.[80] On January 23, 2014, the US Department of Justice filed fraud charges against USIS for routinely failing to properly investigate individuals.[81][82] The company is accused of falsifying 665,000 background checks on government employees. The case, United States of America ex rel. Blake Percival vs U.S. Investigations Services is ongoing in U.S. District Court, Middle District of Alabama.[83] Snowden described his life as "very comfortable", earning a salary of "roughly US$200,000".[84] At the time of his departure from the United States in May 2013, he had been employed by consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton for less than three months inside the NSA's Hawaii regional operations center,[85][86] earning $122,000.[87] While intelligence officials have described his position there as a "system administrator", Snowden has said he was an "infrastructure analyst", which meant that his job was to look for new ways to break into Internet and telephone traffic around the world.[88] He said he had taken a pay cut to work at Booz Allen,[89] and that he sought employment in order to gather data on NSA surveillance around the world so he could leak it.[90] According to Reuters story by Mark Hosenball, while in Hawaii Snowden "may have persuaded between 20 and 25 fellow workers" to give him their logins and passwords "by telling them they were needed for him to do his job as a computer systems administrator".[91][92] This report was disputed,[93] with Snowden himself saying in January 2014, "With all due respect to Mark Hosenball, the Reuters report that put this out there was simply wrong. I never stole any passwords, nor did I trick an army of co-workers."[94] According to NBC News, the NSA sent a memo to Congress and "[w]hile the memo's account is sketchy, it suggests that, contrary to Snowden's statements, he used an element of trickery to retrieve his trove of tens of thousands of classified documents".[95][96] According to Booz Allen, Snowden's employment was terminated on June 10, 2013, "for violations of the firm's code of ethics and firm policy".[87] Snowden said that he told multiple employees and two supervisors about his concerns, using 'internal channels of dissent'. An NSA spokesperson responded, saying they had "not found any evidence to support Mr. Snowden's contention that he brought these matters to anyone's attention".[47] Snowden elaborated in January 2014, saying "[I] made tremendous efforts to report these programs to co-workers, supervisors, and anyone with the proper clearance who would listen. The reactions of those I told about the scale of the constitutional violations ranged from deeply concerned to appalled, but no one was willing to risk their jobs, families, and possibly even freedom to go to through what Drake did."[97] In March 2014, during testimony to the European Parliament, Snowden wrote that before revealing classified information he had reported "clearly problematic programs" to ten officials, whom he said did nothing in response.[98] A source "with detailed knowledge on the matter" told Reuters that hiring screeners for Booz Allen had found some details of Snowden's education that "did not check out precisely", but decided to hire him anyway; Reuters stated that the element which triggered these concerns, or the manner in which Snowden satisfied the concerns, were not known.[99] The résumé stated that Snowden attended computer-related classes at Johns Hopkins University. A spokesperson for Johns Hopkins said that the university did not find records to show that Snowden attended the university, and suggested that he may instead have attended Advanced Career Technologies, a private for-profit organization which operated as "Computer Career Institute at Johns Hopkins".[99] The University College of the University of Maryland acknowledged that Snowden had attended a summer session at a UM campus in Asia. Snowden's resume stated that he estimated that he would receive a University of Liverpool computer security master's degree in 2013. The university said that Snowden registered for an online master's degree program in computer security in 2011 but that "he is not active in his studies and has not completed the program".[99] A former NSA co-worker told Forbes that although the NSA was full of smart people, Edward Snowden was "a genius among geniuses". He was described as a "principled and ultra-competent, if somewhat eccentric employee, and one who earned the access used to pull off his leak by impressing superiors with sheer talent". Snowden created a backup system for the NSA that was implemented, and often pointed out security bugs to the agency. The former colleague said Snowden was "given full administrator privileges, with virtually unlimited access to NSA data" because he could "do things nobody else could". Snowden had been offered a position on the NSA's elite staff of hackers, Tailored Access Operations (TAO), but turned it down for the contractor position at Booz Allen.[100] Global surveillance disclosures[edit] The exact size of Snowden's disclosure is unknown, but the following estimates have been put up by various government officials: 15,000 or more Australian intelligence files, according to Australian officials;[101] at least 58,000 British intelligence files, according to British officials;[102] and roughly 1.7 million US intelligence files, according to US officials.[103] Release of documents[edit] Glenn Greenwald Laura Poitras The New York Times' James Risen reported that Snowden's decision to leak NSA documents "developed gradually, dating back at least to his time working as a technician in the Geneva station of the CIA."[104] Snowden first made contact with Glenn Greenwald, a journalist working at The Guardian, in late 2012.[105] He contacted Greenwald anonymously and said he had "sensitive documents" that he would like to share.[106] Greenwald found the measures that the source asked him to take to secure their communications, such as encrypting email, too annoying to employ. Snowden then contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras in January 2013.[107] According to Poitras, Snowden chose to contact her after seeing her New York Times documentary[108] about NSA whistleblower William Binney. The Guardian reported that what originally attracted Snowden to both Greenwald and Poitras was a Salon article penned by Greenwald detailing how Poitras' controversial films had made her a "target of the government".[106][109] Greenwald began working with Snowden in either February[110] or in April after Poitras asked Greenwald to meet her in New York City, at which point Snowden began providing documents to them both.[105] Barton Gellman, writing for The Washington Post, says his first "direct contact" was on May 16, 2013.[111] According to Gellman, Snowden approached Greenwald after the Post declined to guarantee publication of all 41 of the PRISM PowerPoint slides within 72 hours and publish online an encrypted code allowing Snowden the ability to later prove that he was the source.[111] Snowden communicated using encrypted email,[107] using the codename "Verax". He asked not to be quoted at length for fear of identification by stylometry.[111] According to Gellman, prior to their first meeting in person, Snowden wrote, "I understand that I will be made to suffer for my actions, and that the return of this information to the public marks my end."[111] Snowden also told Gellman that until the articles were published, the journalists working with him would also be at mortal risk from the United States Intelligence Community "if they think you are the single point of failure that could stop this disclosure and make them the sole owner of this information."[111] In May 2013, Snowden was permitted temporary leave from his position at the NSA in Hawaii, on the pretext of receiving treatment for his epilepsy.[22] In mid-May Snowden gave an electronic interview to Poitras and Jacob Appelbaum which was published weeks later by Der Spiegel.[112] After disclosing the copied documents, Snowden promised that nothing would stop subsequent disclosures. In June 2013, he said, "All I can say right now is the US government is not going to be able to cover this up by jailing or murdering me. Truth is coming, and it cannot be stopped."[113] Publication[edit] On May 20, 2013, Snowden flew to Hong Kong,[114][115] where he was staying when the initial articles based on the leaked documents were published,[114][116] beginning on June 5.[117][118] Within months, documents had been obtained and published by media outlets worldwide, most notably The Guardian (Britain), Der Spiegel (Germany), The Washington Post and The New York Times (US), O Globo (Brazil), Le Monde (France), and similar outlets in Sweden, Canada, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Australia.[119] In 2014, NBC broke its first story based on the leaked documents.[120] Four journalists won the Polk Award in February 2014 "for national security reporting for stories based on secret documents leaked by Snowden". Recipients included Glenn Greenwald, Barton Gellman, Laura Poitras and The Guardian's Ewen MacAskill.[121] Revelations[edit] Main article: Global surveillance disclosure See also: PRISM#Responses to disclosures Slide from an NSA presentation on "Google Cloud Exploitation" from its MUSCULAR program;[122] the sketch shows where the "Public Internet" meets the internal "Google Cloud" where user data resides[123] Logo for the XKeyscore program A reference to Tailored Access Operations (TAO) in an XKeyscore slide The ongoing publication of leaked documents has revealed previously unknown details of a global surveillance apparatus run by the United States' NSA[124] in close cooperation with its Five Eyes partners: Australia (ASD),[125] the United Kingdom (GCHQ),[126] Canada (CSEC),[127] and New Zealand (GCSB).[citation needed] The Guardian's editor-in-chief Alan Rusbridger said in November 2013 that only one percent of the documents had been published.[128] Officials warned that "the worst is yet to come", a sentiment echoed by Glenn Greenwald and by Lon Snowden.[129][130] The extent of the leaks may never be known, according to US investigators, due in part to outdated software at the Hawaiian NSA facility.[131] NSA Director Keith Alexander initially estimated that Snowden had copied anywhere from 50,000 to 200,000 NSA documents.[132] Later estimates provided by U.S. officials were on the order of 1.7 million[133] of which 2 percent dealt with NSA surveillance.[134] In February 2014, during testimony to the European Union, Snowden said of the remaining "undisclosed programs": "I will leave the public interest determinations as to which of these may be safely disclosed to responsible journalists in coordination with government stakeholders."[135] Media reports documenting the existence and functions of classified surveillance programs and their scope began on June 5, 2013, and continued throughout the entire year. The first program to be revealed was PRISM, with reports from both The Washington Post and The Guardian published an hour apart. PRISM allows for a court-approved, front-door access to Americans' Google and Yahoo accounts.[122][136] The Post's Barton Gellman was the first journalist to report on Snowden's documents. He said the US government urged him not to specify by name which companies were involved, but Gellman decided that to name them "would make it real to Americans".[137] Reports also revealed details of Tempora, a British black-ops surveillance program run by the NSA's British partner, GCHQ.[138][139] The initial reports included details about NSA call database, Boundless Informant, and of a secret court order requiring Verizon to hand the NSA millions of Americans' phone records daily,[140] the surveillance of French citizens' phone and internet records, and those of "high-profile individuals from the world of business or politics".[141][142][143] XKeyscore, which allows for the collection of 'almost anything done on the internet', was described by The Guardian as a program that "shed light" on one of Snowden's more contentious claims: "I, sitting at my desk [could] wiretap anyone, from you or your accountant, to a federal judge or even the president, if I had a personal email".[144] It was revealed that the NSA was harvesting millions of email and instant messaging contact lists,[145] searching email content,[146] tracking and mapping the location of cell phones,[147] undermining attempts at encryption via Bullrun[148][149] and that the agency was using cookies to "piggyback" on the same tools used by internet advertisers "to pinpoint targets for government hacking and to bolster surveillance".[150] The NSA was shown to be "secretly" tapping into Yahoo and Google data centers to collect information from "hundreds of millions" of account holders worldwide by tapping undersea cables using the MUSCULAR program.[122][123] The NSA, the US CIA and GCHQ spied on users of Second Life and World of Warcraft by creating make-believe characters as a way to "hide in plain sight".[151] Leaked documents showed NSA agents spied on their "love interests", a practice NSA employees termed LOVEINT.[152][153] The NSA was also shown to be tracking the online sexual activity of people they termed "radicalizers", in order to discredit them.[154] The NSA was accused of going "beyond its core mission of national security" when articles were published showing the NSA's intelligence-gathering operations had targeted Brazil's largest oil company, Petrobras.[155] The NSA and the GCHQ were also shown to be surveilling charities including Unicef and Médecins du Monde, as well as allies such as the EU chief and the Israeli Prime Minister.[156] By October 2013, Snowden's disclosures had created tensions[157][158] between the US and some of its close allies after they revealed that the US had spied on Brazil, France, Mexico,[159] Britain,[160] China,[161] Germany,[162] and Spain,[163] as well as 35 world leaders,[164] most notably German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who said "spying among friends" was "unacceptable"[165] and compared the NSA with the Stasi.[166] Leaked documents published by Der Spiegel in 2014 appeared to show that the NSA had targeted 122 "high ranking" leaders.[167] The NSA's top-secret "black budget", obtained from Snowden by The Washington Post, exposed the "successes and failures" of the 16 spy agencies comprising the US intelligence community,[168] and revealed that the NSA was paying US private tech companies for "clandestine access" to their communications networks.[169] The agencies were allotted $52 billion for the 2013 fiscal year.[170] An NSA mission statement titled "Sigint Strategy 2012–2016" affirmed that the NSA plans for continued expansion of surveillance activities. Their stated goal was to "dramatically increase mastery of the global network" and "acquire the capabilities to gather intelligence on anyone, anytime, anywhere."[171][172] In July 2013, Greenwald said that Snowden had additional sensitive information about the NSA he had chosen not to make public, including "very sensitive, detailed blueprints of how the NSA does what they do".[173] A joint statement issued by the House Intelligence Committee's Republican Chairman and Ranking Democrat in January 2014 asserted that "Though press reporting to date has focused on NSA’s foreign intelligence collection, much of the information stolen by Snowden is related to current U.S. military operations."[174] A U.S. intelligence official told The Daily Beast that Snowden had fabricated the identity of more than one user who had extensive access and this allowed Snowden to take documents indicating how the U.S. coordinated its satellite coverage, potentially allowing military adversaries to better hide their assets.[175] In a December 2013 letter to the people of Brazil, Snowden wrote: "There is a huge difference between legal programs, legitimate spying ... and these programs of dragnet mass surveillance that put entire populations under an all-seeing eye and save copies forever ... These programs were never about terrorism: they're about economic spying, social control, and diplomatic manipulation. They're about power."[176] Snowden claimed in a January 2014 interview with German television that the NSA does not limit its data collection to national security issues, accusing the agency of conducting industrial espionage. He used the example of Seimens, a German company, and stated "If there's information at Siemens that's beneficial to US national interests - even if it doesn't have anything to do with national security - then they'll take that information nevertheless."[177] In March 2014, documents disclosed by Glenn Greenwald writing for The Intercept showed the NSA, in cooperation with the GCHQ, has plans to infect millions of computers with malware using a program called "Turbine".[178] Revelations included information about "Quantumhand", a program through which the NSA set up a fake Facebook server to intercept connections.[179] Motivations[edit] Snowden's identity was made public by The Guardian at his request on June 9, 2013.[110] He explained: "I have no intention of hiding who I am because I know I have done nothing wrong."[22] He added that by revealing his identity he hoped to protect his colleagues from being subjected to a hunt to determine who had been responsible for the leaks.[180] According to Poitras, who filmed the interview with Snowden in Hong Kong, he had initially not wanted to be seen on camera, because "he didn't want the story to be about him."[181] Poitras says she convinced him it was necessary to have him give an account of the leaked documents' significance on film: "I knew that the mainstream media interpretation would be predictable and narrow, but because to have somebody who understands how this technology works, who is willing to risk their life to expose it to the public, and that we could hear that articulated, would reach people in ways that the documents themselves wouldn't." [181] Snowden explained his actions saying: "I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things [surveillance on its citizens]... I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded... My sole motive is to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them."[182] Snowden said in a later interview that his "mission's already accomplished" and that he had already won.[47] He declared: For me, in terms of personal satisfaction, the mission’s already accomplished. I already won. As soon as the journalists were able to work, everything that I had been trying to do was validated. Because, remember, I didn’t want to change society. I wanted to give society a chance to determine if it should change itself. All I wanted was for the public to be able to have a say in how they are governed.[47] When Snowden met with representatives of human rights organizations on July 12, he said: The 4th and 5th Amendments to the Constitution of my country, Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and numerous statutes and treaties forbid such systems of massive, pervasive surveillance. While the US Constitution marks these programs as illegal, my government argues that secret court rulings, which the world is not permitted to see, somehow legitimize an illegal affair.... I believe in the principle declared at Nuremberg in 1945: "Individuals have international duties which transcend the national obligations of obedience. Therefore individual citizens have the duty to violate domestic laws to prevent crimes against peace and humanity from occurring."[183] Snowden said that in the past, whistleblowers had been 'destroyed by the experience', and that he wanted to "embolden others to step forward" by demonstrating that "they can win".[184] In October, Snowden spoke out again on his motivations for the leaks in an interview with The New York Times, saying that the system for reporting problems does not work. "You have to report wrongdoing to those most responsible for it", Snowden explained, and pointed out the lack of whistleblower protection for government contractors, the use of the 1917 Espionage Act to prosecute leakers, and his belief that had he used internal mechanisms to 'sound the alarm', his revelations "would have been buried forever".[70][185] In December 2013, upon learning that a US federal judge had ruled the collection of US phone metadata conducted by the NSA as likely unconstitutional, Snowden stated: "I acted on my belief that the NSA's mass surveillance programs would not withstand a constitutional challenge, and that the American public deserved a chance to see these issues determined by open courts...today, a secret program authorized by a secret court was, when exposed to the light of day, found to violate Americans' rights. It is the first of many."[186] Snowden, in his words, "didn't want to change society", he "wanted to give society a chance to determine if it should change itself."[47] In a December 2013 interview, Snowden spoke to the question of 'who elected' him to expose the NSA surveillance programs: Dianne Feinstein elected me when she asked softball questions [in committee hearings]. Mike Rogers elected me when he kept these programs hidden. . . . The FISA court elected me when they decided to legislate from the bench on things that were far beyond the mandate of what that court was ever intended to do. The system failed comprehensively, and each level of oversight, each level of responsibility that should have addressed this, abdicated their responsibility. It wasn't that they put it on me as an individual – that I'm uniquely qualified, an angel descending from the heavens – as that they put it on someone, somewhere ... You have the capability, and you realize every other [person] sitting around the table has the same capability but they don't do it. So somebody has to be the first.[47] Snowden, in a January 2014 interview, said that the "breaking point" which led to his leaks was "seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, directly lie under oath to Congress." He also stated, "There’s no saving an intelligence community that believes it can lie to the public and the legislators who need to be able to trust it and regulate its actions. Seeing that really meant for me there was no going back. Beyond that, it was the creeping realization that no one else was going to do this. The public had a right to know about these programs."[187] Speaking at The Wall Street Journal's CIO Network on February 4, 2014, Mike McConnell—former NSA Director and current Vice Chairman at Booz Allen Hamilton—said that Snowden was motivated by revenge when the NSA did not offer Snowden the job he wanted. "At this point," said McConnell, "he being narcissistic and having failed at most everything he did, he decides now I'm going to turn on them."[188] In March 2014, Snowden stated that he had reported policy or legal issues related to spying programs to more than 10 officials, but as a contractor had no legal avenue to pursue further whistleblowing.[189] Flight from the US[edit] Hong Kong[edit] Protesters rally in Hong Kong in support of Snowden (June 15, 2013) In May 2013 Snowden took a leave of absence, telling his supervisors he was returning to the mainland for epilepsy treatment, but instead left Hawaii for Hong Kong[190] where he arrived on May 20. WikiLeaks reported that he was seeking asylum in Iceland because of the country's "shared values".[22][191] Iceland's ambassador to China said Icelandic law requires that asylum applications be made from within Iceland.[192] Snowden explained why he did not go directly from the US to Iceland: "Leaving the US was an incredible risk, NSA employees must declare their foreign travel 30 days in advance and are monitored. There was a distinct possibility I would be interdicted en route, so I had to travel with no advance booking to a country with the cultural and legal framework to allow me to work without being immediately detained. Hong Kong provided that. Iceland could be pushed harder, quicker, before the public could have a chance to make their feelings known, and I would not put that past the current US administration."[89] Snowden vowed to challenge any extradition attempt by the US government, and had reportedly approached Hong Kong human rights lawyers.[193] Snowden told the South China Morning Post that he planned to remain in Hong Kong until "asked to leave",[194] adding that his intention was to let the "courts and people of Hong Kong" decide his fate.[195] While in Hong Kong Snowden supplied information about US intelligence operations in China to the Post, which Glenn Greenwald explained as reflecting "a need to ingratiate himself to the people of Hong Kong and China."[196] In late August the Russian newspaper Kommersant reported that Snowden was living at the Russian consulate shortly before his departure from Hong Kong to Moscow.[197] Ben Wizner, a lawyer with the ACLU and legal adviser to Snowden, said in January 2014, "Every news organization in the world has been trying to confirm that story. They haven’t been able to, because it’s false."[198] Likewise rejecting the Kommersant story was Anatoly Kucherena, who became Snowden's lawyer in July 2013 and was then head of the Russian Interior ministry's public council,[199] in addition to serving as a member[200] of the public council for the Federal Security Service (FSB).[201] Kucherena stated that Snowden "did not enter into any communication with our diplomats when he was in Hong Kong."[202][203] In early September, however, Russian president Vladimir Putin acknowledged that, a few days before boarding a plane to Moscow, "Mr. Snowden first appeared in Hong Kong and met with our diplomatic representatives."[204] US officials revoked Snowden's passport on June 22.[205][206] On June 23 Snowden boarded the commercial Aeroflot flight SU213 to Moscow, accompanied by Sarah Harrison of WikiLeaks.[207][208] Hong Kong authorities said that Snowden had not been detained as requested by the United States, because the United States' extradition request had not fully complied with Hong Kong law,[209][210][211] and there was no legal basis to prevent Snowden from leaving.[212][213][Notes 1] On June 24, U.S. State Department spokesman Patrick Ventrell said "we’re just not buying that this was a technical decision by a Hong Kong immigration official. This was a deliberate choice by the government to release a fugitive despite a valid arrest warrant.... though the Privacy Act prohibits me from talking about Mr. Snowden’s passport specifically, I can say that the Hong Kong authorities were well aware of our interest in Mr. Snowden and had plenty of time to prohibit his travel."[216] That same day, Julian Assange said that WikiLeaks had paid for Snowden's lodging in Hong Kong and his flight out.[217] Assange would later say that "While Venezuela and Ecuador could protect him in the short term, over the long term there could be a change in government. In Russia, he's safe, he's well-regarded, and that is not likely to change."[190] When Assange was asked "What was the most difficult part on getting Snowden out of the U.S.?" Assange said he wasn't sure he could answer the question given "the legal situation".[218] Russia[edit] Arrival at Sheremetyevo Airport in Moscow on June 23, 2013 On June 23, 2013, Snowden landed in Moscow's Sheremetyevo international airport.[219][220][221] WikiLeaks stated that he was "bound for the Republic of Ecuador via a safe route for the purposes of asylum".[222] According to Gellman, Snowden "didn't choose Russia. He was literally changing planes in the Moscow airport when the United States revoked his passport. He was stuck there by that. He's said from the beginning that he wanted asylum in a Western country, for example, Iceland, that, from his point of view, respects rights of free speech and whistleblowers. He is not looking to live in a country like Russia or China."[223] A US official said that Snowden's passport was annulled before he left Hong Kong[224] and along with other sources, such as legal expert James C. Hathaway, said not having a passport would not prevent Russia from allowing Snowden to board an onward flight as a matter of law.[225][226][227] Snowden remained in the Sheremetyevo transit zone for 39 days until being granted temporary asylum by the Russian government on August 1. In a statement made on July 1, Snowden said: Although I am convicted of nothing, [the US government] has unilaterally revoked my passport, leaving me a stateless person. Without any judicial order, the administration now seeks to stop me exercising a basic right. A right that belongs to everybody. The right to seek asylum.[228][229] According to Russian news services, Snowden had a seat reserved to continue on to Cuba within 24 hours of arriving in Moscow.[230][231] Snowden did not board that onward flight, however, saying in a January 2014 interview that he was "stopped en route" despite an intention to be "only transiting through Russia". According to Snowden, "I was ticketed for onward travel via Havana — a planeload of reporters documented the seat I was supposed to be in — but the State Department decided they wanted me in Moscow, and cancelled my passport." He decided to remain in Russia because whilst he was "considering possibilities for asylum in Latin America, the United States forced down the Bolivian President’s plane." He said that he would travel from Russia if there was no interference from the US government.[198] Morales plane incident[edit] Main article: Evo Morales grounding incident On July 1, 2013, president Evo Morales of Bolivia, who had been attending a conference of gas-exporting countries in Russia, suggested during an interview with Russia Today that he would be 'willing to consider a request' for asylum.[232] The following day, Morales' plane en route to Bolivia was rerouted to Austria and reportedly searched there after France, Spain and Italy denied access to their airspace.[233][234][235] US officials had raised suspicions that Snowden may have been on board.[236][237] Morales blamed the US for putting pressure on European countries, and said that the grounding of his plane was a violation of international law.[238] Asylum applications[edit] Snowden had applied for political asylum to 20 countries by July 1.[239] A statement attributed to Snowden also contended that the US administration, and specifically Vice President Joe Biden, had pressured the governments of these countries to refuse his petition for asylum.[240] In a July 1 statement published by WikiLeaks, Snowden accused the US government of "using citizenship as a weapon" and using what he described as "old, bad tools of political aggression". Citing Obama's promise to not allow "wheeling and dealing" over the case, Snowden commented "This kind of deception from a world leader is not justice, and neither is the extralegal penalty of exile."[241] Snowden made a second batch of applications for asylum to 6 more countries several days later, but declined to name them citing prior interference by US officials.[242][243] Finland, Germany, India, Poland, Norway, Austria, Italy, and the Netherlands cited technical grounds for not considering the application, saying that applications for asylum to these countries must be made from within the countries' borders or at border stations.[239][244][245][246][247][248] Ecuador had initially offered Snowden a temporary travel document but later withdrew it;[249] on July 1, President Rafael Correa said the decision to issue the offer had been "a mistake".[250][251] Russian president Vladimir Putin Russian president Putin said that Snowden's arrival in Moscow was "a surprise" and "like an unwanted Christmas gift".[252] Putin said that Snowden remained in the transit area of Sheremetyevo, noted that he had not committed any crime on Russian soil,[253] and declared that Snowden was free to leave and should do so.[254] He added that Russia's intelligence agencies neither "had worked, nor were working with" Snowden.[252][254] Putin's claims were received skeptically by some observers.[255][256] Putin said on July 1 that if Snowden wanted to be granted asylum in Russia, Snowden would be required to "stop his work aimed at harming our American partners".[257][258] A spokesman for Putin subsequently said that Snowden had withdrawn his asylum application upon learning of the conditions.[239][259] In a July 12 meeting at Sheremetyevo Airport with representatives of human rights organizations and lawyers, organized in part by the Russian government,[260] Snowden said he was accepting all offers of asylum that he had already received or would receive in the future, noting that his Venezuela's "asylee status was now formal",[183] he also said he would request asylum in Russia until he resolved his travel problems.[261] Russian Federal Migration Service officials confirmed on July 16 that Snowden had submitted an application to them for temporary asylum.[262] According to Kucherena, Snowden agreed to meet Putin's condition for granting asylum, and would not further harm US interests 'by releasing more intelligence secrets'.[262][263] On July 23 Kucherena said his client intended to settle in Russia.[264] Snowden explained that he applied for asylum in Russia because, with no direct flights from Moscow to asylum offers in Latin America, he did not feel he could safely travel to them, and claimed that the US had pressured countries along his route to "hand him over".[263] Amid media reports in early July 2013 attributed to US administration sources that Obama's one-on-one meeting with Putin, ahead of a G20 meeting in St Petersburg scheduled for September, was in doubt due to Snowden's protracted sojourn in Russia,[265][266] top US officials repeatedly made it clear to Moscow that Snowden should immediately be returned to the United States to face justice.[267][268][269] Snowden needed asylum, according to his lawyer, because "he faces persecution by the US government and he fears for his life and safety, fears that he could be subjected to torture and capital punishment."[270] In a letter to Russian Minister of Justice Alexander Konovalov dated July 23, US Attorney General Eric Holder sought to eliminate the "asserted grounds for Mr. Snowden's claim that he should be treated as a refugee or granted asylum, temporary or otherwise":[271][272] he assured the Russian government that the US would not seek the death penalty for Snowden irrespective of the charges he might eventually face and said Snowden would be issued a limited validity passport for returning to the US, and that upon his return, Snowden would benefit from legal and constitutional safeguards and not be tortured, as "torture is unlawful in the United States".[271] The same day, the Russian president's spokesman reiterated the Kremlin's position that it would "not hand anyone over"; he also noted that Putin was not personally involved in the matter as Snowden "had not made any request that would require examination by the head of state" and that the issue was being handled through talks between the FSB and the FBI.[273][274] Criminal charges[edit] On June 14, 2013, United States federal prosecutors filed a criminal complaint against Snowden, charging him with theft of government property, and alleging he had violated the US's 1917 Espionage Act through unauthorized communication of national defense information and "willful communication of classified communications intelligence information to an unauthorized person".[271][4] Snowden was asked in a January 2014 interview about returning to the US to face the charges in court, as Obama had suggested a few days prior. Snowden explained why he rejected the request: "What he doesn’t say is that the crimes he has charged me with are crimes that... don’t allow me to defend myself in an open court to the public and convince a jury. It’s, I would say, illustrative that the President would choose to say someone should face the music when he knows the music is a show trial."[187][275] Snowden's legal representative, Jesselyn Radack, wrote that "the Espionage Act effectively hinders a person from defending himself before a jury in an open court, as past examples show", referring to Thomas Drake, John Kiriakou and Chelsea Manning. Radack said that the "arcane World War I law" was never meant to prosecute whistleblowers, but rather spies who sold secrets to enemies for profit. Under this law, she states, "no prosecution of a non-spy can be fair or just".[276] Temporary asylum in Russia[edit] Snowden left the Moscow airport on August 1 after more than a month in the transit section. He had been granted temporary asylum in Russia for one year,[277] an asylum that could be extended indefinitely on an annual basis.[278] According to his lawyer, Snowden went to an undisclosed location kept secret for security reasons.[279] In response to the asylum grant, White House spokesman Jay Carney said the US administration was "extremely disappointed" by the Russian government's decision and that the meeting scheduled for September between Barack Obama and Vladimir Putin was under reconsideration.[280][281] Some US legislators urged the president to take a tough stand against Russia, possibly including a US boycott of the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.[281][282] On August 7, the White House announced that Obama had canceled the meeting previously planned with Putin in Moscow citing lack of progress on a series of issues that included Russia's granting Snowden temporary asylum.[283][284][285] Following cancellation of the bilateral talks, Putin's foreign policy aide Yuri Ushakov said they were "disappointed" and that it was clear to him that the decision was due to the situation around Snowden, which they "had not created"; Ushakov alleged that the US had been avoiding signing an extradition agreement and had "invariably" used its absence as a pretext for denying Russian extradition requests.[286][287] In late July 2013, Lon Snowden said he believed his son would be better off staying in Russia, and didn't believe he would receive a fair trial in the US.[288][289] In mid-October, he visited his son in Moscow, later telling the press that he was pleased with Edward's situation, and still believed Russia was the best choice for his asylum, saying he wouldn't have to worry about people "rushing across the border to render him". Snowden commented that his son found living in Russia "comfortable", and Moscow "modern and sophisticated".[290] Snowden's lawyer, Kucherena, announced on October 31 that his client had found a technical support job providing maintenance for Russia's largest website.[291][292][293] Former CIA analyst Ray McGovern, who had traveled to Russia to give Snowden a whistleblower award, said that Snowden did not give any storage devices such as hard drives or USB flash drives to Russia or China, and that the four laptops he carried with him "were a 'diversion' and contained no secrets".[294] American officials said that they have no proof of Russia or China having received such files.[295][296] In an October 2013 interview, Snowden maintained that he did not bring any classified material into Russia "because it wouldn't serve the public interest". He added "there's a zero percent chance the Russians or Chinese have received any documents".[70] File:Edward Snowden speaks about everything.webm Edward Snowden speaks about various topics at the Sam Adams Award presentation in Moscow WikiLeaks released video of Snowden on October 11 taken during the Sam Adams Award reception in Moscow, his first public appearance in three months. Former US government officials attending the ceremony said that, contrary to claims from the US government, Snowden did not appear to be under the control of 'local security forces'. The whistle-blower group said that he was in good spirits, looked "remarkably well", and that he still believes he was right to release the NSA documents.[297][298] In the video, Snowden said "people all over the world are coming to realize" that the NSA's surveillance programs put people in danger, hurt the US and its economy, and "limit our ability to speak and think and live and be creative, to have relationships and associate freely" as well as putting people "at risk of coming into conflict with our own government".[299] On October 31, Snowden met with German lawmaker Hans-Christian Ströbele, a visit prompted by a recent leak revealing NSA surveillance of German Chancellor Angela Merkel's mobile phone for the past decade.[300][301] Snowden was invited to testify in Germany to "assist investigations" into the alleged surveillance of the German leader by explaining how the leaked documents 'fit together'; according to Stroebele, Snowden showed he "knew a lot" about the matter.[302][303][304] After the visit, Snowden indicated a willingness to testify, though not from Moscow as Germany requested. Snowden said he would rather give testimony before the US Congress, his second choice being Berlin.[305] WikiLeaks' representative Sarah Harrison, who accompanied Snowden from Hong Kong to Moscow, left Russia for Germany in early November after waiting until she felt confident he had "established himself and was free from the interference of any government." Her lawyers advised her to not return to her home in the UK, fearing she would be prosecuted under anti-terrorism laws.[306] In a statement released November 6 upon arrival in Germany, Harrison wrote "I...negotiated [Snowden's] safe exit from Hong Kong to take up his legal right to seek asylum. I was travelling with him on our way to Latin America when the United States revoked his passport, stranding him in Russia."[307] Journalist Glenn Greenwald commented on Snowden's Russian asylum: "[Snowden] didn't choose to be there. He was trying to get transit to Latin America, and then the US revoked his passport and threatened other countries out of offering Snowden safe passage."[308] NSA whistleblower Thomas Drake, who was also charged with espionage for leaking classified materials, said he believes Snowden would not be able to return to the US in the "foreseeable future", as he has "essentially been declared enemy of the State number 1, exhibit number 1".[309] According to Ströbele, Snowden was seeking asylum 'in a "democratic" country' such as Germany or France, and wanted to leave Russia at the end of his year-long asylum.[310] Snowden's legal advisors Radack and Kucherena indicated that Snowden would remain in Russia, however, with Radack saying in January 2014 that Snowden "hopes that [his temporary asylum] will be renewed for another year or into a permanent asylum because he is safe there [in Russia] and he knows that."[311] In Russia "he is protected from a lot of people who would like to harm him," Radack noted.[312] On December 17, 2013 Snowden wrote an open letter to the people of Brazil offering to assist the Brazilian government in investigating allegations of US spying, and added that he continued to seek, and would require, asylum.[313] Snowden wrote, "Until a country grants permanent political asylum, the US government will continue to interfere with my ability to speak...going so far as to force down the Presidential Plane of Evo Morales to prevent me from traveling to Latin America!"[314] Brazil had been in an uproar since Snowden revealed that the US was spying on Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff, her senior advisors, and Brazil's national oil company, Petrobras.[315] Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff and officials of the Brazilian foreign ministry said in response to the letter that they could not consider asylum for Snowden because they had not received any formal request for asylum from him.[316][317][318] A representative of the foreign ministry said that a fax requesting asylum had been sent to the Brazilian embassy in Moscow in July but it had not been signed and could not be authenticated.[316] David Miranda, the Brazilian partner of Glenn Greenwald, launched an internet petition urging the Brazilian president to consider offering Snowden asylum.[319] Some prominent Brazilian senators expressed support for giving asylum to Snowden,[317] including Senator Ricardo Ferraco (president of the Senate Foreign Relations and Defense Committee),[316][318] although some other politicians, mainly opponents of Rousseff's government, said Brazil should not risk further harming relations between Brazil and the US by offering Snowden asylum.[318] In July, the Brazilian Senate's Foreign Relations and Defense Committee had unanimously recommended granting asylum to Snowden.[317] Snowden met with Barton Gellman of The Washington Post six months after the disclosure for an exclusive interview spanning 14 hours, his first since being granted temporary asylum. Snowden talked about his life in Russia as "an indoor cat", reflected on his time as an NSA contractor, and discussed at length the revelations of global surveillance and their reverberations. Snowden said, "In terms of personal satisfaction, the mission's already accomplished...I already won. As soon as the journalists were able to work, everything that I had been trying to do was validated."[47] He commented "I am not trying to bring down the NSA, I am working to improve the NSA...I am still working for the NSA right now. They are the only ones who don't realize it." On the accusation from former CIA and NSA director Michael Hayden that he had defected, Snowden stated, "If I defected at all, I defected from the government to the public."[47] Snowden's Russian attorney, Anatoly Kucherena, announced in January 2014 that a media report coming from the US had left his client in fear for his life.[320][321] An interview with "intelligence operators", including a Pentagon official, an Army intelligence officer, and NSA analysts, published on the condition of anonymity by BuzzFeed in mid-January, detailed ways they said Snowden can be killed and expressed a strong desire by some to carry out such plans.[25] Regarding the report, Kucherena said, "This is a real death threat and we are concerned about the fact it has prompted no reaction from anybody."[320] When asked about the BuzzFeed story, State Department spokeswoman Marie Harf said she had not read the article, but that death threats were "totally inappropriate" and had "no place in our discussion of these issues."[322][323] Snowden wrote that the various threats on his life were "concerning", primarily because "current, serving officials of our government are so comfortable in their authorities that they're willing to tell reporters on the record that they think the due process protections of the 5th Amendment of our Constitution are outdated concepts. These are the same officials telling us to trust that they'll honor the 4th and 1st Amendments. This should bother all of us. The fact that it's also a direct threat to my life is something I am aware of, but I'm not going to be intimidated."[324] In his first television interview,[325] which aired on Germany's NDR January 26, 2014, the initial question posed to him was whether he had trouble sleeping at night due to the media reports. He said, "I'm still alive and I don't lose sleep because I've done what I feel I needed to do. It was the right thing to do and I'm not going to be afraid."[187][326][327] Kucherena had also expressed his concern for Snowden's safety the previous August. Andrei Soldatov told the Associated Press at that time that "American intelligence does not kidnap or assassinate people in Russia, that's a fact. [Kucherena's statements about Snowden's safety are] just a pretext."[328] On Meet the Press in late January, speculation arose from top US officials in the House and Senate Intelligence Committees that Snowden might have been assisted by Russian intelligence,[329] prompting a rare interview during which Snowden spoke in his defense. He told The New Yorker "this 'Russian spy' push is absurd", adding that he "clearly and unambiguously acted alone, with no assistance from anyone, much less a government."[198] The New York Times reported that investigations by the NSA and the FBI "have turned up no evidence that Mr. Snowden was aided by others".[330] Days later, Feinstein stated that she had seen no evidence that Snowden is a Russian spy.[331] Germany's Der Spiegel suggested the accusations were part of a 'smear campaign' by US officials. For Snowden, the smears did not "mystify" him; he said that "outlets report statements that the speakers themselves admit are sheer speculation".[332] In late January 2014, US attorney general, Eric Holder in an interview with MSNBC indicated that the US could allow Snowden to return from Russia under negotiated terms, saying he was prepared to engage in conversation with him, but that full clemency would be going too far.[333] According to German politician Hans-Christian Ströbele, Snowden is seeking permanent asylum in a "democratic" country such as Germany or France.[310] On March 12, 2014, the international advocacy group European Digital Rights (EDRi) reported that the European Parliament, in adopting a Data Protection Reform Package, rejected amendments that would have dropped charges against Snowden and granted him asylum or refugee status.[334] Snowden's legal adviser, Jesselyn Radack, said in January 2014 that Snowden would eventually like to return to the US "if the conditions were right," but that he knows he is safe in Russia for the present.[311] Reaction[edit] Main article: Reactions to global surveillance disclosures See also: Commentary on Edward Snowden's disclosure Snowden's release of NSA material was called the most significant leak in US history by Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg.[335][336] Ellsberg said "Snowden's disclosures are a true constitutional moment" enabling the press to hold the Executive branch of the US federal government accountable, while the legislative and judiciary branch refused to do so.[337] The 'accountability' mechanisms of the US government, he said, are "a one-sided secret court, which acts as a rubber stamp, and a Congressional 'oversight' committee, which has turned into the NSA's public relations firm."[337] On January 14, 2014, Ellsberg posted to his Twitter page: "Edward Snowden has done more for our Constitution in terms of the Fourth and First Amendment than anyone else I know."[338] United States President Barack Obama was initially dismissive of Snowden, saying in June 2013, "I'm not going to be scrambling jets to get a 29-year-old hacker".[339][340][341] In August, Obama rejected the suggestion that Snowden was a patriot[342] and would later say that "the benefit of the debate he generated was not worth the damage done, because there was another way of doing it."[343] In January 2014, Obama mentioned Snowden in a speech covering proposed reforms to the NSA's surveillance program and said that "our nation's defense depends in part on the fidelity of those entrusted with our nation's secrets. If any individual who objects to government policy can take it into their own hands to publicly disclose classified information, then we will not be able to keep our people safe, or conduct foreign policy." Obama also objected to the "sensational" way the leaks had been reported, saying the reporting often "shed more heat than light". He went on to assert that the disclosures had revealed "methods to our adversaries that could impact our operations".[344] On his blog, Vermont senator Bernie Sanders praised Snowden for sparking a debate on a matter of surveillance.[345] Ron Paul began a petition urging the Obama Administration to grant Snowden clemency.[346] On February 14, 2014, Paul announced the petition and released a video on his website, saying, "Edward Snowden sacrificed his livelihood, citizenship, and freedom by exposing the disturbing scope of the NSA's worldwide spying program. Thanks to one man's courageous actions, Americans know about the truly egregious ways their government is spying on them."[347] Intelligence services whistleblower Frank Snepp acknowledged the debate but condemned Snowden's actions as nonetheless "reprehensible."[348] Ex-CIA director James Woolsey said in December 2013 that if Snowden was convicted of treason, he should be hanged.[24] One of Snowden's legal advisers, Jesselyn Radack, said that Snowden "has concerns for his safety" based on this and joking remarks between Hayden and House Intelligence Committee chairman Mike Rogers about putting Snowden on a "kill list".[349][350] According to Mike Rogers and ranking member Dutch Ruppersberger, a classified Pentagon report written by military intelligence officials contends that Edward Snowden's leaks had put US troops at risk and prompted terrorists to change their tactics, and that "most files copied" were related to current US military operations.[351] Glenn Greenwald and Ben Wizner, an ACLU lawyer representing Snowden, disputed these claims, stating that Snowden's leaks overwhelmingly relate to NSA activities and noting that similar claims were made about the Pentagon Papers.[352] On January 1, 2014, the Editorial Board of The New York Times praised Snowden as a whistleblower and wrote in favor of granting him clemency or "at least a substantially reduced punishment," arguing that while Snowden may have broken the law, he had "done his country a great service" by bringing the abuses of the NSA to light. "When someone reveals that government officials have routinely and deliberately broken the law," they wrote, "that person should not face life in prison at the hands of the same government." The Times further criticized James Clapper for lying to Congress about the NSA's surveillance activities and cast doubt on the claim made by Snowden's critics that he had damaged national security. The editorial concluded with a request to President Obama to discontinue the "vilification" of Snowden and to offer Snowden "an incentive to return home."[11][353] The article garnered an unusual amount of "heat" for an editorial, with responses from multiple media outlets.[354] The editorial board of The Guardian called for a pardon in an article coincidentally published on the same day. The board asked President Obama to "use his executive powers to treat [Snowden] humanely and in a manner that would be a shining example about the value of whistleblowers and of free speech itself."[355][356] In his article dated January 4, 2014, "Moves to Curb Spying Help Drive the Clemency Argument for Snowden", Peter Baker of The New York Times laid out the polarization of opinions throughout the US and the impetus toward clemency gained by the public reaction to the revelations of the surveillance. He notes that officials in the intelligence establishment "warn that letting Mr. Snowden off the hook would set a dangerous precedent" and contrasts that with the statement of attorney Bruce Fein about the protections afforded by the First Amendment, "It prohibits government from punishing communications that expose government lawlessness whether or not the illegality is classified" and saying further, "Calling government to account for breaking the law is a compelling civic duty of all citizens."[357] The author also noted that similar polarization has arisen in judicial review, citing judge Leon's ruling that the surveillance program in question "was probably unconstitutional", implying that laws passed to enable such programs could be struck down. Cybersecurity scholar Peter Singer divided the material disclosed by Snowden into three categories: "smart, useful espionage against enemies of the United States; legally questionable activities that involved US citizens through backdoors and fudging of policy/law; un-strategic (stupid) actions targeting American allies that has had huge blowback on US standing and US business." It was postulated that these were differing ways people viewed Snowden, which could explain why he was so polarizing.[358] Singer also spoke of a "double legacy" from the NSA revelations released by Snowden: "One, it's hollowed out the American ability to operate effectively in ensuring the future of the internet itself, in the way we would hope it would be. That has huge long-term consequences. And the second is, it's been and will be a hammer-blow to American technology companies. The cloud computing industry, for example, had a recent estimate that they'll lose $36 billion worth of business because of this."[359] In February 2014, Intelligence Squared held an "Oxford style" debate titled "Snowden Was Justified"[360] addressing the opposing, widely held views that Snowden was a "whistleblower", and alternately, a "traitor". Ex-CIA director R. James Woolsey and former federal prosecutor Andrew C. McCarthy argued against the motion, while ACLU lawyer representing Snowden, Ben Wizner, and Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg argued in favor.[360] Prior to arguments, the audience was split on the matter at 29 percent. After the debate, 54 percent found that Snowden was justified and 35 percent were against.[361] In March 2014, former US president Jimmy Carter said that if he were still president today he would "certainly consider" giving Snowden a pardon were he to be found guilty and imprisoned for his leaks.[362] Debate[edit] Snowden said in December 2013 that he was "inspired by the global debate" ignited by the leaks, and stated that NSA's "culture of indiscriminate global espionage... is collapsing".[363] International community[edit] Demonstration at Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin against the NSA surveillance program PRISM during Barack Obama's visit, June 18, 2013 Crediting the Snowden leaks, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted Resolution 68/167,[364] an 'anti-spying resolution' to 'protect the right to privacy against unlawful surveillance' in the wake of reports that 35 foreign leaders were subjects of US eavesdropping.[365][366] The resolution "unequivocally states that the same rights that people have off-line must also be protected online."[367][368] The European Parliament invited Snowden to make a pre-recorded video appearance to aid their NSA investigation.[369][370] Snowden gave written testimony in which he said that he was seeking asylum in the EU, but that he was told by European Parliamentarians that the US would not allow EU partners to make such an offer.[27] He told the Parliament that the NSA was working with the security agencies of EU states to "get access to as much data of EU citizens as possible".[371] The NSA's Foreign Affairs Division, he claimed, lobbies the EU and other countries to change their laws, allowing for "everyone in the country" to be spied on legally.[372] United States[edit] In the US, Snowden's actions precipitated an intense debate on privacy and warrantless domestic surveillance.[373][374] Jim Sensenbrenner, author of the Patriot Act, submitted a proposal on October 29, 2013 called the "USA Freedom Act", which would end the bulk collection of Americans' metadata, and reform the FISA court.[375] Director of National Intelligence James Clapper condemned Snowden's actions as having done "huge, grave damage" to US intelligence capabilities, while United States Secretary of State John Kerry stated that "in some cases" the NSA had gone "too far" in some of its surveillance activities, and promised that it would be stopped.[376][377] At the end of 2013, The Washington Post noted that the public debate, lawsuits, "presidential task forces, and attempts at legislative remedy" had not brought about any "meaningful policy change". They printed: "...the status quo continues, if with forced disclosures and administration arguments that the public just doesn't understand how difficult it is to prevent the next 9/11 – even though there's been no evidence publicly revealed so far that these measures have prevented the next 9/11."[152] An analysis released by the New America Foundation in January 2014 reviewed 225 terrorism cases since the September 11 attacks found that the NSA's bulk collection of phone records "has had no discernible impact on preventing acts of terrorism", and that US governments' claims of the program's usefulness were "overblown".[378][379] Officials maintained that the program was a good "insurance policy".[380] Another review in January 2014, this from the Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (PCLOB), found the NSA's phone metadata program to be illegal and of "only limited value". The board, chosen by Obama, said it "implicates constitutional concerns under the First and Fourth Amendments." The board was unable to find "a single instance" that the program "made a concrete difference in the outcome of a terrorism investigation" or "directly contributed to the discovery of a previously unknown terrorist plot or the disruption of a terrorist attack."[381] The White House rejected the findings, saying "We simply disagree with the board's analysis on the legality of the program".[382] A survey conducted by USA Today and Pew Research Center in January 2014 revealed a change in American's opinion of phone and Internet metadata collection. In July 2013, 50 percent supported the NSA programs. Six months later, the percentage dropped to 40.[383] The Republican Party in early 2014 voted unanimously to pass a "Resolution To Renounce The National Security Agency’s Surveillance Program" which called for a "special committee to investigate, report, and reveal to the public the extent of this domestic spying". They said that Snowden's revelations had uncovered "an invasion into the personal lives of American citizens that violates the right of free speech and association afforded by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution" and that "the mass collection and retention of personal data is in itself contrary to the right of privacy protected by the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution."[384] The resolution endorses legislation proposed by Justin Amash.[385] Presidential panel[edit] Obama also said that he himself had called for a review of US surveillance activities even before Snowden had begun revealing details of the NSA's operations.[342] On August 9, Obama announced that he was ordering Director of National Intelligence James Clapper to arrange for "a high-level group of outside experts to review our entire intelligence and communications technologies."[386][387] In December, the task force issued 46 recommendations that, if adopted, would subject the NSA to additional scrutiny by the courts, Congress, and the president, and would strip the NSA of the authority to infiltrate American computer systems using "backdoors" in hardware or software.[388] Geoffrey Stone, a panel member, said there was no evidence that the bulk collection of phone data had stopped any terror attacks.[389] Court rulings[edit] On June 6, 2013, in the wake of Snowden's leaks, conservative public interest lawyer and Judicial Watch founder Larry Klayman filed a lawsuit claiming that the federal government had unlawfully collected metadata for his telephone calls and was harassing him. In Klayman v. Obama, Judge Richard J. Leon ruled the bulk telephony metadata program to be "likely unconstitutional."[390] Snowden would later describe Judge Leon's decision as "vindication."[391] On June 11, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed a lawsuit against James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence, alleging that the NSA's phone records program was unconstitutional. In December 2013, ten days after Judge Leon's ruling, Judge William H. Pauley III came to the opposite conclusion. In ACLU v. Clapper, although he found that privacy concerns are not trivial, Pauley ruled that the potential benefits of surveillance outweigh these considerations.[392] Gary Schmitt, former staff director of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, wrote that "The two decisions have generated public confusion over the constitutionality of the NSA's data collection program—a kind of judicial 'he-said, she-said' standoff."[393] Public opinion polls[edit] Surveys conducted by news and professional polling organizations have found public opinion more supportive of Snowden outside the United States than within. In June 2013, when Americans were asked to describe Snowden in a single word, 12 percent said he was a hero and 21 percent called him a traitor.[394] Six months later, 8 percent said hero and 23 percent traitor.[395] By contrast, a June 2013 Emnid poll revealed that 50 percent of Germans considered Snowden a hero, and 35 percent would hide him in their homes.[396] Similarly, in October 2013, when 51 percent of Americans thought Snowden was "something of a hero" and 49 percent found him to be "more of a traitor," 67 percent of Canadians considered him a hero, as did 60 percent of UK respondents.[397] American public opinion has consistently been closely divided. Asked for their general impression, in June 2013, 40 percent of US respondents felt favorably and 39 percent unfavorably towards Snowden.[398] Six months later, the results were little changed, with 43 percent favorable and 41 percent unfavorable.[399] Asked specifically whether his disclosures were beneficial or detrimental, in June 2013, 49 percent of Americans said Snowden had served the public interest, and 44 percent thought he'd harmed national security.[400] Six months later, 40 percent believed the leaks had been helpful, and 46 percent said they'd been bad for the country.[395] Polls showed more movement over time on the question of whether Snowden was right or wrong to leak. American respondents saying he was right declined by nearly half from 44 percent in June 2013[401] to 23 percent in January 2014,[402] before rebounding partially to 31 percent in March 2014.[403] Those saying Snowden was wrong to leak also fluctuated, from 42 percent in June 2013[401] to a high of 55 percent in November 2013[404] to 33 percent in March 2014.[403] Asked whether or not the US government ought to pursue a criminal case against Snowden, in June 2013, 54 percent said he should be prosecuted and 38 percent disagreed.[400] By March 2014, those favoring prosecution had declined to 45 percent, with 34 percent opposed.[403] A 2014 Pew/USA Today poll revealed that 18- to 29-year-old Americans were significantly more supportive than those over 65, and were the only age group where a majority did not favor prosecution, being evenly split 42 percent to 42 percent on whether Snowden should be tried. Fifty-seven percent of 18- to 29-year olds thought he had served rather than harmed public interest.[405] An April 2014 poll found that while Americans were split on whether Snowden's actions were right or wrong, 53 percent believed the public deserved to know about the NSA programs revealed by his leaks, whilst 24 percent believed the programs should not have been disclosed.[403] Another April 2014 poll showed that since Snowden's disclosures, Americans were using the Internet less for things like email, online shopping and banking.[406][407] Recognition[edit] Edward Snowden was voted as The Guardian's person of the year 2013, garnering four times the number of votes than any other candidate.[408] The 2013 list of leading Global Thinkers,[409] published annually by Foreign Policy placed Snowden in first place due to the impact of his revelations. FP's "Global Conversation visualization"[410] showed that Snowden "occupied a role in 2013's global news media coverage just slightly less important than President Barack Obama himself".[411] Snowden was named Time's Person of the Year runner-up in 2013, behind Pope Francis.[412] TIME was criticized for not placing him in the top spot.[413][414][415] Snowden headed the Ten Tech Heroes of 2013 at TechRepublic, the site of an on-line newsletter circulated among IT professionals. Editor Jack Wallen placed Snowden in the number one position of his list and wrote, "Ed Snowden was a whistle blower the likes of which the world has never seen. Many consider him a villain. I, on the other hand, hold him up in the hero category for one simple reason: His disclosure of classified documents unveiled the NSA's mass surveillance program. Snowden's goal was "...to inform the public as to that which is done in their name and that which is done against them." Prior to this leak, the public was unaware of the depth of surveillance and the true nature of government secrecy. His disclosures have also had major implications for those in the technology field."[416] Snowden joined the board of directors of the Freedom of the Press Foundation, co-founded by Daniel Ellsberg, in January 2014. Journalists Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras serve as staff members of the organization.[417] Rector of the University of Glasgow[edit] On February 18, 2014, Snowden was elected to serve as Rector of the University of Glasgow,[418] a position widely described as symbolic.[419][420][421][422] Officially taking office on March 14, 2014,[423] Snowden became the first American Rector in the position's 366-year history. Snowden beat three competitors and received over half of the 6,560 votes.[424][425][426] The nomination was arranged by a group of Glasgow University students along with the help of Snowden's lawyer.[427][428] Like past rector Winnie Mandela, Snowden will not visit the campus in person[429] and will not be expected to fulfil his duties as rector, a job which involves representing student issues to senior management.[423] He will serve for three years.[29] Following the election, Snowden issued a statement saying he was "humbled by and grateful for...this historic statement in defence of our shared values". He continued: We are reminded by this bold decision that the foundation of all learning is daring: the courage to investigate, to experiment, to inquire. If we do not contest the violation of the fundamental right of free people to be left unmolested in their thoughts, associations, and communications - to be free from suspicion without cause - we will have lost the foundation of our thinking society. The defence of this fundamental freedom is the challenge of our generation, a work that requires constructing new controls and protections to limit the extraordinary powers of states over the domain of human communication.[430][431] German "Whistleblower Prize"[edit] Edward Snowden was awarded the biennial German "whistleblower prize" in August 2013, in absentia, with an accompanying award equal to 3,000 euro. Established in 1999, the award is sponsored by the German branch of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms and by the Association of German Scientists.[432] Organizers in Berlin said the prize was to acknowledge his "bold efforts to expose the massive and unsuspecting monitoring and storage of communication data, which cannot be accepted in democratic societies".[433] Snowden responded to the award, saying it was "a great honor to be recognized for the public good created by this act of whistleblowing", and that it was not he, but the public who effected "this powerful change to abrogation of basic constitutional rights by secret agencies".[434] Sam Adams Award[edit] Edward Snowden during the Sam Adams Award ceremony in Moscow, October 2013 The Sam Adams Award was presented to Snowden by a group of four American former intelligence officers and whistleblowers in October 2013. After two months as an asylee, Snowden made his first public appearance in Moscow to accept the award, a candlestick holder meant to symbolize "bringing light to dark corners".[297] One of the presenters, FBI whistleblower Jesselyn Radack of the Government Accountability Project, told The Nation, "We believe that Snowden exemplifies Sam Adams's courage, persistence and devotion to truth—no matter what the consequences. We wanted Snowden to know that, as opposed to the daily vitriol from the US government and mainstream media, 60 percent of the United States supports him, including thousands in the national security and intelligence agencies where we used to work."[435] Alternative Christmas Message[edit] Snowden was chosen to give Britain's 2013 "Alternative Christmas Message", Channel 4's alternative to the Royal Christmas Message by Queen Elizabeth II.[436] The Message is normally given by non-establishment figures.[437][438] In what was Snowden's first television appearance since arriving in Russia, the address focused on the importance of privacy and the need for an end to government surveillance.[439] In the 1.5-minute segment[440] he said that the recently revealed "worldwide mass surveillance", a system resulting from teamwork between governments, is what George Orwell warned about in 1984, a novel about a society controlled by an ever-present Big Brother.[441] The difference is, Snowden noted, that today's surveillance capabilities far surpass those Orwell described, saying "We have sensors in our pockets that track us everywhere we go ... A child born today [will] never know what it means to have a private moment to themselves, an unrecorded, un-analyzed thought. That's a problem because privacy matters; [it] allows us to determine who we are, and who we want to be." On the debate initiated by his leaks, he stated: "The conversation occurring today will determine the amount of trust we can place both in the technology that surrounds us and the government that regulates it. Together we can find a better balance, end mass surveillance and remind the government that if it really wants to know how we feel asking is always cheaper than spying."[442][443] The piece was filmed, edited and produced by Laura Poitras.[442] Conference speaking engagements[edit] Snowden spoke at the South by Southwest (SXSW) Interactive technology conference in Austin, Texas, in front of 3,500 attendees on March 10, 2014. He participated by teleconference carried over multiple routers running the Google Hangouts platform. On-stage moderators were Christopher Soghoian and Snowden's legal counsel Wizner, both from the ACLU.[444] Snowden said that the NSA was "setting fire to the future of the internet", and that the SXSW audience was "the firefighters."[445][446][447] Attendees could use Twitter to send questions to Snowden, who answered one by saying that information gathered by corporations was much less dangerous than that gathered by a government agency, because "governments have the power to deprive you of your rights."[445] Representative Mike Pompeo of the House Intelligence Committee had tried unsuccessfully to get the SXSW management to cancel Snowden's appearance; instead, SXSW director Hugh Forrest said that the NSA was welcome to respond to Snowden at the 2015 conference.[445] Later the same month, Snowden appeared by teleconference at the TED conference in Vancouver, British Columbia. Represented on stage by a robot with a video screen, video camera, microphones and speakers, Snowden conversed with TED curator Chris Anderson, and told the attendees that online businesses should act quickly to encrypt their websites. He described the NSA's PRISM program as the U.S. government using businesses to collect data for them, and that the NSA "intentionally misleads corporate partners" using, as an example, the Bullrun decryption program to create backdoor access.[448] Snowden said he would gladly return to the U.S. if given immunity from prosecution, but that he was more concerned about alerting the public about abuses of government authority.[448] Anderson invited internet pioneer Tim Berners-Lee on stage to converse with Snowden, who said that he would support Berners-Lee's concept of an "internet Magna Carta" to "encode our values in the structure of the internet."[448][449] Ridenhour Truth-Telling Prize[edit] In April 2014 Snowden was awarded the Ridenhour Truth-Telling Prize together with Laura Poitras.[450] Snowden Effect[edit] The Economist printed, "the big consequence" of the "Snowden Effect"[clarification needed] will be that "countries and companies will erect borders of sorts in cyberspace."[451] In The Nation, the Snowden Effect was described thusly: "[Snowden's] actions have sparked a debate about the intersection of national security and individual privacy that we weren’t having six months ago, but should have been."[452] In Forbes, the Effect was seen as evidenced by a rare bipartisan movement in the US Congress: "a divided, intransigent Congress seems nearly united over the idea that the massive domestic intelligence gathering system that grew after 9/11 has simply gone too far."[453] Tech[edit] In the technology industry, the Snowden Effect had a profound impact after it was revealed that the NSA was tapping into the information held by some US cloud-based services. Google, Cisco, and AT&T lost business internationally due to the "outcry" over their role in NSA spying. It has been estimated that the cloud-based computing industry could lose up to $35 billion in the next three years.[454] Wall Street Journal reported that the "Snowden Effect" was the top tech story of 2013, saying the Snowden leaks "taught businesses that the convenience of the cloud cuts both ways". The Journal predicted the 'effect' would top 2014 news as well, given the amount of documents yet to be revealed.[455] In China, the most profitable country for US tech companies, all are "under suspicion as either witting or unwitting collaborators" in the NSA spying, and are "on the defensive", according to the director of the Research Center for Chinese Politics and Business at Indiana University.[456] The effect was also seen in changes to investment in the industry, with security "back on the map".[457] After revelations that German Chancellor Angela Merkel's mobile was being tapped, the tech industry rushed to create a secure cell phone.[457] According to TechRepublic, revelations from the NSA leaks have "rocked the IT world" and have had a "chilling effect". The three biggest impacts were seen as: increased interest in encryption, business leaving US companies, and a reconsideration of the safety of cloud technology.[458] The Blackphone, which the New Yorker calls "a phone for the age of Snowden"- described as "a smartphone explicitly designed for security and privacy"- has been created by the makers of GeeksPhone, Silent Circle, and PGP, designed to provide encryption for phone calls, emails, texts, and internet browsing.[459][460] Lavabit[edit] The owner of a secure email service which Snowden used, Lavabit, shut down the service after being forced to release the secure keys to his site to the FBI, exposing all 410,000 users to FBI's resulting ability to read all email routed via Lavabit.[461] The move was mirrored days later by a similar email provider called Silent Circle.[462] Three months later, owners of the two companies joined forces and announced their new email service, "Dark Mail Alliance",[463] designed to be resistant to government surveillance.[464][465] In popular culture[edit] Metro bus ad in DC thanks Edward Snowden Snowden's passage through Hong Kong inspired a local production team to produce a low-budget five-minute film entitled Verax. The film, depicting the time Snowden spent hiding in the Mira Hotel while being unsuccessfully tracked by the CIA and China's Ministry of State Security, was uploaded to YouTube on June 25, 2013.[466][467] A dramatic thriller about Edward Snowden, Classified: The Edward Snowden Story, is scheduled for release on September 19, 2014. The film is being crowdfunded and plans are to release the final product as a free download. The feature-length film is directed by Jason Bourque and produced by Travis Doering; actor Kevin Zegers plays the character of Edward Snowden. Michael Shanks stars as journalist Glenn Greenwald and Carmen Aguirre plays filmmaker Laura Poitras.[468] In September 2013, the TV series South Park parodied the Snowden revelations, with Eric Cartman standing in for Snowden. The episode, titled "Let Go, Let Gov", received the highest ratings for the show in two years.[469][470] Snowden has been featured in video games[471][472] and has an action figure made in his image. Although not endorsed by Snowden, proceeds from the $99 doll are donated to Freedom of the Press Foundation, where he serves on the board of directors.[473][474] In the District of Columbia, the Partnership for Civil Justice Fund (PCJF), a free speech advocacy group, sponsored ads that said "Thank You Edward Snowden" and were featured on the sides of DC city buses for 4 weeks in late 2013.[475][476] The controversial, crowd-funded campaign[477] included an online message of support which gathered 14,000 signatures by the time it had begun.[475][478] PCJF co-founder Carl Messineo said, "It’s time to stop the NSA from seizing and searching my emails, my gmail, logging my telephone calls. I never signed up for this. The US citizenry does not want this. And I want the people who see the bus to know that there are millions of others thinking the exact same thing."[479] The ad was initially planned for one bus in December 2013, but the organizers said they received enough support from around the world to sponsor partial ads on 5 more buses in 2014.[480] See also[edit] 2013 global surveillance disclosures Timeline of mass surveillance disclosures Aftermath of the global surveillance disclosure Global surveillance and journalism NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07) Classified information in the United States Extraordinary rendition ECHELON Information sensitivity List of people granted asylum List of people who have lived at airports List of United States extradition treaties List of whistleblowers Martin and Mitchell defection Mass surveillance Mass surveillance in the United Kingdom Mass surveillance in the United States NSA whistleblowers William Binney Thomas Andrews Drake Perry Fellwock Mark Klein Thomas Tamm Russ Tice Stellar Wind (code name) Terrorist Surveillance Program P vip.svgBiography portal Free-speech-flag.svgFreedom of speech portal Great Seal of the United States (obverse).svgGovernment of the United States portal Computer-aj aj ashton 01.svgInformation technology portal Fbi duquesne.jpgIntelligence portal Notes[edit] 1.Jump up ^ Hong Kong's Secretary for Justice Rimsky Yuen argued that government officials did not issue a provisional arrest warrant for Snowden due to "discrepancies and missing information" in the paperwork sent by US authorities. Yuen explained that Snowden's full name was inconsistent, and his US passport number was also missing.[214] Hong Kong also wanted more details of the charges and evidence against Snowden to make sure it was not a political case. Secretary for Justice Rimsky Yuen said he spoke to US Attorney General Eric Holder by phone to reinforce the request for details "absolutely necessary" for detention of Snowden. Yuen said "As the US government had failed to provide the information by the time Snowden left Hong Kong, it was impossible for the Department of Justice to apply to a court for a temporary warrant of arrest. In fact, even at this time, the US government has still not provided the details we asked for."[215] References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ "Former U.S. officials give NSA whistleblower Snowden award in Russia". Haaretz. October 10, 2013. 2.Jump up ^ Savage, Charlie; Mazzetti, Mark (June 10, 2013). "Cryptic Overtures and a Clandestine Meeting Gave Birth to a Blockbuster Story". The New York Times. 3.Jump up ^ Carroll, Rory (February 9, 2014). "Snowden used simple technology to mine NSA computer networks". The Guardian. 4.^ Jump up to: a b Finn, Peter; Horwitz, Sari (June 21, 2013). "U.S. charges Snowden with espionage". The Washington Post. 5.^ Jump up to: a b Pilkington, Ed (June 30, 2013). "Assange stands by Edward Snowden as Ecuador's Correa reprimands consul – WikiLeaks founder says 'there is no stopping the publishing process' as NSA leaker remains stuck in Moscow airport". The Guardian. 6.Jump up ^ Khazan, Olga (June 23, 2013). "Why Edward Snowden Is Looking to Ecuador for Asylum – President Rafael Correa welcomed Julian Assange into the 'club of the persecuted.' Will he do the same for Snowden?". The Atlantic. 7.Jump up ^ "NSA Leaker Edward Snowden Thanks Russia for Asylum". Retrieved 8 April 2014. 8.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden a 'hero' for NSA disclosures, Wikipedia founder says | World news. The Guardian (November 25, 2013). 9.Jump up ^ Why Edward Snowden Is a Hero. The New Yorker. 10.Jump up ^ Oliver Stone defends Edward Snowden over NSA revelations. The Guardian. (July 5, 2013). 11.^ Jump up to: a b Editorial Board of The New York Times (January 1, 2013). "Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower". The New York Times. 12.Jump up ^ Daniel Ellsberg: Edward Snowden Was Right To Leave The U.S. Huffington Post. 13.Jump up ^ Amash: Snowden a whistle-blower, 'told us what we need to know'. Fox News (August 4, 2013). 14.Jump up ^ "As Edward Snowden Receives Asylum in Russia, Poll Shows Americans Sympathetic to NSA 'Whistle-Blower' – Washington Whispers". usnews.com. August 1, 2013. 15.Jump up ^ "В Госдуме Э.Сноудена назвали новым диссидентом и борцом с системой ("Some in State Duma has called E. Snowden a dissident and fighter against the system")". RBC Daily. July 26, 2013. "Head of the State Duma Committee on International Affairs, Alexei Pushkov, has called Edward Snowden, whistleblower on the US intelligence services, a new dissident fighting the system." 16.Jump up ^ LoGiurato, Brett (June 11, 2013). "John Boehner: Edward Snowden Is A 'Traitor'". San Francisco Chronicle. 17.Jump up ^ de Nesnera, Andre (August 8, 2013). "Is NSA Leaker Edward Snowden a Traitor?". Washington: Voice of America. 18.Jump up ^ Etpatko, Larisa. "Former Defense Secretary Gates calls NSA leaker Snowden a 'traitor'". NewsHour. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 19.Jump up ^ Klein, Ezra. "Edward Snowden, patriot". The Washington Post. 20.Jump up ^ "Opinion: Edward Snowden is a patriot – Trevor Timm". Politico.Com. 21.Jump up ^ Goodman, Amy. ""Edward Snowden is a Patriot": Ex-NSA CIA, FBI and Justice Whistleblowers Meet Leaker in Moscow". Democracy Now. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 22.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (June 9, 2013). "Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations". The Guardian (London). 23.Jump up ^ Lennard, Natasha (January 24, 2014). "Holder: Possible plea deal for Snowden". Salon. 24.^ Jump up to: a b "Ex-CIA director: Snowden should be 'hanged' if convicted for treason". Fox News Channel. 25.^ Jump up to: a b Johnson, Benny. "America's Spies Want Edward Snowden Dead". Buzzfeed. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 26.Jump up ^ Mackey, Robert. "Video From Snowden's German TV Interview". NYT. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 27.^ Jump up to: a b Peralta, Eyder. "Edward Snowden Tells EU Parliament He Wants Asylum In Europe". NPR. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 28.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden takes up reins as rector of Glasgow University". News.Stv.tv. STV. Retrieved 14 March 2014. 29.^ Jump up to: a b Volts, Dustin. "Edward Snowden Just Got Yet Another New Job". National Journal. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 30.Jump up ^ Petresen, Andrea. "Edward Snowden has a new gig: Joins board of press freedom group". WaPo. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 31.Jump up ^ Voltz, Dustin. "Edward Snowden Just Got Yet Another New Job". National Journal. Retrieved 20 February 2014. 32.^ Jump up to: a b Ackerman, Spencer (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden failed in attempt to join US army's elite special forces unit". The Guardian (London). "The army did confirm Snowden's date of birth: June 21, 1983." 33.Jump up ^ "Report: Snowden has document to enter Russia". WVEC. July 24, 2013. "Edward Snowden, who was born in Elizabeth City, NC, is wanted in the U.S. for espionage." 34.^ Jump up to: a b c d Tracy, Connor (June 10, 2013). "What we know about NSA leaker Edward Snowden". NBC News. 35.Jump up ^ Itkowitz, Colby; Sheehan, Daniel Patrick (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden's father, stepmother plan to make public statement". The Morning Call (Allentown, PA). 36.^ Jump up to: a b Toppo, Greg (June 10, 2013). "Former neighbor remembers Snowden as 'nice kid'". USA Today (Washington, D.C.). 37.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden's father, a Lehigh County resident, tells network he's concerned for son's well-being". Leheigh Vally Express Times. 38.^ Jump up to: a b "Edward Snowden's Father Speaks Out To Fox About Media 'Misinformation,' Asks Son To Stop Leaking". Mediaite. May 26, 2013. 39.Jump up ^ "TIMELINE: Edward Snowden's Life As We Know It". ABC News. June 13, 2013. 40.^ Jump up to: a b "Profile: Edward Snowden". BBC News. June 10, 2013. 41.Jump up ^ Leger, Donna Leinwand (June 9, 2013). "NSA contractor: 'I know I have done nothing wrong'". USA Today (Washington DC). 42.Jump up ^ "U.S. Fears Edward Snowden May Defect to China: Sources". ABC News. June 13, 2013. p. 3. 43.Jump up ^ "Snowden's Life Surrounded By Spycraft". Associated Press. June 15, 2013. 44.Jump up ^ Cooke, Kristina; Shiffman, Scott (June 12, 2013). "Exclusive: Snowden as a teen online: anime and cheeky humor". Reuters. "Long before he became known worldwide as the NSA contractor who exposed top-secret U.S. government surveillance programs, Edward Snowden worked for a Japanese anime company run by friends and went by the nicknames "The True HOOHA" and "Phish."" 45.Jump up ^ Yoshida, Reiji (June 15, 2013). "Snowden Web manga profile still online". Japan Times (Tokyo). 46.Jump up ^ Broder, John M.; Shane, Scott (June 15, 2013). "For Snowden, a Life of Ambition, Despite the Drifting". The New York Times. "Mr. Snowden, who has taken refuge in Hong Kong, has studied Mandarin, was deeply interested in martial arts, claimed Buddhism as his religion and once mused that "China is definitely a good option career wise."" 47.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Gellmann, Barton (December 24, 2013). "Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission's accomplished". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 48.Jump up ^ Malkin, Bonnie (June 11, 2013). "Edward Snowden's girlfriend revealed to be former ballet dancer". The Daily Telegraph (London). 49.Jump up ^ MacAskill, Ewen (June 9, 2013). "NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: 'I do not expect to see home again'". The Guardian (London). 50.Jump up ^ Blake, Aaron (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden apparently a Ron Paul supporter". The Washington Post. 51.Jump up ^ Zara, Christopher (June 9, 2013). "NSA Whistleblower Revealed: Edward Snowden Donated $500 To Ron Paul's 2012 Presidential Campaign: Does NSA Whistleblower Have Libertarian Leanings?". International Business Times. 52.Jump up ^ Mullin, Joe (June 13, 2013). "NSA leaker Ed Snowden's life on Ars Technica". Ars Technica. 53.Jump up ^ Shane, Scott (June 26, 2013). "Under Snowden Screen Name, 2009 Post Berated Leaks". The New York Times. 54.Jump up ^ Welch, William M. (June 27, 2013). "Report: Snowden slammed leakers in online chats in 2009". USA Today. 55.Jump up ^ Mullin, Joe (June 26, 2013). "In 2009, Ed Snowden said leakers "should be shot." Then he became one..". Ars Technica. 56.^ Jump up to: a b c Harding, Luke (January 31, 2014). "How Edward Snowden went from loyal NSA contractor to whistleblower". The Guardian. 57.Jump up ^ Lam, Lana (June 13, 2013). "Whistle-blower Edward Snowden talks to South China Morning Post". South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). 58.^ Jump up to: a b Broder, John M.; Shane, Scott (June 15, 2013). "For Snowden, a Life of Ambition, Despite the Drifting". The New York Times. 59.Jump up ^ Ackerman, Spencer. "Edward Snowden did enlist for special forces, US army confirms". The Guardian. 60.Jump up ^ Gaskell, Stephanie (June 10, 2013). "Records show Army discharged Edward Snowden after five months". Politico. 61.Jump up ^ Finn, Peter; Miller, Greg; Nakashima, Ellen (June 10, 2013). "Investigators looking into how Snowden gained access at NSA". Washington Post. "University spokesman Brian Ullmann confirmed that in 2005, Snowden worked for less than a year as a “security specialist” for the school’s Center for Advanced Study of Language. The university-affiliated center, founded in 2003, is not a classified facility." 62.Jump up ^ Jijo, Jacob. "Edward Snowden Scandal: 'CIA Sent Him Home But NSA Hired Him Later'." International Business Times. October 11, 2013. Retrieved on January 30, 2014. 63.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden: Ex-CIA worker comes forward as leaker, says he was protecting 'basic liberties'". Chicago Tribune. Reuters. June 10, 2013. 64.Jump up ^ Memmott, Mark (June 10, 2013). "Who Is Edward Snowden, The Self-Styled NSA Leaker?". NPR. 65.Jump up ^ Bütikofer, Christian (June 10, 2013). "Wie die CIA sich in Genf Bankdaten beschaffte" [How the CIA acquired bank data in Geneva]. Handelszeitung (in German) (Zürich). 66.Jump up ^ Der Sonntag and SonntagsBlick newspapers[which?] 67.Jump up ^ "Swiss president would back criminal probe against NSA leaker". Reuters. June 16, 2013. 68.Jump up ^ Schmitt, Eric. "C.I.A. Warning on Snowden in ’09 Said to Slip Through the Cracks." The New York Times. October 10, 2013. Retrieved on January 30, 2014. 69.Jump up ^ Schmitt, Eric. "C.I.A. Disputes Early Suspicions on Snowden". NYT. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 70.^ Jump up to: a b c Risen, James. "Snowden Says He Took No Secret Files to Russia". New York Times. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 71.Jump up ^ Drew, Christopher and Shane, Scott. Résumé Shows Snowden Honed Hacking Skills, The New York Times, July 4, 2013. 72.Jump up ^ Mark Hosenball (August 15, 2013), Snowden downloaded NSA secrets while working for Dell, sources say Reuters 73.Jump up ^ Greenberg, Andy (June 18, 2013). "NSA Implementing 'Two-Person' Rule To Stop The Next Edward Snowden". Forbes (New York). 74.Jump up ^ "National Security Agency Data Collection Programs". C-SPAN. June 18, 2013. Quotations from NSA Director in reply to question asked in open hearing of the House Intelligence Committee by Representative Lynn Westmoreland (R-GA) beginning at 02:14:00 on video counter. 75.Jump up ^ Flock, Elizabeth (September 25, 2012). "NSA Whistleblower Reveals How to Beat a Polygraph Test". Washington DC: U.S. News and World Report. 76.Jump up ^ Snowden 'took an ECSA course from Koenig Solutions'. The Times of India. 77.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden 'attended hacking course in India'. The Daily Telegraph. 78.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden 'sharpened his skills at Koenig Solutions'. Hindustan Times. 79.Jump up ^ Drew, Christopher; Scott Shane (July 4, 2013). "Résumé Shows Snowden Honed Hacking Skills". The New York Times. "In 2010, while working for a National Security Agency contractor, Edward J. Snowden learned to be a hacker. He took a course that trains security professionals to think like hackers and understand their techniques, all with the intent of turning out "certified ethical hackers" who can better defend their employers' networks." 80.Jump up ^ Gayathri, Amrutha (June 21, 2013). "USIS That Vetted Snowden Under Investigation; Booz Allen Hamilton Overlooked Snowden Resume Discrepancies". International Business Times. 81.Jump up ^ Sakthi Prasad (January 23, 2014). "U.S. brings fraud charges against firm that vetted Snowden". Reuters. Archived from the original on January 24, 2014. Retrieved January 25, 2014. "The U.S. Justice Department accused United States Investigations Services (USIS), the largest private provider of security checks for the government, of bilking millions of dollars through improper background verifications." 82.Jump up ^ Serge Schemann (January 24, 2014). "Distrust in America, War in Syria and Protests in Ukraine". New York Times. Archived from the original on January 25, 2014. "The complaint filed by the United States government against USIS thus underscored how extensively the government relied on contractors not only to do its secret work, but also to vet those very contractors." 83.Jump up ^ Isikoff, Michael (January 23, 2014). "DOJ accuses firm that vetted Snowden of faking 665,000 background checks". NBC News: Investigations. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 84.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden: NSA whistleblower answers reader questions". The Guardian (London). June 14, 2013. 85.Jump up ^ Borger, Julian (June 9, 2013). "Booz Allen Hamilton: Edward Snowden's U.S. contracting firm". The Guardian (London). 86.Jump up ^ Gertz, Bill (June 13, 2013). "Officials Worried Snowden Will Pass Secrets to Chinese". Washington Free Beacon. Archived from the original on June 14, 2013. 87.^ Jump up to: a b Bacon, John. "Contractor fires Snowden from $122,000 per-year job". USA Today. 88.Jump up ^ Shane, Scott; Sanger, David E. (June 30, 2013). 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The New York Times 162.Jump up ^ Privacy Scandal: NSA Can Spy on Smart Phone Data – SPIEGEL ONLINE. Der Spiegel.de (September 7, 2013). 163.Jump up ^ Report: US spied on millions of phone calls in Spain over one month. NBC News. 164.Jump up ^ NSA monitored calls of 35 world leaders after US official handed over contacts | World news. The Guardian. 165.Jump up ^ Baker, Luke (October 24, 2013). "Merkel frosty on the U.S. over 'unacceptable' spying allegations". Reuters. 166.Jump up ^ Traynor, Ian; Lewis, Paul. "Merkel compared NSA to Stasi in heated encounter with Obama". The Guardian. 167.Jump up ^ Poitras, Laura. "'A' for Angela Merkel: GCHQ and NSA Targeted Private German Companies". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 168.Jump up ^ Gellman, Barton; Miller, Greg. "'Black budget' summary details U.S. spy network's successes, failures and objectives". The Washington Post. 169.Jump up ^ Post Store (May 17, 2011). "NSA paying U.S. companies for access to communications networks". The Washington Post. 170.Jump up ^ "Snowden leaks intelligence 'black budget' to Washington Post | Al Jazeera America". Al Jazeera. August 29, 2013. 171.Jump up ^ Latest Snowden leak reveals NSA's goal to continually expand surveillance abilities. Rt.com (November 23, 2013). 172.Jump up ^ Risen, James and Poitras, Laura (November 22, 2013) N.S.A. Report Outlined Goals for More Power. The New York Times 173.Jump up ^ Barchfield, Jenny (July 14, 2013). "Greenwald: Snowden docs contain NSA 'blueprint'". Associated Press. 174.Jump up ^ HPSCI Chairman Mike Rogers and Ranking Member C.A. Dutch RuppersbergerL “Snowden’s acts of betrayal truly place America’s military men and women in greater danger around the world” U.S. House Intelligence Committee January 9, 2014 175.Jump up ^ Eli Lake (January 30, 2014), Did an Angry Birds Leak Risk Spies’ Lives? The Daily Beast 176.Jump up ^ "Snowden's open letter offers to help Brazil look into NSA surveillance". CNN. 177.Jump up ^ "Snowden: NSA conducts industrial espionage too". CBS News. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 178.Jump up ^ Greenwald, Glenn. "How the NSA Plans to Infect ‘Millions’ of Computers with Malware". The Intercept. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 179.Jump up ^ "Snowden leak: NSA plans to infect ‘millions’ of computers". RT. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 180.Jump up ^ MacAskill, Ewen (June 12, 2013). "Edward Snowden: how the spy story of the age leaked out". The Guardian (London). 181.^ Jump up to: a b Cornell, Lauren (October–November 2013). "Primary Documents". Mousse 40: 62–73. 182.Jump up ^ "NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden: 'I don't want to live in a society that does these sort of things'" (video). The Guardian (London). June 9, 2013. 183.^ Jump up to: a b "Edward Snowden's statement to human rights groups in full". The Daily Telegraph. July 12, 2013. 184.Jump up ^ Gellman, Barton. (June 9, 2013) "Code name 'Verax': Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he knew risks". The Washington Post. 185.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden: US would have buried NSA warnings forever | World news. The Guardian. (October 18, 2013). 186.Jump up ^ "Federal Judge Rules Against N.S.A. Phone Data Program". The New York Times. December 16, 2013. 187.^ Jump up to: a b c "Snowden-Interview: Transcript". Retrieved January 28, 2014. 188.Jump up ^ Hartmann, Margaret (February 5, 2014). "Booz Allen Exec Describes How Snowden Deceived His Former Employer". New York (magazine). 189.Jump up ^ Peterson, Andrea. "Snowden: I raised NSA concerns internally over 10 times before going rogue." Washington Post. March 7, 2014. Retrieved on March 8, 2014. 190.^ Jump up to: a b Janet Reitman (December 4, 2013), Snowden and Greenwald: The Men Who Leaked the Secrets Rolling Stone 191.Jump up ^ Gellman, Barton; Blake, Aaron; Miller, Greg (June 9, 2013). "Edward Snowden comes forward as source of NSA leaks". The Washington Post. 192.Jump up ^ "Called a defector, NSA leaker defends his decision". CNN. June 10, 2013. 193.Jump up ^ Pomfret, James; Roantree, Anne Marie (June 12, 2013). "American who leaked NSA secrets is a free man in Hong Kong – for now". Reuters. "Sources at Hong Kong law firms have said Snowden has approached human rights lawyers in the city and may be digging in his heels for a legal fight in preparation for the United States laying charges against him." 194.Jump up ^ Lam, Lana (June 12, 2013). "Whistle-blower Edward Snowden tells SCMP: 'Let Hong Kong people decide my fate'". South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). 195.Jump up ^ Lam, Lana (June 13, 2013). "Whistleblower Edward Snowden talks to South China Morning Post". South China Morning Post. "He vowed to fight any extradition attempt by the U.S. government, saying: 'My intention is to ask the courts and people of Hong Kong to decide my fate. I have been given no reason to doubt your system.'" 196.Jump up ^ Eli Lake (June 25, 2013) Greenwald: Snowden's Files Are Out There if 'Anything Happens' to Him The Daily Beast 197.Jump up ^ Englund, Will (August 26, 2013). "Report: Snowden stayed at Russian consulate while in Hong Kong". The Washington Post. 198.^ Jump up to: a b c Mayer, Jane. "Snowden Calls Russian-Spy Story "Absurd"". The New Yorker. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 199.Jump up ^ Russian lawyer Anatoly Kucherena: Exchanging Snowden for Bout or Yaroshenko is impossible. Information Telegraph Agency of Russia, July 21, 2013 200.Jump up ^ "Snowden to stay in Moscow airport for now: lawyer". Fox News. AFP. July 16, 2013. 201.Jump up ^ "It's Now Clear That Russian Intelligence Speaks For Edward Snowden". Business Insider. July 22, 2013. 202.Jump up ^ Angela Shunina (September 6, 2013), Snowden "asked Russian diplomats in Hong Kong for help" – Putin Russia Beyond the Headlines 203.Jump up ^ Snowden is in 'safe place' waiting for his father to discuss future Information Telegraph Agency of Russia August 31, 2013 204.Jump up ^ Lukas I. Alpert (September 4, 2013),Putin Admits Early Snowden Contact The Wall Street Journal 205.Jump up ^ NSA Leaker Edward Snowden Seeks Asylum in Ecuador ABC News June 23, 2013 206.Jump up ^ US revokes NSA leaker Edward Snowden's passport, as he reportedly seeks asylum in Ecuador Fox News Channel June 23, 2013 207.Jump up ^ Shane, Scott (June 23, 2013). "Offering Snowden Aid, WikiLeaks Gets Back in the Game". The New York Times. 208.Jump up ^ Makinen, Julie (June 23, 2013). "Snowden leaves Hong Kong; final destination unclear". Los Angeles Times. 209.Jump up ^ Perlez, Jane; Bradsher, Keith (June 24, 2013). "China Said to Have Made Call to Let Leaker Depart". The New York Times. p. A9 (US edition)Print title: "China Said to Have Made Call to Let Leaker Depart" 210.Jump up ^ "HKSAR Government issues statement on Edward Snowden" (Press release). Hong Kong Government. June 23, 2013. 211.Jump up ^ Baker, Peter; Barry, Ellen (June 23, 2013). "N.S.A. 'Leaker Leaves Hong Kong, Local Officials Say'". The New York Times. 212.Jump up ^ "Snowden left HK lawfully: CE". Hong Kong Information Services Department. June 24, 2013. 213.Jump up ^ "No delay in Snowden case: SJ". Hong Kong Information Services Department. June 25, 2013. 214.Jump up ^ "Hong Kong did not assist Snowden's departure". Global Post. Agence France-Presse. June 25, 2013. "Yuen also said there were discrepancies and missing information in documents used to identify Snowden. 'On the diplomatic documents, James was used as the middle name, on the record upon entering the border, Joseph was used as the middle name, on the American court documents sent to us by the American Justice department, it only said Edward J Snowden,' he said. Hong Kong authorities also noticed that documents produced by the US did not show Snowden's American passport number." 215.Jump up ^ Luk, Eddie (June 26, 2013). "Justice chief spells it out". The Standard (Hong Kong). 216.Jump up ^ Daily Press Briefing United States Department of State June 24, 2013 217.Jump up ^ Pomfret, James; Torode, Greg (June 24, 2013). "Behind Snowden's Hong Kong exit: fear and persuasion". Reuters. 218.Jump up ^ Michael Kelley (January 4, 2014), Julian Assange Gave A Very Peculiar Response When He Was Asked About 'Getting Snowden Out Of The US' Business Insider 219.Jump up ^ Самолет с Эдвардом Сноуденом приземлился в "Шереметьево" NEWSru, June 23, 2013. 220.Jump up ^ "Snowden on the run, seeks asylum in Ecuador". CNN. 221.Jump up ^ Sergei L. Loiko (June 23, 2013). "Snowden stopping in Moscow en route to Cuba, Russian says". Los Angeles Times. 222.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden lands in Moscow, likely bound for Ecuador. CBS News (June 23, 2013). 223.Jump up ^ "Face the Nation transcripts December 29, 2013: Hayden, Drake, Radack, Gellman – Page 4". CBS News. December 29, 2013. 224.Jump up ^ AP Source: State Department revokes NSA leaker Snowden's passport Associated Press June 23, 2013 225.Jump up ^ Jill Lawless (June 26, 2013), Will Snowden join ranks of airport denizens? Associated Press 226.Jump up ^ Germany's Quandary: The Debate over Asylum for Snowden Der Spiegel November 4, 2013 227.Jump up ^ Max Fisher (June 25, 2013),Russia’s own visa rules say Moscow has had legal right to seize Snowden for past 24 hours The Washington Post 228.Jump up ^ Statement from Edward Snowden in Moscow. Wikileaks.org (July 1, 2013). 229.Jump up ^ Why Snowden's Passport Matters | Norman Solomon. Huffington Post. (October 23, 2013). 230.Jump up ^ Peter Baker and Ellen Barry (June 23, 2013), Snowden, in Russia, Seeks Asylum in Ecuador The New York Times 231.Jump up ^ Fidel Castro labels libelous report Cuba blocked Snowden travel Reuters August 28, 2013 232.Jump up ^ "Evo Morales se abre a ceder asilo a Edward Snowden si lo solicita" [Evo Morales prepared to give asylum to Edward Snowden if requested]. El Mercurio (in Spanish) (Santiago). EFE. July 1, 2013. 233.Jump up ^ Gruber, Angelika. "Snowden still in Moscow despite Bolivian plane drama". Reuters. 234.Jump up ^ Fisher, Max (July 3, 2013). "Evo Morales's controversial flight over Europe, minute by heavily disputed minute". The Washington Post. 235.Jump up ^ Portas: Portugal autorizou o sobrevoo de Morales Sol Online, July 9, 2013 (Portuguese) 236.Jump up ^ Bolivia says European nations 'kidnapped' Evo Morales in hunt for NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden – Europe – World. The Independent (July 4, 2013). 237.Jump up ^ "Spain 'told Edward Snowden was on Bolivia president's plane'". BBC News. July 5, 2013. 238.Jump up ^ Rerouted Morales plane has South American leaders irate. USA Today. (July 5, 2013). 239.^ Jump up to: a b c "Edward Snowden seeks asylum in 20 nations, but gets no immediate takers". CBS News. Associated Press. July 2, 2013. 240.Jump up ^ Gladstone, Rick (July 1, 2013). "Snowden Is Said to Claim U.S. Is Blocking Asylum Bids". The New York Times. 241.Jump up ^ Alleged Snowden Statement: Obama Administration 'Using Citizenship As A Weapon' « CBS DC. Washington.cbslocal.com (July 1, 2013). 242.Jump up ^ Galeno, Luis. "Venezuela, Nicaragua offer asylum to NSA leaker Snowden". Reuters. 243.Jump up ^ Spain Says It Was Told Snowden Was Aboard Bolivian Leader's Blocked Jet. The Wall Street Journal. (July 5, 2013). 244.Jump up ^ "Poland, India, Brazil snub Snowden asylum application". Polish Radio English Section. July 3, 2013. 245.Jump up ^ "France rejects Snowden asylum request". United States: Fox News Channel. July 4, 2013. 246.Jump up ^ "Italy rejects Snowden asylum request". Reuters. July 4, 2013. 247.Jump up ^ Österreichische Regierung sieht Formalfehler bei Asylantrag von Snowden. Derstandard.at. 248.Jump up ^ "Teeven: geen asiel voor Snowden" (in Dutch). Novum Nieuws. July 2, 2013. "De Amerikaanse klokkenluider Edward Snowden kan fluiten naar een Nederlandse asielvergunning. [Fred] Teeven heeft het verzoek ontvangen, zegt hij. Maar het is 'niet-ontvankelijk' want de aanvraag is niet in Nederland gedaan." 249.Jump up ^ "Ecuador cools on Edward Snowden asylum as Assange frustration grows". The Guardian. June 28, 2013. 250.Jump up ^ "Ecuador 'helped Snowden by mistake,' asylum in doubt". RT. July 2, 2013. 251.Jump up ^ "Ecuador says it blundered over Snowden travel document". The Guardian. July 3, 2013. 252.^ Jump up to: a b "Путин признал: Сноуден – в Москве. И посоветовал США не "стричь поросенка"". NEWSru. June 25, 2013. 253.Jump up ^ "Putin: Snowden still in Moscow airport transit zone, won't be extradited". RT. June 25, 2013. 254.^ Jump up to: a b "Putin says Snowden at Russian airport, signals no extradition". Reuters. June 25, 2013. 255.Jump up ^ "WikiLeaks и спецслужбы провели в Москве операцию «Сноуден»". Izvestia (Moscow). June 23, 2013. 256.Jump up ^ Julia Ioffe, (June 25, 2013). "Edward Snowden's going to stay in Russia, just you wait" The New Republic 257.Jump up ^ Pearson, Michael; Smith, Matt; Mullen, Jethro (July 2, 2013). "Snowden's asylum options dwindle". CNN. 258.Jump up ^ "Vladimir Putin: Edward Snowden must stop leaking secrets to stay in Russia". Politico. Associated Press. July 1, 2013. 259.Jump up ^ Elder, Miriam (July 2, 2013). "Edward Snowden withdraws Russian asylum request". The Guardian (London). 260.Jump up ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (July 16, 2013). Leaker Files for Asylum to Remain in Russia The New York Times 261.Jump up ^ Stanglin, Doug (July 12, 2013). "Snowden has 'no regrets,' seeks asylum in Russia". USA Today. 262.^ Jump up to: a b "Fugitive Edward Snowden applies for asylum in Russia". BBC. July 16, 2013. 263.^ Jump up to: a b Edward Snowden Makes No-Leak Promise in Asylum Bid: Lawyer – ABC News. ABC News.com (July 16, 2013). 264.Jump up ^ Snowden plans to settle and work in Russia – lawyer to RT. RT, July 23, 2013 265.Jump up ^ "Venezuela Offers Asylum to Snowden". The New York Times. July 5, 2013. 266.Jump up ^ "Пребывание, несовместимое с визитом". Kommersant. July 8, 2013. 267.Jump up ^ "U.S. says allowing Snowden to leave airport would be disappointing". Reuters. July 24, 2013. 268.Jump up ^ "U.S. vague on whether Obama will go to Moscow amid Snowden flap". Reuters. July 17, 2013. 269.Jump up ^ "Press Briefing by Press Secretary Jay Carney, 7/12/2013". The White House. July 12, 2013. 270.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden requests temporary asylum in Russia in compromise – Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times. (July 16, 2013). 271.^ Jump up to: a b c "US attorney general's letter to Russian justice minister". BBC. July 26, 2013. 272.Jump up ^ "U.S. won't seek death penalty for Snowden". USA Today. 273.Jump up ^ "Russia and US security services 'in talks' over Snowden". BBC. July 26, 2013. 274.Jump up ^ "Вести от Путина: Сноуденом не занимается, удивляется фото "куратора Пу". И целует гигантскую щуку". NEWSru. July 26, 2013. 275.Jump up ^ "Snowden 'not afraid' of US threats". SBS Dateline. Retrieved February 18, 2014. 276.Jump up ^ Radack, Jesselyn. "Jesselyn Radack: Why Edward Snowden Wouldn't Get a Fair Trial". WSJ. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 277.Jump up ^ "Snowden out of airport, still in Moscow". CNN. 278.Jump up ^ Loiko, Sergie (1 August 2013). "Edward Snowden granted asylum, leaves Moscow airport in taxi". LA Times. 279.Jump up ^ Richter, Paul and Loiko, Sergei L. (August 1, 2013). "Snowden asylum may presage rocky period in U.S.-Russia ties". Los Angeles Times. 280.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden asylum: US 'disappointed' by Russian decision". The Guardian. 281.^ Jump up to: a b "NSA spy leaks: US fury at Snowden's Russian asylum". London: BBC. August 1, 2013. 282.Jump up ^ "White House 'Extremely Disappointed' in Russia's Asylum Offer to Snowden". The Voice of America (USA). August 1, 2013. 283.Jump up ^ "Statement by the Press Secretary on the President's Travel to Russia". The White House (USA). August 7, 2013. 284.Jump up ^ "Obama cancels Putin meeting over Snowden asylum". USA: BBC. August 7, 2013. 285.Jump up ^ "Barack Obama cancels meeting with Vladimir Putin over Edward Snowden". The Daily Telegraph. August 7, 2013. 286.Jump up ^ Russia 'disappointed' by Obama cancelling Putin meeting: Kremlin Reuters 287.Jump up ^ "Russia "disappointed" bilateral talks with US cancelled". BBC. August 7, 2013. 288.Jump up ^ Report: FBI wanted to fly Edward Snowden's father to Moscow. CNN, July 31, 2013. 289.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden better off in Russia than US, his father says." Associated Press at The Guardian. July 27, 2013. 290.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden's father pleased with son's Moscow life. CNN. 291.Jump up ^ "Report: Snowden's lawyer says former NSA leaker now has a tech job at a Russian website". Associated Press. 292.Jump up ^ NSA Fugitive Snowden Gets Job In Russia. Forbes. 293.Jump up ^ NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden to work for one of Russia's most popular websites – Americas – World. The Independent (October 31, 2013). 294.Jump up ^ "Laptops Snowden took to Hong Kong, Russia were a 'diversion'". Retrieved 3 March 2014. 295.Jump up ^ Hosenball, Mark (October 11, 2013). "Laptops Snowden took to Hong Kong, Russia were a 'diversion'". Reuters. 296.Jump up ^ Rusbridger, Alan (November 21, 2013). "The Snowden Leaks and the Public". The New York Review of Books: 31–34. 297.^ Jump up to: a b Edward Snowden back in the limelight? Father, US whistleblowers visit Moscow (+video). The Christian Science Monitor. (October 10, 2013). 298.Jump up ^ 4 Americans meet Snowden to give him award. USA Today. (October 10, 2013). 299.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden says NSA surveillance programmes 'hurt our country' | World news. The Guardian. 300.Jump up ^ Obama knew of NSA spying on Merkel and approved it, report says. Fox News (October 27, 2013). 301.Jump up ^ Snowden Ready to Testify About US Spying on Merkel – German Lawmaker | Russia | RIA Novosti. En.ria.ru. 302.Jump up ^ Troianovski, Anton. (November 18, 2013) German Opposition Demands Snowden Be Let into Country to Testify – WSJ.com. The Wall Street Journal. 303.Jump up ^ German MP meets Snowden, says he is willing to come to Germany for inquiry. Reuters. 304.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden gets website job in Russia, lawyer says. CNN. 305.Jump up ^ Snowden may aid Germany on US spying details. Is Berlin visit in the cards?. The Christian Science Monitor. (November 1, 2013). 306.Jump up ^ WikiLeaks: Snowden ally Sarah Harrison leaves Russia, won't return to UK over prosecution fear. Fox News (November 6, 2013). 307.Jump up ^ Statement by Sarah Harrison. Wikileaks.org (November 6, 2013). 308.Jump up ^ Vargas, Natasha. (October 24, 2013) Enemy of the State. Advocate.com. 309.Jump up ^ US spying interview. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.au (October 29, 2013). 310.^ Jump up to: a b Germany wants Snowden to give evidence in Moscow, not Berlin. Reuters. 311.^ Jump up to: a b John Robles (January 18, 2014), Regarding Snowden: US lies and lies and lies - Jesselyn Radack Voice of Russia 312.Jump up ^ John Robles (January 14, 2014), US continues to attempt to “get” Edward Snowden – Jesselyn Radack Voice of Russia 313.Jump up ^ Post Store. "Snowden's open letter to Brazil: Read the text". The Washington Post. 314.Jump up ^ "Snowden's open letter offers to help Brazil look into NSA surveillance". CNN. 315.Jump up ^ "As Brazil's fury over NSA mounts, U.S. vows to work through tensions". CNN. 316.^ Jump up to: a b c "Brazilian senator urges asylmu for Snowden". The Washington Post. Associated Press. December 18, 2013. 317.^ Jump up to: a b c Romero, Simon (December 17, 2013). "Snowden offers help to Brazil in spy case". The New York Times. 318.^ Jump up to: a b c "Brazil says not considering Snowden asylum". Chicago Tribune. March 4, 2012. 319.Jump up ^ "Brazil says it is not considering asylum for Edward Snowden". CBS News. Reuters. December 17, 2013. 320.^ Jump up to: a b "Snowden to ask Russian police for protection after US threats – lawyer". Russia Today. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 321.Jump up ^ Zaks, Dmitry. "Fugitive US leaker Snowden 'fears for his life'". AFP. Yahoo.com. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 322.Jump up ^ Daily Press Briefing -January 21, 2014 United States Department of State 323.Jump up ^ Arkhipov, Ilya. "Snowden Denies Working as Foreign Spy, New Yorker Reports". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 324.Jump up ^ Will Dunham (January 23, 2014), Snowden says he can't return to U.S., urges whistleblower protection Reuters 325.Jump up ^ "Snowden exklusiv - Das Interview | NDR (English) (January 26, 2014)". Internet Archive. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 326.Jump up ^ "Snowden talks industrial espionage, death threats in German interview". France24. Retrieved January 28, 2014. 327.Jump up ^ "Wanted dead by US officials, Snowden tells German TV". DW.DE. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 328.Jump up ^ Nataliya Vasilyeva (2 August 2013), Lawyer: Snowden has a place to live in Russia Associated Press 329.Jump up ^ Gregory, David. "January 19: Dianne Feinstein, Mike Rogers, Alexis Ohanian, John Wisniewski, Rudy Giuliani, Robert Gates, Newt Gingrich, Andrea Mitchell, Harold Ford Jr., Nia-Malika Henderson". Meet The Press. MSNBC. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 330.Jump up ^ Savage, Charlie. "Snowden Denies Suggestions That He Was a Spy for Russia". NYT. Retrieved January 23, 2014. 331.Jump up ^ Serwer, Adam. "Feinstein: No evidence Snowden is a Russian spy". MSNBC. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 332.Jump up ^ Knight, Ben. "Snowden's battles with the US media". Der Spiegel. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 333.Jump up ^ "US hints at Edward Snowden plea bargain to allow return from Russia". Guardian. January 23, 2014. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 334.Jump up ^ (March 12, 2014) European Parliament votes on the Data Protection Reform and the report on Mass surveillance. EDRi. 335.Jump up ^ "Daniel Ellsberg Calls Edward Snowden A 'Hero,' Says NSA Leak Was Most Important in American History". Huffington Post. 336.Jump up ^ Ellsberg, Daniel (June 10, 2013). "Edward Snowden: saving us from the United Stasi of America". The Guardian. 337.^ Jump up to: a b Board of Directors (January 14, 2014). "Edward Snowden To Join Daniel Ellsberg, Others on Freedom of the Press Foundation's Board of Directors". Freedom of the Press Foundation. Retrieved January 15, 2014. "The secrecy system in this country is broken. No one is punished for using secrecy to conceal dangerous policies, lies, or crimes, yet concerned employees who wish to inform the American public about what the government is doing under their name are treated as spies. Our 'accountability' mechanisms are a one-sided secret court, which acts as a rubber stamp, and a Congressional 'oversight' committee, which has turned into the NSA's public relations firm. Edward Snowden had no choice but to go to the press with information. Far from a crime, Snowden's disclosures are a true constitutional moment, where the press has held the government to account using the First Amendment, when the other branches refused." 338.Jump up ^ Twitter / DanielEllsberg: Edward Snowden has done more 339.Jump up ^ Pecquet, Julian (June 27, 2013). "US won't 'scramble jets' to capture 'hacker' Snowden, Obama says". The Hill. 340.Jump up ^ "Obama refuses to barter for Edward Snowden". BBC News. June 27, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 341.Jump up ^ "Obama downplays Snowden case, says US not 'scrambling jets' to get 'hacker'". Fox News Channel. June 27, 2013. 342.^ Jump up to: a b Wolf, Z. Byron (August 13, 2013). "Fact-checking Obama's claims about Snowden". CNN. 343.Jump up ^ David Remnick (January 2014) Going the Distance: On and off the road with Barack Obama The New Yorker 344.Jump up ^ Transcript Of President Obama's Speech On NSA Reforms NPR January 17, 2014 345.Jump up ^ Why I Don't Care About Edward Snowden-Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont 346.Jump up ^ "Ron Paul starts Snowden clemency petition". Yahoo. AP. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 347.Jump up ^ Lee, Timothy. "The Switchboard: Ron Paul starts petition for Snowden clemency". WaPost Switchboard. Washington Post. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 348.Jump up ^ Frank Snepp (January 31, 2014),Edward Snowden's weasel ways The Los Angeles Times 349.Jump up ^ "Face the Nation transcripts December 29, 2013: Hayden, Drake, Radack, Gellman – Page 3". CBS News. December 29, 2013. 350.Jump up ^ Ex-NSA/CIA chief Hayden jokes of putting Snowden on kill list—RT USA 351.Jump up ^ Dilanian, Ken (January 9, 2014). "Snowden leaks severely hurt U.S. security, two House members say". Los Angeles Times. 352.Jump up ^ "Lawmakers: Snowden's leaks may endanger US troops". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 353.Jump up ^ "Rieder: Why Edward Snowden should get clemency". USA Today. January 2, 2014. 354.Jump up ^ http://publiceditor.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/01/02/weeks-in-the-making-an-editorial-on-snowden-may-go-beyond-what-is-realistic/ 355.Jump up ^ "Snowden affair: the case for a pardon". The Guardian. May 17, 2013. 356.Jump up ^ Satter, Raphael. "2 newspapers call for clemency for Edward Snowden". Associated Press. 357.Jump up ^ Baker, Peter, "Moves to Curb Spying Help Drive the Clemency Argument for Snowden", The New York Times, January 5, 2014, page A16 358.Jump up ^ Fisher, Max (January 3, 2014). "The three types of NSA snooping that Edward Snowden revealed". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 4, 2014. 359.Jump up ^ Blogguest, TED (November 30, 2013). "Obama's 'outside experts' surveillance review panel has deep ties to gov't". TED. Drones, warfare, science fiction and cybercrime. A conversation with P.W. Singer 360.^ Jump up to: a b "Snowden Was Justified". Intelligence Squared Debates. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 361.Jump up ^ "Debate: Was Edward Snowden Justified?". NPR. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 362.Jump up ^ "Jimmy Carter: If I Were President, I Would Consider Pardoning Snowden". Medialite. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 363.Jump up ^ Snowden: NSA's indiscriminate spying 'collapsing' – The Washington Post[dead link] 364.Jump up ^ "United Nations Resolution 68/167M". United Nations. Retrieved February 10, 2014. 365.Jump up ^ Williams, Carol J. (December 19, 2013). "U.N. votes to protect online privacy; Edward Snowden leaks credited". Los Angeles Times. 366.Jump up ^ Brazil, Germany Drafting UN Anti-Spying Resolution To General Assembly To Curb U.S. Surveillance By NSA. Huffington Post. 367.Jump up ^ UN advances digital privacy resolution after reports of US eavesdropping. Fox News (November 26, 2013). 368.Jump up ^ NSA spying: Germany and Brazil produce draft UN resolution | World news. The Guardian. (November 2, 2013). 369.Jump up ^ "European parliament invites Edward Snowden to testify via video". The Guardian. Associated Press (Brussels). January 9, 2014. 370.Jump up ^ Peter, Gregor (December 12, 2013). "Edward Snowden to Make Video Appearance to European Parliament". Der Spiegel. 371.Jump up ^ Essers, Loek. "NSA created 'European bazaar' to spy on EU citizens, Snowden tells European Parliament". PSWorld. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 372.Jump up ^ Doctorow, Cory. "Edward Snowden's magnificent testimony to the EU". BoingBoing. Retrieved 10 March 2014. 373.Jump up ^ Rieder: Snowden's NSA bombshell sparks debate. USA Today. (June 12, 2013). 374.Jump up ^ Spy chief lauds Snowden-sparked debate .. The Australian (August 29, 2013). 375.Jump up ^ 'Patriot Act' Author Seeks 'USA Freedom Act' to Rein In NSA – US News and World Report. Usnews.com (October 10, 2013). 376.Jump up ^ Kerry: Some NSA surveillance work reached 'too far' and will be stopped. Star Tribune (November 1, 2013). 377.Jump up ^ US surveillance by NSA has sometimes 'reached too far,' says Kerry. DW.DE (October 31, 2013). 378.Jump up ^ NSA phone record collection does little to prevent terrorist attacks, group says - The Washington Post 379.Jump up ^ Review Of Terrorism Cases Finds NSA Spying Helped Very Little : The Two-Way : NPR 380.Jump up ^ NSA makes final push to retain most mass surveillance powers | World news | theguardian.com 381.Jump up ^ Ackerman, Spencer. "US government privacy board says NSA bulk collection of phone data is illegal". Guardian. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 382.Jump up ^ "White House rejects review board finding that NSA data sweep is illegal". Fox/AP. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 383.Jump up ^ Neff, Blake. "Poll: Public turning against NSA practices". The Hill. The Hill. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 384.Jump up ^ Sarlin, Benjy. "RNC condemns NSA spying in huge turnaround". MSNBC. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 385.Jump up ^ Weigel, David. "The New, Snowden-Loving Republican Party". Slate. Retrieved January 29, 2014. 386.Jump up ^ MacAskill, Ewen (August 13, 2013). "White House insists James Clapper will not lead NSA surveillance review". The Guardian. 387.Jump up ^ Farivar, Cyrus (August 23, 2013). "Obama's 'outside experts' surveillance review panel has deep ties to gov't". Ars Technica. 388.Jump up ^ Sanger, David E.; Savage, Charlie (December 18, 2013). "Obama panel recommends new limits on N.S.A. spying". The New York Times. 389.Jump up ^ "NSA program stopped no terror attacks, says White House panel member – Investigations". NBC News. 390.Jump up ^ Nakashima, Ellen. "Judge: NSA’s collecting of phone records is probably unconstitutional". WaPost. Washington Post. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 391.Jump up ^ Byers, Dylan. "Edward Snowden looms over Pulitzer Prizes". Politico. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 392.Jump up ^ Liptak, Adam. "Judge Upholds NSA's Bulk Collection of Data on Calls". NYT. NYT. Retrieved 13 March 2014. 393.Jump up ^ "A Tale of Two Judges". The Weekly Standard. January 13, 2014. 394.Jump up ^ "12% See NSA Leaker Snowden As Hero, 21% As Traitor". Rasmussen Reports. June 19, 2013. 395.^ Jump up to: a b "Poll: Most think Edward Snowden should stand trial in U.S.". CBS News. January 22, 2014. 396.Jump up ^ Pop, Valentina (July 8, 2013). "Germany defends intelligence co-operation with US". EUobserver. Retrieved July 9, 2013. 397.Jump up ^ "Americans Still Can't Decide Whether Edward Snowden Is A 'Traitor' Or A 'Hero,' Poll Finds". HuffPost. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 398.Jump up ^ "As Snowden Stays In Russia, He Slips In Public Opinion". YouGov. July 3, 2013. 399.Jump up ^ "Poll Results: Snowden". YouGov. January 22, 2014. 400.^ Jump up to: a b Public Split over Impact of NSA Leak, But Most Want Snowden Prosecuted. Pew Research Center. June 17, 2013. 401.^ Jump up to: a b Newport, Frank (June 12, 2013). "Americans Disapprove of Government Surveillance Programs". Gallup. 402.Jump up ^ "January 2014 NBC News/Wall Street Journal Survey". MSNBC. January 22-25, 2014. 403.^ Jump up to: a b c d "Poll Results: Snowden". YouGov. March 28, 2014. 404.Jump up ^ "Snowden and the NSA - November 2013". The Washington Post. November 20, 2013. 405.Jump up ^ "Most young Americans say Snowden has served the public interest". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 6 April 2014. 406.Jump up ^ "Harris Poll: People Cutting Back Internet Use After Snowden". Retrieved 6 April 2014. 407.Jump up ^ "Post Snowden, Some Internet Usage Is Contracting, Study Finds". Retrieved 6 April 2014. 408.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden voted Guardian person of the year 2013 The Guardian December 9, 2013 409.Jump up ^ "The Leading Global Thinkers of 2013". Foreign Policy. 410.Jump up ^ "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers | The Global Conversation". Foreign Policy. 411.Jump up ^ Rothkopf, David (December 31, 2013). "King Snowden and the Fall of Wikileaks". Foreignpolicy.com. 412.Jump up ^ Scherer, Michael. (December 11, 2013) Runner-Up: Edward Snowden The Dark Prophet | TIME.com. Time. 413.Jump up ^ And the 'Person of the Year' is...the Pope?. MSNBC. 414.Jump up ^ Time Criticized For Choosing Pope Francis Over Edward Snowden As Person Of The Year. Huffington Post. (December 11, 2013). 415.Jump up ^ Peterson, Andrea (December 11, 2013). "Why Edward Snowden is The Switch's Person of the Year". The Washington Post. 416.Jump up ^ Wallen, Jack, 10 tech heroes of 2013, TechRepublic, December 19, 2013 – a tech editor of a professional IT publication states his reason for placing Snowdon at the top of his list of Tech Heroes for the year. 417.Jump up ^ Holpuch, Amanda (January 14, 2014). "Edward Snowden Will Join Freedom of the Press Foundation Board". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. 418.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden elected as rector of Glasgow University". 18 February 2014. 419.Jump up ^ "Snowden Elected Rector of the University of Glasgow". 18 February 2014. 420.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden 'humbled' by his election as Glasgow University rector". 18 February 2014. 421.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden is the new rector of Glasgow University". 18 February 2014. 422.Jump up ^ "City divided by Snowden's university election victory". 19 February 2014. 423.^ Jump up to: a b "Edward Snowden takes up reins as rector of Glasgow University". 14 March 2014. 424.Jump up ^ Official announcement of result (including full vote) 425.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden elected as rector of Glasgow University". BBCGlasgowWin. BBC. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 426.Jump up ^ Campbell, Charlie. "Edward Snowden Wins Role at U.K. University". Time UK. TIME. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 427.Jump up ^ Lay, Kat. "Snowden favourite to be Glasgow rector". Retrieved January 29, 2014. 428.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowden bids to become Glasgow University rector". BBC. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 429.Jump up ^ Nielsen, Steven. "Snowden Elected Rector of the University of Glasgow". US News and World Report. Retrieved 19 February 2014. 430.Jump up ^ MacAskill, Even. "Edward Snowden 'humbled' by his election as Glasgow University rector". GuardianGlasgow. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 431.Jump up ^ "Edward Snowded 'humbled' by his election as Glasgow University rector". The Guardian. 18 February 2014. 432.Jump up ^ Snowden Gets Whistleblower Award in Germany | News. The Moscow Times. 433.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden awarded German 'Whistleblower Prize'. NDTV.com (August 31, 2013). 434.Jump up ^ Snowden wins whistleblower award in Germany—RT News. RT (TV network). 435.Jump up ^ Kopan, Tal (October 11, 2013). "Edward Snowden gets whistleblower award". Politico. 436.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden (2013-12-24). "Alternative Christmas Message". Channel4. Archived from the original on 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 437.Jump up ^ Claire Hodgson (2013-12-25). "VIDEO: Watch Whistleblower Edward Snowden deliver Channel 4's Alternative Christmas Message 2013". Mirror. Archived from the original on 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 438.Jump up ^ Anthony Barnes (2013-12-24). "Edward Snowden warns over global threat to privacy during Channel 4’s Alternative Christmas Message". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 439.Jump up ^ Times Colonist (2013-12-24). "NSA leaker Edward Snowden to address Britain in Christmas program". Times Colonist. Archived from the original on 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 440.Jump up ^ Edward Snowden (2013-12-25). "Edward Snowden warns about loss of privacy in Christmas message - video" (Video 1.4 Min). The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 441.Jump up ^ Stephen Castle (2013-12-25). "TV Message by Snowden Says Privacy Still Matters". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 442.^ Jump up to: a b Peter Walker (2013-12-24). "Edward Snowden broadcasts Channel 4's alternative Christmas Day message". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2013-12-25. 443.Jump up ^ ITN (2013-12-26). "Edward Snowden's Alternative Christmas Message 2013" (Video 1.5 Min). YouTube. ITN. Archived from the original on 2014-03-21. Retrieved 2014-03-21. 444.Jump up ^ Griggs, Brandon; Gross, Doug (March 10, 2014). "Edward Snowden speaks at SXSW, calls for public oversight of U.S. spy programs". CNN Tech. 445.^ Jump up to: a b c DeLuca, Dan (March 12, 2014). "NSA leaker Snowden is the rock star of SXSW Interactive". The Inquirer (Philly.com). 446.Jump up ^ Clark, Liat (March 10, 2014). "Snowden: the NSA is 'setting fire to the future of the internet'". Wired. 447.Jump up ^ Garling, Caleb (March 11, 2014). "Edward Snowden pushes Web privacy at South by Southwest". San Francisco Chronicle. 448.^ Jump up to: a b c Rowan, David (March 18, 2014). "Snowden: Big revelations to come, reporting them is not a crime". Wired. 449.Jump up ^ Wohlsen, Marcus. "Ed Snowden Meets the Father of the World Wide Web". Wired. 450.Jump up ^ http://www.ridenhour.org/prizes_truth-telling_2014b.html 451.Jump up ^ Davos, L.S. "The Snowden effect". The Ecomonist. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 452.Jump up ^ Alterman, Eric. "What the Press Should Learn From the ‘Snowden Effect’". The Nation. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 453.Jump up ^ Watson, Tom. "The Snowden Effect Hits Congress: Will Effective Crowdsourced Lobbying Follow?". Forbes. Retrieved 2 March 2014. 454.Jump up ^ Smith, Gerry. "'Snowden Effect' Threatens U.S. Tech Industry's Global Ambitions". Huffington Post. Retrieved February 1, 2014. 455.Jump up ^ Boulton, Clint. "Snowden Effect Dominates 2013 Tech Industry News". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 1, 2014. 456.Jump up ^ Miller, Matthew. "In China, U.S. tech firms weigh 'Snowden Effect'". Reuters. Retrieved February 1, 2014. 457.^ Jump up to: a b Kanji, Hussein. "The Snowden Effect: Impact on the Tech Sector". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 1, 2014. 458.Jump up ^ Hiner, Jason. "Understanding Snowden's impact on IT... in 2 minutes". TechRepublic. Retrieved February 1, 2014. 459.Jump up ^ heise.de: Das Blackphone soll die totale Überwachung stoppen ("The Blackphone is to stop total surveillance") 460.Jump up ^ Kopstein, Joshua. "A Phone for the Age of Snowden". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 2, 2014. 461.Jump up ^ Nicole Perlroth, Scott Shane (2013-10-01). "As F.B.I. Pursued Snowden, an E-Mail Service Stood Firm". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 462.Jump up ^ Hayley Tsukayama (2013-08-09). "Lavabit, Silent Circle shut down e-mail: What alternatives are left?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 463.Jump up ^ Alex Hern (2013-12-31). "Email is broken - but Dark Mail Alliance is aiming to fix it". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 464.Jump up ^ Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchieraioct (2013-10-30). "Silent Circle and Lavabit Team Up to Protect Your Email From the NSA". Mashable. Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 465.Jump up ^ Matthew Green (2013-11-09). "The Daunting Challenge of Secure E-mail". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 466.Jump up ^ JShotVideo (2013-06-25). "[ v e r a x ] : Edward Snowden / ??? - Short Film" (Video 5&nbs;Minuten). YouTube. JShotVideo. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 467.Jump up ^ Arno Maierbrugger (2013-07-04). "Ready at last: Hong Kong director presents Snowden movie". Investvine. Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 468.Jump up ^ Arjun Kharpal (2013-09-10). "Filmmakers look to crowdfunding for Snowden movie". Consumer News and Business Channel. Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 469.Jump up ^ James Hibberd (2013-09-26). "'South Park' NSA surveillance spoof gets big ratings". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 470.Jump up ^ David Ferguson (2013-09-27). "Eric Cartman becomes the new Edward Snowden on ‘South Park’". Raw Story. Archived from the original on 2014-03-16. Retrieved 2014-03-16. 471.Jump up ^ "Yes, already: Two video games about Edward Snowden and stealthy data". NBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 472.Jump up ^ Sundby, Alex. "Edward Snowden cast as hero in smartphone game". CNET. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 473.Jump up ^ "No Secret: Edward Snowden Gets Own Action Figure". NBC News. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 474.Jump up ^ Kooser, Amanda. "Edward Snowden action figure makes for toy whistle-blower". CNET. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 475.^ Jump up to: a b Kopan, Tal. "Edward Snowden pic coming to D.C. buses". Politico. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 476.Jump up ^ "'Say NO to surveillance state!' Buses thanking Snowden cruise Washington (VIDEO)". RT. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 477.Jump up ^ "PCJF Thank You Snowden Campaign". 478.Jump up ^ Ly, Sherri. "Metro bus ad thanks NSA leaker Edward Snowden". Retrieved 31 March 2014. 479.Jump up ^ "Snowden "on the buses" in Washington". euronews. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 480.Jump up ^ Hughes, Sarah Anne. "More Snowden Bus Ads Coming To D.C.". DCist. Retrieved 31 March 2014. Further reading[edit] Harding, Luke (February 3, 2014). The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man. Guardian Faber, London. (published by Vintage Books, Feb 11, 2014) Lanchester, John. "The Snowden files: why the British public should be worried about GCHQ". The Guardian. October 3, 2013. Dilanian, Ken. "A spy world reshaped by Edward Snowden". Los Angeles Times. December 22, 2013. Margulies, Joseph. "The Promise of May, the Betrayal of June, and the Larger Lesson of Manning and Snowden." (Archive) Verdict. Justia. July 17, 2013. External links[edit] Find more about Edward Snowden at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Database entry Q13424289 on Wikidata Edward Snowden at the Internet Movie Database "Free Snowden". (Journalistic Source Protection Defense Fund) "NSA leaks: a timeline". Al Jazeera. November 1, 2013. "The NSA Files". The Guardian. (Index of articles) "DNI Statement on Recent Unauthorized Disclosures of Classified Information." (Archive) Office of the Director of National Intelligence. June 6, 2013. PDF Version (Archive) "Global Surveillance. An annotated and categorized "overview of the revelations following the leaks by the whistleblower Edward Snowden. There are also some links to comments and followups". By Oslo University Library. "Here´s how we take back the Internet" a TED talk by Edward Snowden. March 19, 2014. 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Washington Knows Resource Directory 04/09/14 ________________________________________ Foreword Washington County Department of Human Services sponors Washington Knows, an Internet-based information and referrral resource for residents and human service providers. It was created to link people needing help or information with the organizations that might offer assistance. Washington Knows is free and confidential. In all communities, finding the appropriate services can be difficult. The goal of Washington Knows is to remove those barriers and link people with the appropriate information and resources. Washington Knows offers a computerized database of information about available human services in Washington County. This database supports local agencies in sharing information about available programs and services in order to promote efficient coordination of services and encourage collaboration among service providers. Washington Knows provides human service organizations and the public with contact information, hours of operation, and a general description of services provided by Washington County human services providers. It establishes a centralized information clearinghouse that enables users to find information and resources at their convenience. Washington County Department of Human Services sponors Washington Knows, an Internet-based information and referrral resource for residents and human service providers. It was created to link people needing help or information with the organizations that might offer assistance. Washington Knows is free and confidential. In all communities, finding the appropriate services can be difficult. The goal of Washington Knows is to remove those barriers and link people with the appropriate information and resources. Washington Knows offers a computerized database of information about available human services in Washington County. This database supports local agencies in sharing information about available programs and services in order to promote efficient coordination of services and encourage collaboration among service providers. Washington Knows provides human service organizations and the public with contact information, hours of operation, and a general description of services provided by Washington County human services providers. It establishes a centralized information clearinghouse that enables users to find information and resources at their convenience. Table Of Contents Number of Search Results: 97 Aging Services of Washington County Allegheny Power Universal Services American Red Cross Southwestern PA Chapter AMI, Inc. of Washington-Greene Counties, AMI Peer Support Services Avis Arbor Bellmead Apartments C.A.R.E. Caring Mission Home Care/TCM Home Health CASA for Kids, Inc. Catholic Charities Center in the Woods, Inc. Centerville Clinics, Inc. Centerville Clinics, Inc., Mental Health Program Child Care Information Services Children's Home of Pittsburgh & Lemieux Family Center Community Action Southwest Community Care, Inc. Community College of Allegheny County Community Psychiatric Centers Connect, Inc. Cornerstone Care Crime Victim/Witness Assistance Program CRY Diversified Human Services, Inc Diversified Human Services/SPHS Child Learning Center Domestic Violence Services of Southwestern PA Dress for Success Pittsburgh-Washington Branch Elizabeth Babcock, LCSW END Violence Center (END V) Family Behavioral Resources Family Behavioral Resources Family Promise of Southwestern Pennsylvania Family Services of Western Pennsylvania Gateway Rehab Center Gateway Rehab School & Community-Based Prevention Services (Vision) Genesis of Pittsburgh GrassRoutes Counseling Services Greater Washington County Food Bank Greenbriar Treatment Center Intermediate Unit One Mental Health Association of Washington County Mesothelioma Web Mon Valley Community Health Services, Inc. Northwestern Human Services/Woodland Center Office of Vocational Rehabilitation PA CareerLink Washington County PA Dept of Health Pathways of Southwestern Pennsylvania, Inc. Pecosh Counseling & Consulting Presbyterian SeniorCare Pressley Ridge Redevelopment Authority of Washington County Ruth York Morgan Health Education Learning Place Senator J. Barry Stout Senior LIFE Washington Southwest Behavioral Care, Inc. Southwestern PA AIDS Planning Coalition Southwestern PA Human Services Southwestern Pennsylvania Area Agency on Aging, Inc. Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission's CommuteInfo Program SPHS Aging Services SPHS CARE Center SWPA - SDHP - Regional Housing Coordinator Test organization Test organization The Arc of Washington County The Caring Network, Inc The Integrated Care Corporation The Washington Hospital The Washington Hospital Teen Outreach Three Cities Services Transitional Employment Consultants Tri-County Patriots for Independent Living Tri-County Patriots for Independent Living (Waynesburg ) Try-Again Homes, Inc. U. S. Census Bureau United Way of Washington County Urban League of Greater Pittsburgh Visiting Angels Washington City Mission Washington Communities Mental Health/Mental Retardation Center , Inc. Washington Communities That Care Washington County Behavioral Health and Developmental Services Washington County Children and Youth Services Washington County Department of Human Services Washington County Department of Veterans Affairs Washington County Faith in Action Program Washington County Habitat for Humanity Washington County Health Center Washington County Housing Authority Washington County Literacy Council Washington County Transportation Authority Washington County Women's Network Washington Drug and Alcohol Commission, Inc. Washington-Greene Alternative Residential Services, Inc. Washington-Greene Counties Weatherization Program Wesley Spectrum Services Aging Services of Washington County ASWC Organizational Information Parent Organization funded by SWPA Area Agency on Aging, Inc. Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization ASWC mission is to deliver the highest quality cost-effective services usaing the least restrictive alternatives at the direction of the consumer with a focus on autonomy and independent living in their own homes. History of Organization ASWC started forty years ago with Senior Citizens Centers that provided congregate meals and information. The agency grew to include home-delivered meals, Transportation, care management and ombudsman. The senior community centers are now an intregal part of the community and serve as the first point of contact for the continium of care provided for our older residents. Accreditations and Licenses ASWC is a public agency under the direct supervision of thw Washington County Board of Commissioners. Affiliations WCAS is affliated with the following organizations: Pennsylvania Association of Senior Centers. (PASC) SWPA Area Agency on Aging, Inc Washington Rides Washington County Human Services Dept. WIN Washington Co. Information Network Legal Structure Local Government Funding Sources SWPA Area Agency on Aging, Inc through a grant from the Pennsylvania Dept. of Aging Washington County Board of Commissioners HSDF Human Services Development Fund Wash. Co. Redevelopment Authority Contact Information Key Leader(s) Mary Lynn Spilak - Director Deborah DeStefano - Assistant Director Contact Person(s) Margaret Jennings - Care Management Supervisor Rose Moore - Quality Assurance Manager E-mail(s) spilakml@co.washington.pa.us destefad@co. washington.pa.us jenningm@co.washington.pa.us moorer@co.washington.pa.us Primary Addresses 100 West Beau Street , Suite 407 Courthouse Square Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County- Resident 60 years of age and older. Service Description Care Management: Coordinates both formal and informal supports to assist consumer in living independently in their own homes. Ombudsman: Investigates complains in long term care facilities and from consumers receiving long term care services at home. Also provides education and outreach Congregate Meals: Lunch time meal served weekdays at the Senior Community Centers for individuals 60 years old and older. The meal contains 1/3 of the daily nutritional requrements. Home-delivered Meals: These meals are for seniors that cannot prepare a nutritional meal at home. These meals contain 1/3 of the daily requirements and are delivered by volunteers at lunch time on weekdays. Medical & Center Transportation: The medical transportation is for individuals that need assistance in getting to their medical appointments and center transportation takes seniors to the senior centers. Senior Community Center Services: These centers offer a wide array of educational, recreational and wellness programs to the 60+ population. They also assist with information on services and public benefits. Available Hours Monday through Friday 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM Fees/Cost for Services Services from the Senior Centers are free we do request donations. There is cost sharing for in home services. Eligibility Requirements Must be 60 years of age or older of the spouse of someone over 60 years of age. Required Documentation Intake information must be provided. For Cost sharing Financial information must be provided. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Go to senior center and sign-up for lunch and activities. Care Management clients must first be assessed by the SWPA Area Agency on Aging,Inc. Must call AAA Intake and Referral at: 1-800-734-9603 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility yes Languages Spoken or Available english Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Center Leadership volunteers HDM Volunteers Volunteer Van Drivers Center Activity Volunteers Kitchen Volunteers Ombudsman Volunteers Allegheny Power Universal Services Organizational Information Parent Organization Allegheny Power Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To help eligible payment troubled customers on limited or fixed incomes: Establish affordable payment arrangements to maintain service; Obtain grants & assistance from community based organizations; Guide customers toward self-sufficiency in paying bills; & Reduce their energy consumption. History of Organization Allegheny Power has provided electric service to residents in all or part of 23 counties in Pennsylvania for more than 60 years, and Universal Services have been available since 1996. Funding Sources Universal Services are possible due to Shareholder funding. Contact Information Contact Number(s) 1-800-207-1250 - Toll Free. Must leave a message Primary Addresses Jeannette Service Center P.O. Box 739 Jeannette, Pa 15644-0739 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area All or part of 23 counties in Pennsylvania. Service Description Special Payment arrangements Weatherization Services CARES outreach to customers with temporary hardships. Available Hours 8 a.m. to 4:30 weekdays Fees/Cost for Services None Eligibility Requirements Less than 150% of the federal poverty guidelines for Special Payments or Weatherization services. No income guidelines for CARES outreach Required Documentation Application with proof of income, household membership, & list of expenses. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 1-800-207-1250 Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available Yes American Red Cross Southwestern PA Chapter Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The American Red Cross, a humanitarian organization led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Priciples of the International Red Cross Movement, will provide relief to victims of disasters and help people prevent, prepare for and respond to disasters and other life-threatening emergencies. History of Organization For nearly a century, our chapter has made this region safer through programs for individuals, families, schools and businesses. Affiliations The Foster Grandparent Program is locally sponsored by the Southwestern PA Chapter of the Red Cross to help seniors 55 and over to find community positions where they can be mentors, tutors and caregivers for special-needs children. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources The American Red Cross is not a government agency. Our chapter does not receive local funding from our national organization except during large-scale disasters. We must rely on the generosity of our neighbors each year to continue our vital work in the region. We are also a United Way Washington member agency. Contact Information Key Leader(s) T.L. (Tim) Tassone - CEO American Red Cross Southwestern PA Chapter Contact Number(s) 888-217-9599 724-222-4750 Web Addresses www.swpa.redcross.org Primary Addresses 225 Boulevard of the Allies Pittsburgh, PA 15222 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 524 East Maiden St. Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area The American Red Cross Southwestern PA Chapter serves the nearly 1.6 million residents in Allegheny, Fayette, Greene and Washington counties. The Foster Grandparent Program serves Allegheny, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Greene and Washington counties. Service Description Emergency Services--from the front lines of a disaster to an in-office presentation on preparing for the unexpected, to a telephone conversation with a military family, our emergency services team helps ensure that all of our neighbors can prepare or recover from disasters. Health & Safety Services---The Red Cross saves lives annually by equipping more than 45,500 individuals with vital skills in all of our training including First Aid, CPR, Automated External Defibrillators (AED) and Lifeguarding. Senior volunteerism---The Retired & Senior Volunteer Program (RSVP) of Allegheny County and the Foster Grandparent Program offers senior volunteers opportunities to give back to the community. Volunteerism---The Red Cross proactively recruits, trains and places volunteers who make invaluable contributions from the front lines of disasters to office support. Available Hours The American Red Cross is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week: 888-217-9599. Fees/Cost for Services All Red Cross disaster training is free. Costs are involved with health and safety training courses. See our Web site for specifics or call 888-217-9599. Eligibility Requirements There are certain eligibility requirements for various opportunties. Please call 888-217-9599 or see our Web site swpa.redcross.org for more information. Required Documentation Depending upon the course or the volunteer position, certain requirements do apply, please see our Web site at www.swpa.redcross.org or call 888-217-9599 for more information. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week: 888-217-9599 or visit www.swpa.redcross.org. Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes AMI, Inc. of Washington-Greene Counties, AMI Peer Support Services AMI Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization AMI's mission is two fold; 1) To assist adults who live in Washington and Greene Counties to develop the skills and supports they need to be successful and satisfied in the places they choose to live, learn, work and socialize. And 2) To enhance the satisfaction of adults with mental illness by assisting them to develop social skills and increase their ability to use the community support system. History of Organization AMI was formed in late 1969 by the local Mental Health Association. Organized as a social groups for people returning to the community from state hospital, there were originally only 5 members. Today, AMI serves about 120 members in both Washington and Greene Counties. In 1973, the Washington-Greene MH/MR Program recognized the need and effectiveness of AMI's services and began funding on a fee-for-service basis. In 1976, AMI incorporated and continued to grow in membership and activities. In late 1984, AMI moved to larger quarters to prepared for a new program which would include more young, non-institutionalized adults with severe and persistent mental illness. 1989 saw the beginning of more structured actitivites and more variety in ages of those being served at AMI. In 1994, AMI began to move towards offering licensed Psychiatric Rehabilitation along with more structure in the the Psychosocial Program and moving towards a Recovery Oriented focus. AMI was approved as a licensed, site based Psychiatric Rehabilitation provider in late 2004. Today, AMI, it's Staff and its Members take pride in the knowledge that we can assist people to recover from the devestating effects of having a mental illness. Accreditations and Licenses Pa. Dept of Public Welfare, Office of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (OMHSAS) Affiliations United Way of Washington County United Way of Greene County Organizational member of USPRA Organizational membed of PAPSRS Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Washington County MH/MR Washington County United Way Donations Greene County Human Services Greene County United Way Contact Information Key Leader(s) Teri Close - CPRP Executive Director Contact Person(s) Michaele Vinosky - Program Director E-mail(s) amiincwc@verizon.net Web Addresses ami-inc.org Primary Addresses 907 Jefferson Avenue Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 95 East High Street Suite 106 Waynesburg, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington and Greene Counties Service Description Psychosocial Rehabilitation for adults with mental illness Psychiatric Rehabilitation for adults with Mental Illness AMI Inc. is also offering Peer Mentoring and Certified Peer Specialist Services Available Hours Psychosocial - Washington Monday - Thursday 8:30 - 4:30 Friday 8:30 - 9:00 Psychiatric Rehabilitation - Washington Monday and Wednesday 8:30 - 4:30 Fees/Cost for Services None Eligibility Requirements Adults with mental illness who reside in Washington or Greene County. Required Documentation Referal from the Base Service Unit How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact Program Director at 724-228-5211 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility First floor building Languages Spoken or Available English, Greek Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Volunteers may be used to assist Group leaders during activites, with crafts or outings and/or Board Membership. Avis Arbor Organizational Information Parent Organization Washington City Mission Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To assist women and women with children who are homeless by providing temporary shelter as they obtain needed Drug and Alcohol/Mental Health treatment services and other needed services including spiritual growth and development in order to restore them to independent living. History of Organization 1986 - Avis Arbor was founded as a thirty day program. It developed into a three month program, and now for the past several years has evolved into a six to nine month program. For the past several years, we have also accepted women with a positive drug/alcohol urine test, which we had previously not done. Accreditations and Licenses Certified Co-Occurring Disorder Professional-CCDP Diplomate Affiliations Association of Gospel Rescue Missions Homeless and Hunger Awareness Committee CLA - (Christian Leadership Association) ECFA (Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability) Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Individuals Churches Businesses Thrift Store Sales Grants United Way Contact Information Contact Person(s) Nettie Ledbetter - House Manager 724-228-9240 724-222-8530 Web Addresses www.citymission.org Primary Addresses 84 West Wheeling Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Southwestern Pa. Service Description Drug and Alcohol Recovery Support Mental Health Recovery Support Medical Clinic Counseling Case Management Food and Clothing Emergency Shelter Long Term Shelter Scattered Site Housing Fees/Cost for Services There is no charge for service but a program fee is required from those with income. Eligibility Requirements Adult women who are homeless and over 18 yrs of age. Children up to age 12. Required Documentation ID required. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Referrals accepted from treatment centers, hospitals, churches, family members or self. Call for an intake appointment. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Call for details. Bellmead Apartments Organizational Information Parent Organization Presbyterian SeniorCare Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Provides a variety of quality, affordable living options for age and income-eligible older adults through SeniorCare Network, the real estate manangement affiliate of Presbyterian SeniorCare. History of Organization Established in 1982 as the first apartment community for income-eligible older adults. Contact Information Contact Number(s) 724-223-5744 Web Addresses www.SrCare.org Primary Addresses 1215 Hulton Road Oakmont, PA 15139 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington and surrounding counties Service Description See for yourself why Bellmead Aparments is much more than an apartment community for older adults. In addition to patios, colorful gardens and beautiful pathways, Bellmead offers an on-site service coordinator to connect residents to community resources; an "Ask-a-Nurse" program; on-site laundry; community room; and daily meal service in dining room. Small pets welcome. Most utilites included in rent. Age and income restrictions apply. Fees/Cost for Services Varies Eligibility Requirements Adults 62 and older How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 724-223-5744 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes C.A.R.E. C.A.R.E. Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern PA Human Services Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Mon Valley II is a full-time emotional/learning support classroom offering therapeutic services as an integral part of the school day. History of Organization MVA II is a licensed, private academic school which was established in 2005. MVA II is a collaborative effort between 11 local school districts and SPHS to provide students with a full-time emotional/support classroom and therapeutic services as part of the daily program. Accreditations and Licenses Department of Education License Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Private pay Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jeff Mascara - Vice President/Chief Executive Officer Contact Person(s) Angela Lancaster - Program Supervisor Linda Fafalios - Director Contact Number(s) 724-684-5437 extension 4274 724-489-8099 extension 4595 E-mail(s) alancaster@sphs.org- Program Supervisor Primary Addresses 306 Chamber Plaza Charleroi, PA 15022 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington,Greene, Westmoreland, Fayette Service Description To place students with behavioral and emotional problems that hinder their education ito an alternatiave education setting that provides supportive educational opportunities to students who are at risk of failing within the tradtional school setting. The program includes combining conflict resolution, problem-solving, decision-making skills, anger management and social skills opponents throught the daily routine. To provide the inclusion of therapeutic services as part of the daily program. Available Hours 7:30 a.m. through 2:30 p.m. Fees/Cost for Services $95.00 per day Eligibility Requirements School District Referrals Required Documentation Individual Education Plans How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact Program Supervisor 724-489-8099 extension 4595 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need Yes Caring Mission Home Care/TCM Home Health Organizational Information Parent Organization Caring Mission Home Care Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization VISION: To ensure our position as the industires premier care provider, The Caring Mission continuously evaluates the ever changing needs of our community, clients and employees. MISSION: The Caring Mission provides the highest quality of care to those in need while residing in the privacy of their own home. Through our individualized services we promote independence and well-being while montitoring, caring for and evaluating our clients. History of Organization Established in 2000, the Caring Mission, Inc is a privately owned Home Care Company focusing on seniors and those disabled within our community. The Caring Mission started services in July of 2000 with gorcery shopping, meal preparation and housekeeping. In 2001 the company signed a contract with the local Area Agency on Aging to provide Home & Community based services, later the same year The Caring Mission became an accredited provider for the Pennsylvania Department of Aging Waiver Program. Over the past three years, The Caring Mission expanded our service area to cover five counties; Washington, Fayette, Greene, Westmoreland, & Allegheny Counties. Accreditations and Licenses Home Care Accreditation of America Affiliations Members of the National Association of Geriatric Care Managers Members of the Pennsylvania Home Care Association Members of the Southwestern Pennsylvania Partnership on Aging Legal Structure For-profit entity Funding Sources Private Pay Long-term Care Area Agency on Aging Lottery Funded Pennsylvania Department of Aging Waiver Contract Veterans Administration Contact Information Key Leader(s) Sherri Hewitt-Laird - President/Owner Amy Avolia - Vice-President/ Care Director Contact Person(s) Natalie Polansky - Care Coordinator Contact Number(s) Washihngton County - 724-222-9905 Fayette County - 724-626-8225 Allegheny County - 41-206-0174 E-mail(s) gs@thecaringmission.com- Marketing Director av@thecaringmission.com- Amy Avolia/ Vice-President Care Director President/Owner shl@thecaringmission.com- Sherri Hewitt-Laird Web Addresses www.thecaringmission.com Primary Addresses 393 Delashawn Road Claysville, PA 15323 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 1046 Jefferson Ave. Washington, Pa 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 554 Washington Avenue Carnegie, PA 15106 Click here for a Map of this Location. 150 Pittsburgh Street Uniontown, PA 15401 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area 5 counties; Washington, Fayette, Greene, Allegheny & Westmoreland Service Description Geriatric Care Management Personal Assistance Personal Care (Assistacne with Activies of daily living to include: dressing, bathing, grooming, skin care, oral hygiene, etc.) Toileting Transferring Shopping Errand Running Medication Management Program Light & Heavey Houskeeping Vacuuming, dusting, mopping floors Washing, drying & ironing clothes Escort to Doctor Visits Available Hours 7 days a week, 24 hours per day Fees/Cost for Services $16.00 - 19.00 per hour. Based upon consumer needs Decrease rate for 24 hour care & live-ins Eligibility Requirements Private Pay - no requirements long-Term Care (Policy Specific) How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments To access services contact one of our offices or call our toll free number at 1-866-922-7464 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No CASA for Kids, Inc. CASA (Court Appointed Special Advocate) Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of CASA for Kids, Inc. is to advocate for the best interests of abused and neglected children in the Washington County juvenile court system. By training community volunteers to serve as fact finders and speak for the children in court, children's needs are met to ensure safety and permanency in their lives. History of Organization CASA for Kids, Inc. Court Appointed Special Advocated Background and Program Description CASA for Kids, Inc. was established in 2002 as a 501(c) (3) organization following a yearlong feasibility study. The study was initiated by a group of concerned citizens, child welfare agencies, and juvenile court judge, the Honorable Katherine B Emery, following the death of an abused and neglected young girl who got lost in the cracks of the system. Judge Emery recognized a need for an objective fact-finder for the court who would focus on the needs and wishes of the child. That fact finder would make recommendations as to the best interests of the child, thus helping the court make more informed decisions. The mission of CASA for Kids, Inc. is to advocate for the best interests of abused and neglected children in the Washington County juvenile court system. By training Community volunteers to serve as fact finders and speak for the children in court, children s needs are met to ensure safety and permanency in their lives. As part of a national system of CASA organizations, CASA for Kids, Inc. is one of only seventeen CASA programs serving counties in Pennsylvania. The National CASA Association establishes national program standards and provides technical assistance, guides and other resources to assist program development, but does not govern the county program. During a 2005 review, CASA for Kids received recognition for meeting or exceeding all standards of excellence. The value of CASA for Kids work in the community is demonstrated in the excellent working relationship developed with the juvenile court system, children and youth services and the related child welfare agencies. Our primary program is to recruit, train and support volunteers advocates to work one-on one with children referred by the Washington County Juvenile Court System. The CASA volunteers primary focus is on the child and his or her needs. In advocating for that child, the volunteer works with the family, foster families, caseworkers from Children and Youth Services (CYS) and many other types of child welfare providers. To prepare the CASA volunteer for this demanding work, they participate in an intensive 30-hour training process (not including outside reading and homework) and at least two days of court observations. The training consists of valuable information about child development, legal information, child & family behavior issues, mental health issues, the child welfare system, sample case scenarios, communication, and reporting guidelines. Upon completion of the training the volunteer is officially sworn in by the juvenile court judge and become a friend of the court as an official CASA volunteer. A CASA volunteer makes a significant commitment of their time to work with the children and families to provide continuity and an objective perspective to a child s life. In fact, many of our CASA volunteers have been involved with their child for 2 or 3 years in spite of turnover in caseworkers and attorneys. Our volunteers donate an average of 15 hours a month to investigate and monitor their case and to be acquainted with the children by making frequent visits. CASA volunteers are included in all pre-trail conferences and all in-chamber discussions/ testimonies and / or depositions, and at all court hearings. The volunteer advocates sit at the counsel table and are considered by the court to be a party to the case. Each volunteer is afforded individual time at each court hearing to speak on behalf of the child. They also detail findings in a written court report and make recommendations regarding what placement, service and visitation are in the child s best interest. CASA volunteers remain on a case until a safe and permanent home is established and the case closes. Only the most serious cases are referred to CASA for Kids, Inc. by the judges in the juvenile court system- children who have been severely abused, sexually assaulted, neglected, and/or have spent most of their lives in foster care. These are children who desperately need one individual to look after their interests and needs. Children matched with a CASA volunteer will get the services they need, be it eyeglasses, dental care or mental health therapy. Also as important, the Judge will know each child s age, his or her up-to-date school performance, medical status and emotional state. The CASA volunteer personalizes that child for the court. Currently, CASA for Kids has 28 active volunteers working with 68 children. To date 200 children have been referred to the program, of which 119 children s cases have been resolved through the efforts of our volunteers. Unfortunately, at any given time there are more than 300 children in Washington County s juvenile court system that could benefit from the support of a CASA volunteer. For every closed or resolved case, there is another case being opened. The court system s support for the value of this program is evident in the growing number of case referrals to CASA. We currently have 9 children waiting assignment to new volunteer advocates. With the increasing number of cases being referred to CASA, we need to continually recruit and train new volunteers who will take on new cases, as well as provide ongoing care and support to prevent burn-out for these hard-working volunteers who give so much in difficult times. Our goal is to expand the volunteer program so that each advocate is working with only one case at a time. In just 5 short years, CASA for Kids has grown from an all-volunteer organization of board members, staff and advocates serving five children. We were please in January 2005 to move the Executive Director position to a salaried position. In the fall 2005, we hired a part-time Program Director to focus on volunteer recruitment, training and support. In June of 2006 we received a grant from National CASA to hire a part-time case manager. Staff members work closely to give support for volunteers, provide awareness and support for the program, as well as track volunteer and child/case related data via a standardized CASA database system. The Board of Director is actively engaged in the CASA for Kids program including participation in fundraising, volunteer recruitment and training, as well as policy making, fiscal management, and general oversight of the program. This group committed individuals and professionals represent a strong cross-section of the Washington County community from law, youth related services, to corporate business. Proudly, 100% of the board members and staff contribute to the program. Support for the program is provided through donations and grants from community residents, and local business and corporations. Currently, approximately one-third of our budget is support is by individual gifts and donation, one-fourth through special events and fundraising activities, including the Wake up Your Dreams event, and less than one-half by local grants. Additionally, it is important to note that CASA for Kids receives no federal, state or local government dollars for program support. We are proud that CASA for Kids is a community-based organization in the true sense of the term; formed and supported by committed and concerned individuals from the Washington County community. Revised 2/18/08 Affiliations National CASA and Pennsylvania CASA Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Community support, grants and National CASA grants. Primary Addresses 30 East Beau Street Suite 417 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Available Hours Regular business hours and some evenings. Fees/Cost for Services None Eligibility Requirements Volunteers must be over 21 years old, pass security clearances and go through the 35 hours of CASA training. Required Documentation Drivers License, security clearences and references. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call the CASA office at 724-228-0414 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description A CASA volunteer commits to the training necessary and then follows the child throught the juvenile court system to find permnency in their lives. Catholic Charities Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Catholic Charities of the Diocese of Pittsburgh, rooted in the gospel and social teachings of the Church, is the primary social service agency of the Diocese. Our mission is to serve with excellence, professionalism, integrity and compassion, the human needs of individuals and families, regardless of their religious affiliation, and to provide leadership in mobilizing the resources of parishes and the wider community in addressing these needs. Accreditations and Licenses Council on Accreditation PA Department of Health Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources United Way of Washington County Children and Youth Services Department of Human Services Washington County Drug and Alcohol Commission Real Alternatives, Women In Need Washington County Community Foundation Contact Information Key Leader(s) Christine Wissner MSW, LSW - Director MDiv - Director Vanessa Meredith LPC - Administrative Director Susan Rauscher - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Christine Wissner MSW, LSW - Director MDiv - Director Contact Number(s) 724-228-7722 E-mail(s) cwissn@ccpgh.org Web Addresses www.ccpgh.org Primary Addresses 331 S. Main Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 212 Ninth Street Pittsburgh, PA 15222 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Emergency Relief and Tangible Assistance is available during a crisis or disaster. Workshops, Trainings and Community Education is offered to churches, schools, businesses, etc., to broaden the understanding of daily issues and expand capacities for healthy living at home or in the workplace. Presentations are also given to provide information about available services. The Drug and Alcohol Program offers counseling that is a community based, holistic program for adults and adolescents. Drug and Alcohol assessments are also offered in various school districts through the Student Assistance Program. Staffed with credentialed, master s level therapists. The Pregnancy and Parenting Program offers childbirth, parenting and life skills education for individuals, couples, families and groups. The Women-In-Need Program assists men and women who are expecting a baby or who have an infant. Services offered include free and confidential pregnancy testing, counseling, educational materials and life skills education. Free baby care items are also available and include diapers, formula, clothing, food and toiletries. Staffed with bachelor's level counselors. The Youth and Family Services Program provides help for children and for their families as they work to change behavior patterns that result in abuse or in a youth s pre-delinquent and runaway behaviors. Staffed with bachelor's level counselors. The Adoption and Foster Care Program assists birth parents who wish to make a plan of adoption for a child and also assists families who want to adopt. Training for adoptive parents is also offered, as well as temporary foster care and adoption searches. The Family Therapy Program offers sessions for individuals, children and adolescents, couples and families. Staffed with credentialed, master s level therapists. Available Hours Monday through Friday, 9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Wednesday evening, 5:00 - 9:00 p.m. Other evenings and Saturday by appointment Fees/Cost for Services Insurance coverage Sliding Fee Scale No person is turned away due to inability to pay for services Eligibility Requirements Services are open to all residents of Washington County, regardless of ability to pay Required Documentation If appropriate for service being provided, insurance card. If utilizing sliding fee scale, a recent pay stub or W-2 form How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Telephone 724-228-7722 Every staff person is trained to provide information and schedule appointments by telephone. For certain programs, walk-ins are welcome. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English American Sign Language Other Languages available upon request Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Member of the Community Advisor Committee Member of the Golf Classic Committee Internships Center in the Woods, Inc. Organizational Information Parent Organization Center in the Woods, Inc. Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To provide the highest quality of life for older adults in southwestern Pennsylvania. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Contact Information Key Leader(s) George Krcelich - Chief Executive Officer Ken Laird - President Board of Directors Contact Person(s) George Krcelich - Chief Executive Officer Kris McAvoy - Finance Office Contact Number(s) 724-938-3554 x101 - Chief Executive Officer 724-938-3554 x102 - Finance Office E-mail(s) gkrcelich@centerinthewoods.org- Chief Executive Officer kmcavoy@centerinthewoods.org- Finance Office Web Addresses http://www.centerinthewoods.org Primary Addresses 130 Woodland Court Brownsville, PA 15417 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Fayette, Greene, Westmoreland and Allegheny Counties Available Hours Monday through Friday 8:00 AM to 4:30 PM How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 724-938-3554 Miscellaneous Information Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Phone Volunteers, Meals on Wheels Drivers and Runners, Adult Day Center volunteers, Front Desk Volunteers, Greeters Centerville Clinics, Inc. Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Centerville Clinics, Inc., a private, non-profit organization founded in 1955, provides accessible, high quality, comprehensive health care services to individuals and families, regardless of their financial resources, through a medium of managing and operating coordinated health facilities and programs. History of Organization In the early 1950s a small group of labor leaders decided that it was up to them to make a difference in health care for their neighbors. These leaders, among them the late Joseph A. Jock Yablonski, wanted to provide a place where miners, who work in the most dangerous industry in America, could receive primary care. At the same time, they wanted to make medical care available to people in the rural communities of southwestern Pennsylvania. Those early leaders persuaded two general practice doctors and several specialists to come to Centerville, a small community in Washington County, Pennsylvania, and begin practicing medicine. The year was 1955, and the facility they used was an old farm house that had been partially renovated. A nearby apple barn also was renovated and incorporated into the physical plant. Dr. Robert Schwartz, the first medical director at Centerville Clinics, saw the first patient on April 27, 1955, thus beginning a tradition of service to the community. A series of expansions and additions, both in size and services, followed over the next seventeen years and by 1972 th present facility at Centerville, now known as the Joseph A. Yablonski Memorial Clinic, had emerged as a 21,000 square foot facility. Changes at the Yablonski Memorial Clinic were only one part of the growth of Centerville Clinics. Once the facility at Centerville was opened it became apparent that one location was not enough. The leaders of the Clinic wanted to reach out to other communities. In 1956 Centerville Clinics opened a community-care office in California, PA, then launched Carmichaels Clinic in 1960 as the third facility. Over a nine-year period, beginning in 1977, Centerville Clinics expanded three more times, opening offices in Waynesburg (1977), Bentleyville (1982), and Republic (1986). In 1994, Centerville Clinics expanded into Faichance and most recently opened facilities in Uniontown and Washington. Today, the Centerville Clinics network includes Bentleyville Family Practice Center, California Family Practice, Carmichaels Clinic, Fairchance Office, Republic Doctor s Office, Uniontown Family Doctors, Washington Family Doctors, Waynesburg Office, and the Yablonski Clinic. Accreditations and Licenses Outpatient, Partial Hospital Program, Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services, Family Based Services, Intensive Case Manager Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Washington County MH/MR, Private Insurances Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jim Quinn - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Ann D. Gaydos - Director of Mental Health Courtney Cavannaugh - Supervisor of BHRS Vicki Murray - Supervisor of Family Based Contact Number(s) 724-632-5828 - Mental Health 724-632-6801 - Main Office E-mail(s) mentalhealth@centervilleclinics.com- Mental Health agaydos@centervilleclinics.com- Director of Mental Health Web Addresses www.centervilleclinics.com - Centerville Clinics, Inc. Primary Addresses 724-632-6801 1070 Old National Pike Fredericktown, PA 15333 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 724-943-4507 316 Greensboro Road Greensboro, PA 15338 Click here for a Map of this Location. 724-228-8240 71 North Main Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 724-627-8156 190 Bonar Avenue Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1070 Old National Pike Road Fredericktown, PA 15333 Click here for a Map of this Location. 724-627-8027 300 North Street Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. 724-377-2818 P.O. Box 235 Vestaburg, PA 15368 Click here for a Map of this Location. 724-627-8156 20 Bonar Avenue Waynesburg, PA 15368 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1070 Old National Pike Road Fredericktown, PA 15333 Click here for a Map of this Location. 724-832-5782 201 Laird & Alwine Avenues Greensburg, PA 15601 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Greene, Fayette, Westmoreland and Fayette Counties Service Description Child/Adolescent Outpatient Services, Adult Outpatient Services, Child/Adolescent Partial Hospital Services, Adult Partial Hospital Services, Blended Case-Management Services, Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services, Family Based Services, Student Assistant Program, After-care Services, and Summer Therapeutic Camps Available Hours Open 8:00-5:00 weekdays. Therapist and doctor's appointment available two nights/week. Eligibility Requirements Children, Adolescent, Adults with mental health issues. CCI contracts with Managed Care and private insurance. Sliding Fee schedule. Required Documentation Social Security Card, Photo ID How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 24/7. Walk-ins seen daily. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Centerville Clinics, Inc., Mental Health Program Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Centerville Clinics, Inc., a private, non-profit organization founded in 1955, provides accessible, high quality, comprehensive health care services to individuals and families, regardless of their financial resources, through a medium of managing and operating coordinated health facilities and programs. History of Organization In the early 1950s a small group of labor leaders decided that it was up to them to make a difference in health care for their neighbors. These leaders, among them the late Joseph A. Jock Yablonski, wanted to provide a place where miners, who work in the most dangerous industry in America, could receive primary care. At the same time, they wanted to make medical care available to people in the rural communities of southwestern Pennsylvania. Those early leaders persuaded two general practice doctors and several specialists to come to Centerville, a small community in Washington County, Pennsylvania, and begin practicing medicine. The year was 1955, and the facility they used was an old farm house that had been partially renovated. A nearby apple barn also was renovated and incorporated into the physical plant. Dr. Robert Schwartz, the first medical director at Centerville Clinics, saw the first patient on April 27, 1955, thus beginning a tradition of service to the community. A series of expansions and additions, both in size and services, followed over the next seventeen years and by 1972 the present facility at Centerville, now known as the Joseph A. Yablonski Memorial Clinic, had emerged as a 21,000 square foot facility. Changes at the Yablonski Memorial Clinic were only one part of the growth of Centerville Clinics. Once the facility at Centerville was opened it became apparent that one location was not enough. The leaders of the Clinic wanted to reach out to other communities. In 1956 Centerville Clinics opened a community-care office in California, PA, then launched Carmichaels Clinic in 1960 as the third facility. Over a nine-year period, beginning in 1977, Centerville Clinics expanded three more times, opening offices in Waynesburg (1977), Bentleyville (1982), and Republic (1986). In 1994, Centerville Clinics expanded into Faichance and most recently opened facilities in Uniontown and Washington. Today, the Centerville Clinics network includes Bentleyville Family Practice Center, California Family Practice, Carmichaels Clinic, Fairchance Office, Republic Doctors Office, Uniontown Family Doctors, Washington Family Doctors, Connelesville Family Practice, Charleroi Family Practice, Waynesburg Office, and the Yablonski Clinic. Accreditations and Licenses Outpatient, Partial Hospital Programs, Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services, Family Based Services, Blended Case Management Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Washington County MH/MR Private Insurances Contact Information Key Leader(s) James Quinn - Executive Director Contact Person(s) BREAN ELLSWORTH - ASSISTANT SUPERVISOR, BLENDED CASE MANAGEMENT Ann Gaydos - Director of Mental Health JEANNE HOLZAPFEL - DIRECTOR, BLENDED CASE MANAGEMENT Cindy Cummings - Outpatient Supervisor Karen Wohar - SAP Liason Gail Mason - Adult Therapist Amy Vrescak - BSU Supervisor Vickie Knizner - Billing Secretary for Partial Hospital Programs Alison Thomas - Billing Secretary for Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services Susan Campbell - Greene County Mental Health Supervisor Vicki Murray - Family Based Services Supervisor Susan Ungurean - Administrative Secretary Laurajenn Rossell - Therapist Leigh Ann Nichols - Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services Supervisor Barb Riggi - ACM Erin Hathaway - ACM Peggy Heffner - Child Therapist JESSICA LAWRENCE - ASSISTANT SUPERVISOR, BLENDED CASE MANAGEMENT Contact Number(s) 724-632-6801 - Centerville Clinics 724-627-8156 - Greene County Mental Health Inc. Main office 724-627-8500 - Waynesburg Adult Partial Hospital Program 724-627-8034 - Waynesburg Children's Partial Hospital Program 724-832-9455 - Westmoreland County Children's Partial Hospital Program 724-938-2099 - BLENDED CASE MANAGEMENT, CALIFORNIA OFFICE 724-377-2818 - Vestaburg Partial Hospital Program 724-228-8420 - Washington Partial Hospital Program 724-943-4507 - Penn Pitt Partial Hospital Program 724-483-3081 - BLENDED CASE MANAGEMENT, CHARLEROI OFFICE 724-228-4219 - BLENDED CASE MANAGEMENT, WASHINGTON OFFICE 724-938-3221 - BLENDED CASE MANAGEMENT FAX NUMBER 724-632-5828 - Mental Health E-mail(s) jholzapfel@centervilleclinics.com- JEANNE HOLZAPFEL, DIRECTOR, BLENDED CASE MANAGEMENT bcm@centervilleclinics.com- BLENDED CASE MANAGEMENT agaydos@centervilleclinics.com- Director of Mental Health mentalhealth@centervilleclinics.com- Mental Health Web Addresses Inc. www.centervilleclinics.com - Centerville Clinics Primary Addresses 1070 Old National Pike Road Fredericktown, PA 15333 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses Bonar Professional Building 190 Bonar Avenue Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. 201 Laird & Alwine Avenue Greensburg, PA 15601 Click here for a Map of this Location. 71 North Main Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Box 235 Vestaburg, PA 15368 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1070 Old National Pike Road Fredericktown, PA 15333 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1152 WOOD STREET CALIFORNIA, PA 15419 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1070 Old National Pike Road Fredericktown, PA 15333 Click here for a Map of this Location. 316-B Greensboro Road Greensboro, PA 15338 Click here for a Map of this Location. 300 North Street Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Greene, Fayette and Westmoreland Counties Service Description Intensive Case Management provides 24-hour-a-day assistance to seriously and chronically mentally ill adults and children through natural supports, community resources, and specialized treatment to gain access to medical, educational, and social services. Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services at Centerville Clinics provides services to patients from birth to age 21. BHR Services is a community-based program that provides behavioral health rehabilitation to children and their families in settings within their home and community. The services are designed to meet the needs of the child as well as the needs of the family. An individualized service plan is developed by an Inter-Agency Team that includes the child, family members, and others who know the child best. The plan is needs-driven, family-centered, and strength-based. The focus of the plan is normalization. The goal of BHR Services is for the child to be maintained in his or her natural environment in lieu of a more-restrictive setting. BHR Services include o Therapeutic Staff Support (TSS). A TSS worker provides one-on-one behavioral intervention to a child or adolescent, so that the child or adolescent will learn the concrete behavioral goals as specified in the behavioral and treatment plans. BASE SERVICE UNIT The Base Service Unit (BSU) is the "point of entry" for consumers into Mental Health/Mental Retardation programs. The BSU offers direct services and also provides referrals to numerous county and community programs. The Base Service Unit offices are located in the Yablonski Memorial Clinic and in our Greene County Mental Health Office at 190 Bonar Avenue, Waynesburg. All services offered through the Base Service Unit are confidential. No treatment and personal information is transmitted to other agencies or individuals without your written permission. Outpatient Services provides therapy through a variety of modalities, including individual and group therapy, family and marriage counseling, psychotropic intervention, psychological testing, and psychiatric evaluations. Mobile Therapy (MT). An MT provides intensive therapeutic services to the child or adolescent in settings other than the provider agency or office. Family therapy also can be provided as needed. Student Assistance Program (SAP) provides services to area schools. These services include student assessment, crisis intervention and prevention, and clinical treatment. Treatment may be handled on an outpatient basis or on-site within the school, as deemed appropriate. Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services is a way to improve the lives of children and families who have complex needs. Services include Therapeutic Staff Support, Behavioral Specialists, and Mobile Therapists. After-Care Coordination provides services for consumers hospitalized for mental-health reasons. Services needed after discharge are arranged. Those services include outpatient therapy, psychiatric care, medication checks, partial hospitalization programs, housing referrals, and other referrals as needed. PARTIAL HOSPITALIZATION PROGRAM The Centerville Clinics Partial Hospitalization Program focuses on providing intensive multidisciplinary mental health care on an outpatient basis. The program is designed to provide a therapeutic community for children and adolescents who cannot function in everyday social, school, work, or in community situations. Our program provides: An alternative to hospitalization for individuals at risk An alternative to inpatient care Ongoing support for individuals after they have been discharged from inpatient care. Our program is divided into two developmental age groups Children ages 6 to 12 years Adolescents age 13 to 18 years. Our goal is to design individualized treatment plans for each client. Each plan involves the work of a multidisciplinary team that includes the client, family members, staff, and the referral source. Our treatment teams include: Psychiatrists Psychologists Mental health professionals Counselors Our services include Psychiatric and psychological evaluations Individual, group, and family therapy Case management Educational services Behavioral modification Aftercare follow-up Medication monitoring ICM/RC Crisis management and intervention services (24 hours a day) Outpatient services Wrap-around services Available Hours Open 8:00-5:00 p.m. weekdays. Therapist and Doctor's appointments available one night a week. Fees/Cost for Services Child Intakes $192.50 Adult Intakes $140 1/2 hr therapy sessions $40 Psychiatric Evaluation $250 Medication Checks $50 Group Therapy $40 BSU Plan $40 Eligibility Requirements All ages. Centerville Clinics must contract with consumer's insurances. If no insurance and no money, must reside in Washington County. Required Documentation Sessions with beginning and end times must be recorded in the chart, along with treatments and other forms. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call or walk-in. You must have an intake prior to seeing a therapist or psychiatrist. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Child Care Information Services CCIS of Beaver/Washington Counties Organizational Information Parent Organization Washington County Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To provide assistance in addressing the child care needs of working families in Beaver and Washington Counties. History of Organization CCIS started in Washington County in 1989 and was known as Washington County Day Care Services. This subsidized child care assistance program for working parents is funded through the Department of Public Welfare (DPW)and is available in every county across the Commonwealth. In the late 1990's, DPW changed the name of this program to Child Care Information Services in all of the counties and added resource & referral services to assist parents in locating appropriate child care and other children's services. In 2013, the state of Pennsylvania developed an initiative to reduce the number of CCIS offices and consolidate administartive functions. Beaver and Washington merged offices and are now known as CCIS of Beaver/Washington Counties. Accreditations and Licenses None Affiliations The National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies The Pennsylvania Child Care Association The Washington County Health & Welfare Council Legal Structure Local Government Funding Sources Department of Public Welfare Office of Child Development and Early Learning (OCDEL) Contact Information Contact Person(s) Gina Steranko - Director 724.250.4010 sterankg@co.washington.pa.us Tracy Holsopple - Assistant Director 724.229.6029 holsoppt@co.washington.pa.us Julie Burke - Client Services Supervisor 724.888.2951 burkejul@co.washington.pa.us Contact Number(s) 724.228.6969 - Main Office 1.888.619.9908 - Main Office 724.250.6571 - Fax 724.847.0145 - Secondary Office 1.800.322.8504 - Secondary Office 724.847.1593 - Fax Web Addresses co.washington.pa.us Primary Addresses CCIS of Beaver/Washington Counties 100 West Beau Street Suite 404 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 402 Brkich Way Suite 2 Beaver, PA 15009 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Beaver and Washington Counties Service Description Financial assistance for child care to working families who meet the eligibility requirements. Free information/assistance to all parents seeking child care services. Available Hours 8:30 a.m to 5:00 p.m. Monday thru Friday Fees/Cost for Services A copay may be required to receive financial assistance for child care. The copay is based on the cost of care and family income. Eligibility Requirements To receive financial assistance for child care, parents must work at least 20 hours per week (this can be 10 hrs. of work and 10 hrs. of school/training) and meet the DPW Income Guidelines. Required Documentation CCIS Application Employment Verification Verification of Unearned Income Training Information Immunization Certification Authorization for Release of Information Photo ID How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call the CCIS Washington Office at 724-228-6969 or the CCIS Beaver Office at 724-847-0145 to request an application or schedule an appointment with the Resource & Referral Specialist. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Interpretor Available Speaker Available Yes Children's Home of Pittsburgh & Lemieux Family Center Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The Children's Home of Pittsburgh, established 1893, is an independent, non-profit licensed organization whose purpose is to promote the health and well-being of infants and children through services which establish and strengthen the family. Our Infant Adoption program provides free counseling and support services for birthparents, comprehensive placement services for adoptive families, research and reunion assistance, and more. History of Organization The work of The Children's Home of Pittsburgh began as The Pennsylvania Children's Home Society. The organization was founded to care for orphaned children and place them in permanent homes. In the late 19th century, many similar institutions and county homes were established in Pittsburgh to house large numbers of homeless children, the result of difficult economic times. In 1935, the Society moved from Edgewood to South Aiken Avenue in Shadyside and officially became The Children's Home of Pittsburgh. In March of 1969, The Children's Home moved to Kentucky Avenue in Shadyside. The Children's Home established its second program with the opening of the Transitional Infant Care (T.I.C.) Hospital at this building in 1984. A third program, Child's Way, opened as the first licensed Pediatric Extended Care Center in Pennsylvania in 1998. Each program experienced steady growth as a result of excellent quality and cost-effective delivery of services. Consequently, the demand for our services began to surpass the physical space available at our facilities. The Children s Home again identified and met the community s changing needs with the opening of The Children s Home of Pittsburgh & Lemieux Family Center in April 2007. The new building, located at 5324 Penn Avenue in Friendship, enables The Children's Home to expand its programs and consolidate services under one roof. For families of children with medical conditions, this facility provides enhanced options not available elsewhere in the community. Accreditations and Licenses Adoption program licensed through the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare for: Adoption Services Foster Family Care Private Children & Youth Agencies Pediatric Specialty Hospital licensed by: Pennsylvania Department of Health Child s Way is licensed by: Pennsylvania Department of Health Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare Keystone Stars Certified: Star Two Designation Affiliations Memberships: The Adoption program is a member of: Adoptive Families of America Child Welfare League of America North American Council on Adoptable Children Three Rivers Adoption Council Resolve African American Chamber of Commerce Pediatric Specialty Hospital is a member of: American Hospital Association Hospital Council of Western Pennsylvania Child's Way Supplemental Head Start program through the Pittsburgh Public Schools Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Third party payers; foundation and corporate grants; local, state, and federal government; individual donors. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Pamela R. Schanwald, RN - Chief Executive Officer Contact Person(s) Constance A. Bach, MA - Director of Adoption Contact Number(s) 412.441.0167 - Fax 412.441.4884 - Main phone number Adoption Services - 800.961.7704 (toll-free) E-mail(s) info@chomepgh.org- E-mail address Web Addresses www.childrenshomepgh.org - Web Address Primary Addresses 5324 Penn Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15224 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses Washington Trust Building 6 South Main Street, Suite 418 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area SW Pennsylvania Service Description Our Infant Adoption program provides open, semi-open, and closed adoptions. Birthparents can choose an adoptive family and ongoing contact if desired. Counseling is provided during and after pregnancy. Private foster care is available if birthparents want more time to decide. Available Hours Our experienced, Master's level counselors are on-call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (1-800-961-7704) Fees/Cost for Services All birthparent services are free. Adoptive family costs based on services provided. Eligibility Requirements All birthparents are welcome, pregnant or post-delivery. Adoptive parents are carefully screened through background checks and criminal history. Required Documentation Varies How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call for appointment or for more information. Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Please visit our website (www.childrenshomepgh.org) and click "Support Us" for more information. Community Action Southwest CAS Organizational Information Parent Organization n/a Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To serve as a catalyst to mobilize the resources of the entire community to enable families and individuals in southwestern Pennsylvania to attain the skills, knowledge, motivation, and opportunities to become self-sufficient. History of Organization Created in 1965 by local community leaders, Community Action Southwest has served the low income communities and families of Washington and Greene counties for over 40 years. Accreditations and Licenses Pennsylvania Child Care Star 4 Affiliations Southwestern PA Community Development Corporation Threshold Housing, Inc. Action Resources, Inc. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Federal, state and local governments Private foundations & corporations Special Events fundraising Fees for services Donations Contact Information Key Leader(s) Darlene J. Bigler - Chief Executive Officer Jeffrey Fondelier - Vice President of Operations Trenna Wheeler - Vice President of Human Resources Joe Perotti - Vice President of Finance Contact Person(s) Andrea Kelvington - Communications & Event Manager Contact Number(s) 724/225-9550 extension 404 E-mail(s) akelvington@caswg.org- Communications & Event Manager Web Addresses caswg.org - Community Action Southwest website Primary Addresses 150 W. Beau Street Suite 304 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 150 W. Beau Street Suite 304 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Click here for a Map of this Location. 58 East Greene Street Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington and Greene counties and surrounding communities Service Description Family Reunification Project (Greene County only) Even Start GED classes Community Learning Centers Kindergarten Club Counting Kids Together Pre-K Program Housing & Utility Programs Housing Support Services Homeownership Counseling Housing Assistance Program (Greene County only) Emergency Food & Shelter Program Homeowner's Emergency Mortgage Assistance Program Home Equity Conversion Mortgage Counseling Consumer Family Satisfaction Team Supported Work/Supported Employment CAPWorks case management program Project SAVE Family Savings Account Credit Counseling Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) Adult Education Head Start Parent Child Home Program Early Head Start Family Savings Account Women, Infants & Children (WIC) Senior Services (Greene County only) Available Hours 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. M-F for the administrative offices. Hours for the different programs vary by site. Fees/Cost for Services Most services are free. Eligibility Requirements Eligibility varies by program. Some programs are required to serve families/individuals who meet certain federal poverty guidelines. Required Documentation Documentation requirements vary by program, call for specific information. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call, walk in, write, email or be referred by a third party. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available Spanish and American Sign Language Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description We have many volunteer opportunities ranging from working with children and seniors to office and clerical support. Your financial support is also needed and appreciated. If you would like more information about volunteer opportunities or would like to discuss a donation, please call Andrea at (724) 225-9550, ext. 404. Community Care, Inc. CCI Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Community Care offers a variety of services. From Pediatric Home Care to Supplemental Facility Staffing, Community Care is there to serve the health and well being of the community. Whether you have an aging parent that needs assistance with daily living activities, or a ventilator dependent child that requires around the clock Skilled Nursing Services, Community Care Inc can help. History of Organization For over twenty years Community Care, Inc. has staffed the homes, hospitals and facilities of Southwestern Pennsylvania. Community Care Inc is locally owned and operated. We are very proud of our history of providing excellent patient care and fostering long lasting relationships with our employees. Accreditations and Licenses Medicare Certified Legal Structure For-profit entity Funding Sources Private Pay, Medicaid, Commercial Insurances, Pennsylvania Department of Aging Waiver, Long Term Care Insurance. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Janet Pencosky - Owner Wasil Waleski - Administrator Contact Person(s) Denise Romagnoli - Human Resource Manager Susan Watson - Pediatric Case Manager Contact Number(s) 724-830-9918 - Greensburg Office 724-225-6101 - Washington Office E-mail(s) dromagnoli@communitycarenursing.com- Denise Romagnoli - Human Resource Manager alishag@communitycarenursing.com- Alisha Giannattassio - Admin Assistant Dept of Pediatrics Web Addresses www.communitycarenursing.com - Community Care Inc Primary Addresses 887 Henderson Avenue Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 224 West Otterman Street Greensburg, PA 15601 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Westmoreland, Greene, Fayette and Allegheny counties. Service Description Skilled Pediatric Home Care - Respiratory/Ventilator Care, Feeding Tube Care, Tracheostomy Care, Hourly Private Duty Nursing and more. Non-Skilled Pediatric Home Care - Meal Prep, Assistance with Feeding, Assistance with Bathing/Grooming, and General Assistance with Daily Living. Non Skilled Private Duty Care for Adults - Sitting, Meal Prep, Assistance with Feeding, Assistance with Bathing and Grooming and General Hands on Daily Care. Skilled Private Duty Nursing For Adults - Medication Administration, Wound Care, IV Therapy, Respiratory/Ventilator Care, Feeding Tube Care, Tracheostomy Care and Hourly Private Duty Nursing Available Hours 24 Hours a Day 7 Days a Week Fees/Cost for Services Call 724-830-9918 or 724-225-6101 for more info. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call 724-830-9918 to 724-225-6101 Mon-Fri 8A-5P. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Community College of Allegheny County CCAC Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The Community of Allegheny County is about students learning from expert faculty. It's about choice-more than 170 programs that lead to great careers and great four-year colleges. It's no wonder CCAC is the number one choice of high school graduates and the largest provider of educational services in western Pennsylvania. History of Organization CCAC opened in September 1966, under the leadership of President Kermit C. Morrissey assisted by two campus presidents and college dean of administration. Today, CCAC is the third largest provider of associate's degree health care program in the county. More than 90,000 credit and non credit students were enrolled at CCAC during the last academic year. Accreditations and Licenses XXX Affiliations XXX Legal Structure Local Government Funding Sources XXXX Contact Information Key Leader(s) Cindy E. Patterson - Assistant Dean Contact Person(s) Cindy E. Patterson - Assistant Dean Contact Number(s) 724.223.1012 E-mail(s) cpatterson@ccac.edu- Assistant Dean Web Addresses www.ccac.edu Primary Addresses 1500 West Chestnut Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area South Western PA Service Description Business Career Program Health-Related Career Computer and Information Technology Programs Social Services Programs Career in the Technologies:Applied Arts Building Trades Apprenticeships Available Hours Monday - Thursday 8:00 AM - 8:00 PM Friday 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM Saturday hours vary contact the center Fees/Cost for Services Residents of Allegheny County $ 80.00 credit Residents of other PA counties with a community college $ 160.00 credit Residents of other PA counties without a community college $ 94.00 credit Required Documentation 1. Submit admission application. 2. Schedule a placement test at the center. 3.Make an appointment to meet with an advisor. 4. Fill out a registration form and submit it to the college center secretary. 5. Pay for classes. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call the Washington Center at 724.223.1012 between the hours 8:00 AM - 8:00 PM, Monday -Thursday and Friday 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Community Psychiatric Centers Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Provide psychiatric and psychological evaluations, wraparound BHRS treatment, outpatient mental health counsleing, and medication management to children, adolescednts, and adults. History of Organization Community Psychiatric Centers is a partnership of Dr. Robert A. Lowenstein MD PC and Dr. John E. Carosso, Psy.D. PC. It hgas been providing quality mental health outpatient and BHRS treatment services since 2005. Accreditations and Licenses Licensed by OMHSAS and DPW as an Outpatient mental health Clinic. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Contact Information Key Leader(s) Robert A. Lowenstein MD - Medical Director 724 850-7200 724 850-7214 r4lowe @gmail.com Robert A. Lowenstein MD - Medical Director 412 681-4530 412 681-4530 r4lowe@gmail.com Contact Person(s) Janie Lewis - Secretary 724 850-7200 724 850-7214 Primary Addresses MonVelley Health Center Eastgate 8 - Suite 387 Monessen, PA 15062 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area 5 County tri-state area Service Description BHRS wraparound treatment services Psychiatric and Psychological Evaluations Outpatient mental health counseling and therapy Medication management Available Hours 9:00 am to 7:00 pm daily Fees/Cost for Services Accept most insurance carriers including Medical Assistance, Value Behavioral Health, CCBHO, UPMC Health Plan, Aetna, Highmark Blue Cross/ Blue Shield How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call office at 724 850-7200 or 1-877- 899-6500 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Connect, Inc. SPHS Connect Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Connect Inc. exists to provide housing, case management and supportive services to homeless and near homeless persons in southwestern Pennsylvania. History of Organization Connect, Inc. (d.b.a. SPHS Connect) an affiliate corporation of Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services, Inc. (SPHS), was established in 1995 as a general social service agency with the potential to develop and implement a variety of different services to address identified needs of Southwestern Pennsylvania residents. Initially, SPHS Connect assumed the responsibility of providing homeless assistance services that were previously held by SPHS. In 1998, SPHS Connect developed the Washington Family Center to support and strengthen families with children. Since then, the level and scope of services provided to individuals and families in Washington, Greene and Westmoreland Counties has continued to grow. In 2003, the Washington Family Center was expanded to include child abuse prevention and juvenile delinquency prevention programs as core Center components. Throughout 2003 and to the present, additional emphasis in the areas of academic support has been fostered through the implementation of the MATES (Mentors And Teachers Educating Students) project, the LEARN (Linking, Educating And Renewing Neighborhoods) project, ClassroomPlus tutorial services and Supplemental Educational Services through the Washington School District. In our efforts to encourage academic success while strengthening families and supporting educational providers the Family Center has provided leadership to the Early Care and Education (EC&E) Team of Washington County. The EC&E Team supports children and families, who have not yet reached school age, access quality early care through capacity building of county child care providers. In 2006, the EC&E Team acquired funding to implement the Parent and Child Enrichment (PACE) program. The PACE program is a county wide initiative whose purpose is to enhance the social skills, kindergarten readiness skills and build upon the communication skills of children 3 and 4 years old. Additionally, the PACE program has a parenting component which focuses on the parenting skills needed to help the children succeed in obtaining these skills. In 2001, the capacity of Safe Haven was increased from 10 to 20 beds in order to address the growing demand for housing and support services among the mental health population. In 2002, two apartment buildings at Highland Terrace in Donora were renovated and converted into 8 housing units for families. Also in 2002, 10 townhomes were developed in the City of Monessen to provide affordable housing opportunities to income-eligible families in the Mon Valley. In October 2002, SPHS Connect opened Welcome Home - a new emergency housing facility for single women and families in the City of Greensburg. It filled to capacity within the first week. In 2006, SPHS Connect opened the new Greene County Permanent Supportive Housing Project. This program, which serves six disabled, homeless singles and families, is the first of its kind in Greene County, and fills a gap in the continuum of services there. In February of this year, SPHS Connect was awarded a new HUD grant to begin operations of a 12 bed Safe Haven in Westmoreland County. This new program, which will begin operations in 2007, will not only fill a huge gap in the Westmoreland County housing continuum, but will eliminate the practice of using of the Washington County Safe Havens by Westmoreland County residents. Accreditations and Licenses N/A Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Connect is funded through a variety of sources including HUD McKinney-Vento funds, Emergency Shelter Grants, Housing Assistance Programs, the United Way, FEMA, and private donations. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jeff Burks Mascara - Executive Vice President/CEO William Leach - Director of Homeless and Housing Services Shelley Minnick - Supervisor Westmoreland Housing Programs Kelly Goedel - Supervisor Family Center Contact Person(s) William Leach - Director of Homeless and Housing Services Dee Keffel - Administrative Assistant Contact Number(s) 724-489-8095 - Connect Administrative Offices E-mail(s) mascara@sphs.org- Jeff Mascara Executive Vice President/CEO wleach@sphs.org- William Leach Director of Homeless and Housing Services dkeffel@sphs.org- Administrative Assistant kgoedel@sphs.org- Kelly Goedel Supervisor Family Center Web Addresses www.sphs.org - Connect Inc. Parent Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services Primary Addresses 302 Chamber Plaza Charleroi, PA 15022 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 292 E. Maiden St. Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 240-250 North College Ave. Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 262 E. Wheeling St. Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Fort Jackson Building 19 S. Washington St. Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. 218 Maple Ave. Suite 200 Greensburg, PA 15601 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Connect Inc. serves the homeless in the Southwestern PA Counties of Washington, Westmoreland and Greene. Service Description Safe Haven - Provides housing to hard-to-reach, mentally ill homleless men and women. Washington Family Shelter - Provides shelter and support services to homeless families. Permanent Supportive Housing - Provides permanent housing to disabled homeless adults and families. Transitional Housing - Provides housing and support services to disabled, homeless adults and families for up to 24 months. Supportive Living (transitional) Housing - Provides housing and support services to homeless adults and families for up to 24 months. Available Hours Connect Inc. programs operate 24 hours a day/ 7 days a week. Administrative and Housing Offices are open M-F 8:30 am - 5:00 pm. Connect Inc. operates an Emergency On-Call system (724-554-9280) to help persons access emergency housing after 5 pm and on weekends. Fees/Cost for Services Connect Housing Program guests are expected to pay a percentage of their income as a service fee when residing in housing programs. Eligibility Requirements Persons using Connect Housing must meet the federal definition of homelessness. Persons receiving Permanent Supportive and Transitional Housing services must also be disabled. Required Documentation Persons receiving Permanent Supportive and Transitional Housing services must provide proof of disability. Persons residing in Safe Haven programs must provide proof of a Mental Health Diagnosis. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Persons needing the assistance of Connect, Inc. may call 724-489-8095 during normal working hours or 724-554-9280 after 5 PM and on weekends. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Many of Connect Inc's program sites are handicapped-accessible. Connect helps guests who need handicapped-accessible housing access appropriate living quarters. Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Connect Inc. often uses volunteers to help in a varity of ways within our housing programs. Cornerstone Care None Organizational Information Parent Organization None Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Cornerstone Care's mission is to improve the health of our patients and of the residents of the communites we serve. We have a particular focus on providing access to health care for underserved populations. Underserved populations comprise people who have one or more barriers to accessing care (e.g. lack health insurance, are low-income, live in underserved areas with insufficient health care providers, have transportation difficulties, experience health disparity due to cultural, geographic, racial, income or other factors. History of Organization " 1978 - Organized by a group of citizens in Greensboro originally as the Southeast Greene Community Health Center in response to the lack of health care serives in the community. Our first patient signed in to be examined by our first provider, a Nurse Practitioner, in the former dining room of a two-story nineteenth century brick house on the banks of the Monongahela River in Greensboro, Pennsylvania. " 1980 - Opened first satellite in Bobtown, and added dental services. " 1981 - First physicians added (two family practitioners). " 1989 - Built modern 12,000 sq. ft. facility at Greensboro and expanded services. " 1992 - Opened satellite at Rogersville in western Greene County, expanded services, and changed name to Cornerstone Care " 1994 - Added mental health services " 1995 - Expanded Greensboro facility in partnership with other organizations to include Family Development Centers and Headstart, & new exam/counseling rooms. " 1995 - Doubled the facility space and practice at Rogersville site " 1997 - Merger with Community Medical Center of Northwest Washington County to create Cornerstone Care Community Medical and Dental Plaza. " 1999 - Began expanding services at Community Medical and Dental Plaza " 2001 - Added new physician & Chiropractor at Community Medical Center " 2002 Implement new networked computer info system in collaboration with six other community health centers in Pennsylvania " 2004 Opened Waynesburg Rural Psychiatry Center in Greene County " 2005 Added Pediatrics Associates of Washington in Washington County " 2006 Added Valley Women s Health in Monongahela, Washington county, and Belle Vernon, Westmoreland County. " 2007 - Developed new facility in Waynesburg for new Dental Center and to relocate Waynesburg Counseling Center Accreditations and Licenses All health care providers (i.e. physicians, nurse practitioners, physician's assistants, nurses, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, dentists, hygienists, and chiropractors are appropriately licensed and, where pertinent, board-certified. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Fees for services, donations, and some grants from state agencies, federal agencies, and foundations. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Robert Mt. Joy - CEO Richard T. Rinehart - COO Hugo Berardi - CFO Victor Bell - Board Chairman Contact Person(s) Richard T. Rinehart - Chief of Operations and Development Contact Number(s) 724-947-2255 E-mail(s) rrinehart@cornerstonecare.com Web Addresses www.cornerstonecare.com Primary Addresses 7 Glassworks Road Greensboro, PA 15338 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 7 Glassworks Road Greensboro, PA 15338 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1227 Smith Tonwship State Road Burgettstown , PA 15021 Click here for a Map of this Location. 140 Church Street Suite 102 Rogersville, PA 15359 Click here for a Map of this Location. 35 South West Street Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. 400 Jefferson Avenue Washington, PA 15338 Click here for a Map of this Location. 501 West High Street Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1163 Country Club Road Monogahela, PA 15063 Click here for a Map of this Location. 800 Plaza Drive, suite 180 Belle Vernon, PA 15012 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Southwestern Pennsylvania including Washington, Greene, Fayette, Westmoreland, and southern Beaver and Alleghney counties Service Description Family Practice Medicine - Primary and Preventative Health Care for all ages by board-certifed family practice doctors, nurse practitioners, and physician's assistants. Care for acute conditions such as infections, flu, injuires, etc. Care for chronic conditions such as diabetes, asthma, cardio-vascular disease, pulmonary diseases,etc. Gynecological Medical Care for women of all ages and Obstetrical Care for pregnant and post-partum women. Pediatric Primary Health Care for children and youth birth to 21. Dental Services including general and restorative dentistry, orthodontics, and oral surgery. Counseling Services for a range of mental health issues, familiy and individual therapy. Psychiatric services for children and adults. Family Plannning Services including birth control, counsleing, and education. Chiropractic Services. Prescription Asssitance Services to help get uninusred patients prescription medicines. Pharmacy services at selected sites. Available Hours all sites and serives are available during dya hours Monday through Friday. Each site has extended evening and/or weekend hours on selected days which vary by site. Fees/Cost for Services Fees are determined on the basis of the type of service. Discounts are available to eligible uninsured patients using a sliding (or graduated) fee schedule depending on family income. Eligibility Requirements Services are open to all persons. Eligibility for free and reduced cost services varies by service. Eligibility for general fee discounts through the sliding fee schedule is based on income, with the upper threshold of family income within 200% of the prevailing federal poverty income guideline. Required Documentation Eligibility for free and reduced cost services requires acceptable forms of income documentaiton and proof of identity. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments 724-947-2255 Greensoboro Center 724-499-5188 Rogersville Center 724-627-4309 Waynesburg Center 724-947-2255 Burgettsown Medical Center 724-947-2251 Burgettstown Dental Center 724-228-7400 Pediatic Associates Washington 724-258-2229 Valley Women's Health Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes - all facilities. We have equipment to facilitate dental care for patients in wheelchairs. We have electronic exam tables to facilite medical exams for people with disabilities Languages Spoken or Available We will arrange intrepretive services as needed. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description General office work, outreach and education, web site development and other IT issues Crime Victim/Witness Assistance Program Organizational Information Parent Organization District Attorney's Office Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The Crime Victim/Witness Assistance Program is committed to providing all victims of crime with the opportunities for involvement and input as afforded them through the Victims Bill of Rights in PA. These rights and services shall be provided to victims, witnesses, their families and significant other with compassion, dignity and respect. History of Organization This program was established in 1985 as a result of PA victims rights legislation. Originally there was one part time administrator. Currently there are 3advocates, one part time support staff person and a full time administrator. In 1995, significant changes in victim services occurred that affected law enforcement, the District Attorney s Office and the Courts. Legislation expanded the rights and services that are offered to crime victims. In about 2000, those services were extended to victims of juvenile offenses. In Washington County, victim services are provided under the umbrella of the District Attorney s Office. Some of our services include: " Crisis intervention-available within hours after a violent crime has been committed " Accompaniment, " Assistance with restitution and Crime Victim Compensation, " Witness relocation " Post conviction services-Crime victims are entitled to register with local or state correctional institutions. The Crime Victim/Witness Assistance Program only receives funding through PCCD grants-no County dollars are used to support the program. The three key grants that support victim services are the RASA (Rights and Services Act), VOJO (victims of juvenile offenses) and VOCA (Victims of Crime Act). Occasionally there are grants for special projects such the Elder Abuse Investigation unit or the Child Abuse Investigation unit. We average 1500 new victims each year in the adult system and 200 in the juvenile system. . Legal Structure Local Government Funding Sources Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) Pa Commission on Crime and Delinquency Contact Information Key Leader(s) Steven M. Toprani - District Attorney Contact Person(s) Betsy Dane - Administrator Contact Number(s) 724-229-5922 - phone E-mail(s) danee@co.washington.pa.us- Administrator moores@co.washington.pa.us- CV Compensation specialist Primary Addresses 1 S. Main St. Ste 1003 WASHINGTON, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Crime Victim Compensation CRIME VICTIM S COMPENSATION The Pennsylvania Crime Victims Compensation Fund is state run. It provides for the reimbursement of medical and other expenses resulting from violent crimes. The program also covers wages for lost wages as the result of a violent crime. IT DOES NOT PROVIDE FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF MONEY OR ARTICLES LOST DURING A CRIME WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE CASH PROCEEDS OF A SOCIAL SECURITY CHECK WHEN THE VICTIM S PRIMARY SOURCES OF INCOME IS SOCIAL SECURITY. The crime must be reported to the proper authorities within 72 hours. You must apply for comprehension within one year of the incident. Information brochures and applications for compensation are available from the Crime Victim/Witness Assistance Program. COMPENSATION DOES NOT PAY FOR: " For lost or stolen property " For pain and suffering " Injuries involving the use of a motor vehicle unless it was intentionally used to inflict injury and/or a victim of a DUI (Driving under the influence). Crime Victims of Juvenile Crime: The Crime Victim/Witness Assistance Program (CV/WAP) provides service to victims of juvenile offenses and criminal offenses. If you are a victim of a juvenile offense you have the following rights: " To receive notice of all significant hearings. " To provide to the court a victim impact statement. " To be restored as much as possible to your pre-crime economic status. " To receive information about and assistance with Crime Victim Compensation. " In some cases, you can receive information about the release or change of status of the juvenile offender. Victims of Crime involved in the Criminal Justice System: " To receive notice of all significant hearings. " To provide to the court a victim impact statement. " To be restored as much as possible to your pre-crime economic status. " To receive information about and assistance with Crime Victim Compensation. " In some cases, you can receive post-conviction information about the release or change of status of the defendant. Available Hours 9am-4:30pm Monday through Friday Fees/Cost for Services no cost Eligibility Requirements must be a victim or witness to a crime Required Documentation crime reported to police How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments call 724-229-5922 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility yes Languages Spoken or Available english Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Community outreach Court Accompaniment Special projects CRY Red Flag Green Flag Program Organizational Information Parent Organization Community Resources For Youth, INC. Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To identify the social needs of youth in Washington County not presently being met. To develop projects to meet those needs To solicit private sectoe support and funding. To recruit and train volunteers to implement the project/s. To administer and evaluate project/s. History of Organization Established in 1983. Incoporated as a non profit organization in 1985. Affiliations Steering Committee composed of representatives from the following Washington County agencies: MHA; NDAC, Inc.; The CARE Center; Juvenile Court; Victim/Witness Assistance Program; Try Again Homes, Inc.: Funding Sources Participating Washington County school districts and Washington County Children and Youth Services Contact Information Key Leader(s) Judith Hughes - Program Coordinator Mary Ann Zeitler - Chairman of Steering Committee Primary Addresses P.O. Box 4261 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Provide Personal Safety Ptogram--Red Flag Green Flag Program--to third grade students in Washington County on an annual basis. Includes presentation to the parents of the third grade students, so they are able to continue the dialogue when the Red Flag Green Flag coloring book comes home with the students. Available Hours Monday through Friday 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Fees/Cost for Services Three dollar charge for each coloring book used. Plus a $50 fee to cover the cost of the video used in each school district. Eligibility Requirements All third graders may participate with parent's permission. Required Documentation Permission slip is sent home to parents prior to the presentation for parents. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call or email CRY Program Coordinator Judith Hughes, 724-941-5858/jh0709@verizon.net Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility As needed Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Volunteers sre recruited through the individual school districts so that there are enough faciliators to provide a six/1 ratio of student to faciliatator for each classroom presentation Diversified Human Services, Inc DHS, Inc Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services, Inc. Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of SPHS Developmental Services is to provide quality supports and services to individuals of all ages having developmental disabilities for the purpose of achieving optimal development and creating a wider range of opportunity and choice in their lives. Integration into the community and promoting self-esteem and dignity are key elements of all of our services. History of Organization Diversified Human Services has been providing residential, therapeutic day programming and early intervention services in Westmoreland, Washington and Fayette Counties for over 30 years. Accreditations and Licenses All of the SPHS Developmental Services programs are licensed or monitored by the state Office of Developmental Programs annually. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Services for individuals with developmental disabilities are funded through Medicaid waivers, County MH/MR programs and Medical Assistance. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jeff Burks Mascara - CEO/Vice President Contact Person(s) Antoinette Tarquinio - Director of Developmental Services Contact Number(s) 724-489-8096 Ext. 4257 - Director of Developmental Services E-mail(s) ttarquinio@sphs.org- Director of Developmental Services Web Addresses www.sphs.org - Corporate website Primary Addresses 301 Chamber Plaza Charleroi, PA 15022 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Fayette, Washington and Westmoreland Counties Service Description The Community Living Arrangements (CLA) Program is a residential system of supports and services designed to assist and support adults with developmental disabilities in community settings. Three levels of support are available and provided based on individual need: 24 hour supervision, semi-independent, and minimal supervision. Individuals are assessed annually to determine the supports and services necessary to best meet the their needs, and an individualized plan of service is developed and implemented. Integration into the commnity and promoting self-esteem and dignity are key elements of the CLA Program. The CLA Program works to help individuals with developmental disabilities develop the skills that will aford them a wider range of opportunities and choice in their lives. The Step by Step Child Development Program is a system of supports and services designed to assist families of infants and toddlers (birth through two years) who may have developmental delays or special needs. We offer family-centered play, learning and therapeutic activities developed to promote optimal develpment in young children while supporting families through training and information sharing. Step by Step offers services for infants and toddlers for a wide variety of developmental concerns including: walking, talking, learning, playing, hearing, vision. Our staff of therapists and developmental specialists believes that every child is special and understands that each family has different needs. Families are encouraged to actively participate in the child's services, decision making and education. The staff of Step by Step Child Development Program work diligently to provide quality supports and services to children with special needs and their families for the purpose of achieving optimal development and creating greater balance in the family routine. The Therapeutic Activity Center (TAC) is a day program for adults with development disabilities. The TAC provides activities that promote the skills needed to participate fully in home and community activities. Activities include: cooking, menu plannning, shopping, recreation, educational and pre-vocational, all of which will afford people with developmental disabilities a wider range of opportunities and choice in their lives. Individuals are assessed annually to determine the level of support and skills needed to function more fully in their homes and communities. Individualized service plans are then developed and implemented. Integration into the community and promoting self-esteem and dignity are key elements of the Therapeutic Activity Center. The Therapeutic Activity Center is located at 670 McKean Avenue, Donora and operates Monday through Friday from 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM. Home and Community Habilitation supports are provided to individuals with developmental disabilities of all ages. The purpose of the Home and Community program is to assist people in their daily living skills both in the home and the community. Home and Community services include, but are not limited to: transportation, cooking, cleaning, assistance with self care, community activities, assistance with medical appointments and routine care. The Home and Community Habilitation program serves individuals from young school age through adulthood. Available Hours Therapeutic Activity Center - Monday through Friday, 9:00 AM to 3:00 PM Step by Step Child Development Program - Monday through Friday, 8:30 AM to 5:00 PM Community Living Arrangements Program and Home and Community Habilitation - program hours are 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, weekends and holidays included; administrative office hours are Monday through Friday, 8:30 AM to 5:00 PM Fees/Cost for Services All services are funded through the individuals' budget and funding source. Eligibility Requirements Adult services require a diagnosis of developmental disability; infant and toddler services are provided to young children having a diagnosis, or has or is at risk of having a developmental delay. Required Documentation Referral and intake information from County Supports Coordinators and Early Intervention Services Coordinators should be forwarded to our office. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call 724-489-8096, Ext. 4560 for information on accessing all services. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility All program sites are handicap accessible. Languages Spoken or Available English; others available upon request and need. Diversified Human Services/SPHS Child Learning Center Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern PA Human Services Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization SPHS Child Learning Center's mission is to facilitate the growth and development of each child while supporting the family. The philosophy underlying our program is each child must be active in the learning process. History of Organization SPHS Child Learning Center has been operated for over 35 years. Accreditations and Licenses STAR II certification Department of Public Welfare Licensed Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources CCIS of Washington County CCIS of Westmoreland County CCIS of Fayette County Private Pay Contact Information Key Leader(s) Linda Fafalios - Director Contact Person(s) Fran Pacak - Secretary Contact Number(s) 724-684-KIDS (5437) - Telephone E-mail(s) lfafalios@sphs.org- Director DCroushore@sphs.org- Director/Group Supervisor mpitner123@yahoo.com- Director/Group Supervisor Primary Addresses 301 Chamber Plaza Charleroi, PA 15062 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 301 East Donner Avenue Suite 100 Monessen, PA 15062 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Westmoreland County Service Description Child Care Services Ages birth through 12 years Monday through Friday 6:30a.m.-6:30 p.m. Child Care Services Ages birth through 12 years Monday through Friday 6:30a.m.-6:30 p.m. Before and After School Services/Summer School Age Care Available Hours 6:30 a.m.-6:30 p.m. Fees/Cost for Services Infant/Full Day - $30.00 Infant/Part Day - $25.00 Toddler/Full Day - $29.00 Toddler/Part Day - $24.00 Preschool/Full Day - $26.00 Preschool/Part Day - $22.00 School Age/Full Day - $25.00 School Age/Part Day - $17.00 Eligibility Requirements None Required Documentation None How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact the Director or Secretary at 724-684-KIDS (5437) Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available Available upon need Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Assists the teacher with classroom responsibilities. Domestic Violence Services of Southwestern PA DVSSP Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of Domestic Violence Services of Southwestern PA is to increase awareness of domestic violence and its effect on the community, to empower those victimized by providing advocacy and safe and effective services, and to work for social change designed to eliminate domestic violence. History of Organization The Women's Shelter was started in 1976, primarily as an information and referral service and to be a "listening ear". The scope of the problem of domestic violence in our area quickly became evident and, through a grant from the Washington Presbytery and the Circle Foundation, the YWCA of Washington was able to rent a nearby apartment in May of 1980. This became Washington County's first shelter for victims of domestic violence. For quite some time, the Shelter was funded through a grant from Washington-Greene Community Action Corporation and private donations. In April 1983, the Shelter was forced to close its doors because the lease on the apartment had expired and funds for continuation of the project were unavailable. During the rest of 1983 and until July, 1984, 46 women and 75 children were transported to safe shelter in other counties. In August of 1984, again as a result of a grant from the Washington Presbytery, the Shelter re-opened in a large apartment with a 14 bed capacity. During the following months, 122 women and 177 children were sheltered. In November of 1985, the Women's Resource Center Advisory Committee of the YWCA voted to leave the YWCA and become an independent agency. The new agency became incorporated in February of 1986 as Washington Women's Shelter and was fully autonomous in July of 1986. Funding sources included the Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence, the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency, Washington-Greene Community Action Corporation, and donations. In March of 1986, Washington Women's Shelter once again moved its operation to a new location, a much larger house with big rooms. In 1989, Washington Women's Shelter entered into a contract with Washington County for a grant from the Department of Housing and Urban Development. The Board of Directors mortgaged a lovely, large older home in Washington and used H.U.D. monies to furnish and remodel the building in accordance with Labor and Industry specifications and needs of the program. Finally, in January of 1990, Washington Women's Shelter began providing safe shelter in a charming and comfortable setting which remains our present home. In October of 2010, at the request of the PA Coalition Against Domestic Violence and the PA Commission on Crime and Delinquency, WWS, Inc. began providing domestic violence services in neighboring Fayette County. In early 2011, the organization legally changed our name to DOMESTIC VIOLENCE SERVICES OF SOUTHWESTERN PA. Affiliations Member: Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence; Delegate: Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence Membership; Member: Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence Diversity Committee and Nominating Committee Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Pennsylvania Coalition Against Domestic Violence (Title XX, FVPS, SSBG, Act 44, Act 222), Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency (VOCA, VAWA-STOP), Housing and Urban Development (SHP, ESG), PA Department of Public Welfare (Homeless Assistance Program), United Way of Washington County, Greene County United Way, Westmoreland-Fayette United Way, Contributions, Foundations, and Fundraisers Contact Information Key Leader(s) Michelle L. Robinson-Ritter - Executive Director 724-223-5481 724-223-5482 mrr@peacefromdv.org Cheryl McCready - Satellite Office Coordinator 724-852-2463 724-627-4729 cm@peacefromdv.org Jennifer Weakland - Shelter Manager 724-223-0911 724-437-2530 724-223-0911 jw@peacefromdv.org Megan Burkardt - Shelter Coordinator 724-223-0911 724-223-0911 mb@peacefromdv.org Contact Person(s) Deborah Regets - Transitional Housing Coordinator 724-223-9140 dr@peacefromdv.org Megan Burkardt - Shelter Coordinator 724-223-0911 mb@peacefromdv.org Michelle L. Robinson-Ritter - Executive Director 724-223-5481 mrr@peacefromdv.org Contact Number(s) 724-223-5481 - Administrative Office 724-223-0911 - Shelter Office 1-800-791-4000 - 24 hour hotline if 724-223-9190 is long distance 724-223-9190 - 24 hour hotline 724-223-5482 - Administrative Office Fax 724-223-9140 - FRESH START Transitional Housing Fax 724-852-2463 - Satellite Office (Greene County) 724-223-9141 - FRESH START (Transitional Housing) FAX 724-627-4729 - Satellite Office (Greene County) FAX 724-223-5482 - Education & Training (Washington) Fax 724-852-2373 - Greene County Women's Center Education & Training 724-223-5477 - Education & Training (Washington) 1-800-791-4000 - Greene County Women's Center 24-hour hotline 724-852-2463 - Greene County Women's Center hotline 724-627-4729 - Greene County Women's Center FAX 724-223-8357 - Legal Advocacy Office FAX 724-223-8349 - Legal Advocacy Office E-mail(s) dvsspwashington@peacefromdv.org- Shelter freshstart@peacefromdv.org- FRESH START Transitional Housing admin@peacefromdv.org- Administrative Office dvsspgreene@peacefromdv.org- Greene County Women's Center dvsspwlegal@peacefromdv.org- Legal Advocacy Office mrr@peacefromdv.org- Executive Director edutrain@peacefromdv.org- Education & Training (Washington) Web Addresses www.peacefromdv.org - Agency Website Primary Addresses 308 East Maiden Street Washington, Pennsylvania 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses P.O. Box 503 Washington, Pennsylvania 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Greene and Fayette Counties Service Description transitional housing program satellite counseling center in Greene County accompaniment children's program community education and training programs 24 hour intake safe, temporary shelter 24 hour hotline domestic violence prevention projects in schools transportation food, clothing, and personal care items for program participants legal advocacy program, protection from abuse assistance Information and referrals general advocacy resident support groups community support groups supportive, educative, empowerment counseling Available Hours The hotline and shelters intake operate on a 24-hour basis. Fees/Cost for Services There is no cost for services provided to victims of domestic violence, their children, or their significant others. Eligibility Requirements Direct services are available to victims of domestic violence, their children, and their significant others. Required Documentation Identification and income documentation are required. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Services may be accessed through the 24-hour hotline or through referrals. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility We are accessible in most sites and are continuosly working toward increasing our accessibility. Languages Spoken or Available Brochures are printed in Spanish. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description All direct service volunteers must complete 45 hours of training that gives the privilege of confidentiality in court. Dress for Success Pittsburgh-Washington Branch Organizational Information Parent Organization Dress for Success Pittsburgh Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Dress for Success mission is to promote the economic independence of disadvantaged women by providing professional attire, a network of support, and the career development tools to help women thrive in work and in life. History of Organization Dress for Success Pittsburgh has been in exsistence for 5 years. The Washington Branch has been open since November 2008. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources We receive some funding through the PA Dept of Welfare to house their PA WORKWEAR program. All other funding comes from private donors, corporations and grants. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Robin Matthews - Branch Manager 724-228-8327 724-228-8327 724-228-8329 washington@dressforsucesspittsburgh.org Contact Person(s) Robin Matthews Contact Number(s) 724-228-8327 - manager E-mail(s) washington@dressforsuccesspittsburgh.org- manager Web Addresses www.dressforsuccesspittsburgh.org - manager Primary Addresses 254 North Main St Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County, Westmoreland County, Greene County Service Description Employment Clothing Available Hours Monday, Wednesday and Friday from 10:00AM-4:00PM Fees/Cost for Services free Eligibility Requirements Must be referred by a referral agency. Required Documentation Referral form faxed from a referral agency How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call 724-228-8327 for more information about becoming a referral agency or how to refer your client for services. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available Yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Elizabeth Babcock, LCSW Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Licensed Psychotherapist providing general counseling services to individuals and couples, along with community wellness education and corporate consulting. Primary specialty is treatment of chronic overeating; secondary specialty is treatment/education regarding emotional abuse issues in relationships. History of Organization Solo practice since August 2004, after 15 years of prior experience working with supervision in group psychotherapy practices. Accreditations and Licenses Licensed Clinical Social Worker in state of Pennsylvania. Board Certified Diplomate through the American Board of Examiners in Clinical Social Work. Affiliations National Association of Social Workers, National Eating Disorders Association, Single Steps Strategies, Women's Business Network Legal Structure For-profit entity Funding Sources Direct payments from clients and also from third-party payors (insurance companies). Contact Information Key Leader(s) Elizabeth Babcock - owner/psychotherapist Contact Person(s) Elizabeth Babcock - owner/psychotherapist Contact Number(s) 724-941-1940 - main office number E-mail(s) elizabeth.babcock@comcast.net Web Addresses www.elizabethbabcock.com - educational information for community use Primary Addresses 4160 Washington Road Suite 204 McMurray, PA 15317 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area southwestern PA Service Description Psychotherapy/counseling services for adult clients, covering the following areas of need: overeating, depression, anxiety, relationship issues, communication, emotional abuse, codependency, self-esteem, assertiveness, grief, stress management, time management, life enhancement/balance strategies, recovery (from any addictive pattern). Community and corporate wellness education via on-site seminars and published articles. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing for corporate and other public settings in the aftermath of violence, accident or other trauma. Program development/consultation for treatment of obesity, diabetes. Available Hours Hours by appointment, Monday to Friday, 9:00 am to 9:00 pm. Fees/Cost for Services Covered by most major insurance carriers. Fee schedule available at www.elizabethbabcock.com. Eligibility Requirements No restrictions. Required Documentation Insurance card, if insurance is to be used. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 724-941-1940. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Sidewalk ramps, elevator. Languages Spoken or Available English only. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No END Violence Center (END V) Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The END Violence Center (END V) is committed to raising awareness, providing resources and ending sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and stalking within the campus community. To achieve these goals, the center offers services which include, but are not limited to: Providing prevention education programs and events to the campus regarding sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and stalking Providing trainings for staff, faculty, health center personnel, law enforcement, and campus organizations Presentations, tailored to meet the needs of specific audiences END V Center - Home of the Green Dot is a place for students to grab a free cup of coffee, or use our laptops, flat screen TV and our lounge as a place to relax between classes The center also offers a resource library with numerous brochures, books, training manuals and videos. The campus community is encouraged to utilize these materials as an educational resource. History of Organization Formerly known as the P.E.A.C.E. Project (Prevention, Education, Advocacy, for Change and Empowerment) Contact Information Key Leader(s) Nancy Skobel - Program Director Kay Dorrance - Project Coordinator/Advocate Contact Person(s) Nancy Skobel - Project Director Kay Dorrance - Project Coordinator/Advocate Contact Number(s) 724-938-5707 - END Violence Center/California University of PA E-mail(s) greendot@calu.edu- END Violence Center (END V) Web Addresses http://www.calu.edu/current-students/student-services/end-v/ Primary Addresses California University of PA G45 Carter Hall 250 University Avenue California, PA 15419 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area California University of PA Service Description The END Violence Center (END V) serves California University of PA students and their families. The center is committed to raising awareness about sexual violence, intimate partner violence and stalking. Available Hours Monday - Friday 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM Call to schedule appointments. Fees/Cost for Services Services are free Eligibility Requirements Student of California University of PA or family member. Required Documentation Signed release from the victim allowing advocacy to family member. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 724-938-5707 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Family Behavioral Resources FBR Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jerry Joseph - CEO Primary Addresses 75 E. Maiden Street Suite 103 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 4620 Hill Drive North Huntingdon, PA 15642 Click here for a Map of this Location. One Corporate Circle Greensburg, PA 15601 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County is serviced by the local area. FBR currently services Allegheny, Armstrong, Indiana, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Greene, Washington, Westmoreland, and Mercer counties through various satellite offices. Family Behavioral Resources FBR Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization It is the mission of Family Behavioral Resources to be a leader in delivering the highest quality of recoveryoriented mental health services. Services are designed in accordance with FBRs philosophy of care, and delivered through a variety of theoretical approaches and interventions based on evidence-based practice. We are committed to supporting children, families and their surrounding community with quality care which upholds the utmost integrity. Here, caring is everything. History of Organization Since its start in 1999, Family Behavioral Resources (FBR) has continually enhanced its delivery of quality mental health services. FBR started an Outpatient Clinic in Connellsville in July of 1999, began its BHRS program in August of 1999, and now provides a variety of mental health services throughout twelve counties in Southwestern Pennsylvania. FBR continues to work with counties' MH/MR centers and managed care systems to identify other mental health needs, either new programs or expansion of existing programs, that will help people in those counties. In 2003, FBR created the Specialized Autism Services program to better serve clients' unique needs within that population. FBR's CEO and founder, Dr. Jerry Joseph, and FBR's Senior Management Team remains committed to the "Family" in Family Behavioral Resources through the delivery of Family Focused Therapy. We strive to make a difference in the lives of every individual that we touch through delivering quality service and treating each individual with dignity. There are a number of ways that we may be able to serve your family. We invite you to browse our website, and feel free to contact us with any questions or concerns. Family Behavioral Resources... Here, caring is everything. Accreditations and Licenses A CARF Three-Year Accreditation has been awarded to Family Behavioral Resources for its Intensive Family-Based Services - Mental Health (Children and Adolescents), Outpatient Treatment - Mental Health (Adults), and Outpatient Treatment - Mental Health (Children and Adolescents). *BHRS falls under Outpatient Treatment. Ask us about CARF today! Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jerry Jospeh - CEO Rick Murray - COO Dawn Joseph - Director of Quality Improvement Cathy Hughes - Family Supports Coordinator Andrea Tremel - Clinical Supervisor - Washington Office Lisa Leach - Regional Director of Autism Services Contact Person(s) Janice O'Neil - Administrative Supervisor - Intakes and appts. Darlene Vanvolkinburg - Administrative Supervisor - HR Contact Number(s) 724-229-0311 - Telephone 724-229-3277 - Fax 724-850-8118 - Corporate Office E-mail(s) washington@familybehavioralresources.com- Washington Office atremel@familybehavioralresources.com- Clinical Supervisor lleach@familybehavioralresources.com- Regional Director of Autism Services autismservices@familybehavioralresources.com- Autism Information Web Addresses www.familybehavioralresources.com - Company Web Address Primary Addresses 90 W. Chestnut Street Suite 110 LL Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses PO Box 879 Greensburg, PA 15601 Click here for a Map of this Location. 101 Towne Square Way Suite 239 Pittsburgh, PA 15227 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area FBR serves the following counties: Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Bedford, Blair, Butler, Cambria, Fayette, Greene, Indiana, Lancaster, Mercer, Somerset, Washington and Westmoreland Service Description Specialized Autism Services - FBR has developed a specialized Autism Team comprised of individuals who exemplify a level of expertise in the provision of autism services. This team works to ensure and enhance the quality of services, expand the continuum of care for those on the spectrum, and train clinicians to excel in meeting the individual needs of the children we serve. The Autism Team consists of Autism Coordinators (AC), Regional Directors of Autism Services (RDAS), and a Family Support Coordinator. Each office is supported by either a RDAS or AC that provides clinical oversight of all autism cases served within their identified region/office. This includes, but is not limited to initial assessment and program development, ongoing clinical support for lead clinicians supporting consumers with an ASD diagnosis by conducting weekly Clinical Consultation & Collaboration, providing Clinical Case Consultations and completing Case Reviews. In addition, the Autism Team is committed to participating in the global quality of autism services at FBR through the development of new trainings, programs, and community outreach efforts. Current outreach efforts include: Family Support Groups Social Skill / Play Groups Sibling Groups Resource Packages / Information Guides Parent Professional Workshops School Trainings and Consultations H.O.P.E. (Helping Others Potential Expand) for Tomorrow Focus Groups Summer Therapeutic Activities Programs (STAP) Our Family Support Coordinator, Catherine Hughes, is a parent of a child formerly diagnosed on the autism spectrum. She is available for identifying community resources, information, as well as provides caring support for families. Specialized Autism Services at FBR are under the oversight of our Chief Operating Officer, Rick J. Murray, LSW, BCBA. He is also a member of the Professional Advisory Council for the Advisory Board on Autism and Related Disorders (ABOARD), and is a founding board member for the Greater Pittsburgh Chapter of Autism Speaks. BHRS (Behavioral Health Rehabilitation Services) - BHRS or Wraparound services is a Medicaid-funded program designed to provide services to children under 21 years of age that have a current mental health diagnosis. These services are designed to increase the level of psychosocial functioning and well-being, so less intensive services will be required. A clinical licensed psychologist or psychologist assistant conducts an evaluation to assess the needs of the child/adolescent to determine the most appropriate level of service. If BHRS is deemed medically necessary and is recommended, the team might consist of any or all of the following team members: Behavioral Specialist Consultant (BSC) ~ A masters level mental health professional who consults and collaborates with all members of the treatment team. The BSC maintains clinical oversight of the case, including development of the treatment plan, clinical programming and mentoring the Mobile Therapist (MT) ~ A masters level clinician who provides individual therapy for the consumer. Therapeutic Staff Support (TSS) ~ A bachelors level clinician that works one-on-one with the consumer and implements the interventions developed by BSC. Wraparound is a process designed to improve the lives of consumers with complex psychological or behavioral needs. It is not a specific program or protocol. Therapy is available 7 days a week and becomes part of the consumers daily routine. Hours prescribed will vary, depending on the severity of impairment. Sessions are scheduled according to the familys needs, and are available day or night, and also on weekends when necessary. Services are provided in the home, community, and/or the educational setting. Goals of BHR S Include: Assessing the childs and familys strengths, needs, abilities and preferences Setting individualized goals for the child Setting individualized goals for the family Developing and implementing an individualized clinical program designed to target problematic behaviors and facilitate the development of prosocial behaviors Evaluating treatment on an on-going basis in order to determine the efficacy of current treatment modalities/behavioral interventions Setting goals for discharge Treatment Approach FBR ensures that all therapeutic approaches utilized within the provision of services fall within the framework of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and/or research-based behavioral health treatment. Staff work collaboratively with each consumers family and extended support system in order to identify and implement appropriate intervention(s) to target the individualized needs of each consumer. Staff receive a variety of trainings initially as part of an orientation process as well as ongoing to enhance their role as a clinician. Current trainings include topics such as: Behavioral Modification and Crisis Intervention Typical Child Development Child Abuse BSC & TSS Clinical Training BHRS in the Educational and Community Settings Cultural Competency Basic Principles of ABA It Shouldnt Hurt to be a Child Trauma and Attachment, Part I and II Values, Ethics and Professional Boundaries Our Pledge to Service: FBRs purpose is to provide competent BHRS services in accordance with CASSP principles: Child-centered Family-focused Community-based Multi-system Culturally Competent Least Intrusive / Least Restrictive Adult Autism Services - Family Behavioral Resources has been approved to provide support through the following services. Several members of our Autism and Clinical Management Teams have completed the required trainings to make this possible. Behavior Specialists will provide specialized behavioral support for individuals who may demonstrate behavioral challenges because of limited social skills, limited communication skills, or impaired sensory systems. Behavioral Specialist Services provide specialized interventions that assist a participant to increase adaptive behaviors to replace or modify challenging behaviors that prevent or interfere with the participants inclusion in home and family life or community life. Community Inclusion is designed to assist participants in acquiring, retaining, and improving communication, socialization, self-direction, self-help, and adaptive skills necessary to reside in the community. Community Inclusion facilitates the participants social interaction; use of natural supports and typical community services available to all people; and participation in education and volunteer activities. Family Counseling services will provide caregiver counseling for the participants family to develop and maintain healthy, stable relationships among all caregivers, including family members, in order to support the participant. Emphasis is placed on the acquisition of coping skills by building upon family strengths. Counseling services are intended to increase the likelihood that the participant will remain in or return to the familys home. Family Training is a service available to develop expertise in the participants family so that caregivers can help the participant acquire, retain, or improve the individuals ability to live independently. Individual Counseling services will enable individuals to increase or maintain their ability to perform activities of daily living. The therapy is directly delivered to the individual receiving services. Temporary Crisis services will provide additional staff in the short term at a time of crisis for a participant when it has been determined that the participants health and welfare is in jeopardy and existing supports and services cannot be provided without additional staff assistance. This service is intended for those unforeseen circumstances, which trigger a need for a time limited increase in support. Job Finding and Assessment helps persons with autism find meaningful employment or volunteer work within their communities. Assessment includes review of past job history, skills and interests to help match the individual with appropriate positions within an agency or organization. Job finding utilizes the assessment findings to help the consumer secure permanent employment for over 30 days. THE ADUL T AUTISM WAIVE R PROCE SS In order for a person to be eligible for the waiver program, he/she must meet the following criteria: 1. Live in the state of Pennsylvania (or plan to live in PA by the time of enrollment) 2. Have an ASD diagnosis 3. Be 21 years of age or older by time of enrollment 4. Meet Medical Assistance financial eligibility 5. Meet Intermediate Care Facility level of care Persons interested in the waiver program must contact the BAS at 866-539-7689. Following a consultation with a BAS representative, you will receive a Priority Status Letter. It is important to note that you will not receive an application unless there is capacity to service you under the waiver. Once approved for the waiver program, the consumer will select a Supports Coordinator (SC) to facilitate the development and implementation of the Individual Support Plan (ISP) to address the goals of the consumer and his/her family. The consumer and planning team will select the service provider(s) to implement waiver services identified within the ISP. The ISP is then submitted to the BAS for service authorization. Once waiver services are authorized, the SC will contact the provider(s) to notify them that they have been selected by the consumer, review the recommendations of the ISP and assess the providers capacity to provide services and facilitate a schedule for service initiation. Available Hours Office Hours are Monday through Friday 8 am to 5 pm. Services provided in home to our clients are provided as scheduled by the family member. Fees/Cost for Services Services are funded through Medical Assistance which is available in PA to all children with an Axis I diagnosis regardless of their parents income. Eligibility Requirements In order to be admitted to BHRS services, Children must first have a comprehensive psychological evaluation. These are provided at our office or you may receive one anywhere you wish. The evaluation can not be more than 30 days old and must have a recommendation for BHRS services. BHRS consumers are between the ages of 0 to 21. Adult Autism Waiver Consumers are ages 21 and up. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments You may schedule a psychological evaluation by calling our office. Afer you have completed that process, you will be then invited to an Interagency Meeting where the needs of your child will be discussed in detail and the specific services that were recommended will be discussed. YOu will then be asked to select and provider and the County representatives will then call the provider to alert them of your selection. At that time, FBR will schedule an intake for your child to get to know more about your child and your entire family. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English primarly. Language access can be provided as necessary if given notice. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Family Promise of Southwestern Pennsylvania IHN Organizational Information Parent Organization Family Promise Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To unite congregations from the religious community to provide shelter, supportive services and caring hospitality to homeless familites, helping these families remain intact through difficult times and return to independence. History of Organization IHN was initiated in 1992 as a response to the emergency needs of homeless families in southwestern Pennsylvania. The organizational structure was based on the model of the National Interfaith Hospitality (now Family Promise) which was developed in 1978 by Karen Olson, and now includes over 120 networks around the United States. After two years of seeking commitments from area churches, our Network was able to open its doors with six congregations in April 1994. Over the past 14 years, we have enlarged our coalition to include a second family shelter in Crafton, and more than 30 congregations including 800 volunteers who provide meals and overnight accomodations. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Contact Information Key Leader(s) Laura Vincenti - Executive Director 7242291129 7242293209 familypromiseswpa@comcast.net Contact Person(s) Tracey Finn - Social Services Coordinator Marlene Day - Program Coordinator 7242291129 7242293209 mday_familypromiseswpa@comcast.net Contact Number(s) 724-229-1129 - Telephone 724-229-3209 - Fax E-mail(s) familypromiseswpa@comcast.net Web Addresses www.familypromiseswpa.org Primary Addresses 297 East Beau Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 7 Oregon Ave. Crafton, PA Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Southwestern Pennsylvania Service Description Dinner and overnight shelter at one of our network congregations in weekly cycles Case management services A consistent place to come "home" to at the Family Center to receive mail, do laundry, prepare breakfast and lunch, go to school and work. Referrals, information and access to other services and agencies to aid in reaching goals Available Hours 9:00 to 5:00 monday through friday Fees/Cost for Services None Eligibility Requirements Homeless Families with minor children How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call main office- 724-229-1129 Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Volunteers are always needed at the Network Congregations to prepare meals, host overnight and drive the network van. Call 724-229-1129 for a congregation in your area Family Services of Western Pennsylvania Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To foster the capabilities and skills in families and individuals to direct their own lives, promote recovery and resilience and create a productive, caring community. History of Organization Family Services of Western Pennsylvania was formed in 1948 as a merger of three preexisting agencies whose histories extend as far back as 1885. Accreditations and Licenses Four year accreditation from the Council on Accreditation of Services for Families and Children. Various mental health licenses, drug and alcohol treatment license, and foster care provider license. Affiliations Alliance for Children and Families, National Council for Community Behavioral Health, Pennsylvania Community Providers Association, Pennsylvania Alliance for Children and Families, Ways to Work, Inc., United Ways of Allegheny, westmoreland and Washington Counties. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Numerous different funding streams including state grants through county government for mental health, drug and alcohol, aging, foster care, forensic programs, vocational rehabilitation, and others; 3 United Ways, foundation grants, individual and corporate donations; federal funding through NIMH and HUD. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Donald H. Goughler - Chief Executive Officer Contact Person(s) Paulette Zanotti - Community Liaison Contact Number(s) 7242950406 Web Addresses www.fswp.org Primary Addresses 3230 William Pitt Way Pittsburgh, Pa 15238 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area 7 counties in SW Pennsylvania Service Description The agency provides a wide range of services including a full range of mental health services and both vocational and residential services for people with mental retardation, drug and alcohol, foster care, community counseling, consumer loan and financial support services, transportation, forensic services, in home services for older adults, educational assistance for youth aging out. Ways to Work-A consumer loan program to enable people with low credit ratings to purchase an automobile needed to support work. Available Hours Contact is available 24 hours per day, specific programs operate on different schedules. Fees/Cost for Services Fees for services vary. Eligibility Requirements Eligibility requirements vary. Required Documentation Required documentation varies depending on services. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact the agency toll free line at 1-888-222-4200 Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need No Gateway Rehab Center GRC Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Gateway Rehab Center's mission is to enable people affected by or at risk of addictive diseases and other mental and emotional disorders to lead healthy and productive lives through prevention, education, treatment, and research. History of Organization Gateway Rehabilitation Center is a private, not-for-profit organization that provides comprehensive community and school-based prevention services and treatment for adults, youth, and young adults, and families with alcohol and other drug-related problems. Gateway was founded in 1972 by Dr. Abraham J. Twerski, internationally recognized authority in the field of chemical dependency treatment, psychiatrist, frequent lecturer, and author of more than 50 self-help related books. Nearly 100,000 individuals have received treatment within the Gateway system, which serves western Pennsylvania and eastern Ohio. Accreditations and Licenses Pennsylvania Department of Health - Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Programs; Pennsylvania Department of Welfare for Adolescent Residential Services; Genesis Division - Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO); Corrections Division - American Correctional Association (ACA); Pennsylvania Department of Welfare Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Contact Information Key Leader(s) Kenneth S. Ramsey Ph.D. - President and Chief Executive Officer Contact Person(s) Richard Troup - Director Admissions/Evaluations Services Ron Cichowicz - Vice President of Corporate Advancement Contact Number(s) Phone: 800-472-1177 Fax: 724-375-8815 Web Addresses www.gatewayrehab.org Primary Addresses Robinson Plaza Three, Suite 430 6600 Steubenville Pike Pittsburgh, PA 15205 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 100 Moffett Run Road Center Twp.,, PA 15001 Click here for a Map of this Location. 2121 Noblestown Plaza Pittsburgh, PA 15205 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1659 Route 228 Cranberry Twp.,, PA 16066 Click here for a Map of this Location. 87 East Maiden Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1659 Route 228 Cranberry Twp.,, PA 16066 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1628 Roseytown Road Greensburg, PA 15601 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1360 Old Freeport Road, Suite 3B Pittsburgh, PA 15238 Click here for a Map of this Location. 262 Ohio River Blvd. Baden Plaza Baden, PA 15005 Click here for a Map of this Location. 4327 Northern Pike Monroeville, PA 15146 Click here for a Map of this Location. 500 Lewis Run Road Suite 121 West Mifflin, PA 15122 Click here for a Map of this Location. 4150 Washington Road Suite 7 McMurray, PA 15317 Click here for a Map of this Location. Squirrel Hill Professional Suites 5818 Forbes Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15217 Click here for a Map of this Location. 100 Moffett Run Road Aliquippa, PA 15001 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1215 Seventh Avenue 3rd Floor, Suite 313 Beaver Falls, PA 15010 Click here for a Map of this Location. 426 George Street Braddock, PA 15104 Click here for a Map of this Location. 2860 E. 38th Street Erie, PA 16510 Click here for a Map of this Location. 2151 Rush Blvd. Youngstown, OH 44507 Click here for a Map of this Location. 5211 Mahoning Avenue Suite 370 Austintown, OH 44515 Click here for a Map of this Location. 160 Clifton Drive NE Suite 1 Warren, OH 44484 Click here for a Map of this Location. 550 West Chalmers Avenue Youngstown, OH 44511 Click here for a Map of this Location. 6543 Commerce Parkway Suite R Dublin, OH 43017 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Gateway serves patients from throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio at 20 sites. Service Description Adults and youth struggling with addiction to alcohol or other drugs can access a host of programs through Gateway Rehab, including inpatient rehabilitation, medical detoxification, outpatient treatment at several levels including partial hospitalization, and a family program. Gateway operates two halfway houses for men who have completed inpatient rehabilitation, and offers residential treatment programs for patients through the Department of Corrections and two more programs for men incarcerated in Erie or Beaver County jails. Gateway VISION provides comprehensive prevention programs in schools. Available Hours To obtain information about a program nearest you or to make a referral for treatment, please contact Gateway's admissions department at 800-472-1177 or visit Gateway's website at www.gatewayrehab.org. Fees/Cost for Services Gateway Rehab has numerous payment options available. Treatment is covered by most major insurance carriers as Gateway is "in network" for most plans. Gateway has developed a system to search out all funding options that may exist including public funds, loans and charity care for those who are without healthcare benefits of any kind. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments 800-472-1177 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Handicap accessibilty at all Gateway sites Languages Spoken or Available Free interpreter services are available for patients and families with persons needing language assistance. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Patient related and non-patient related volunteer assignments available Gateway Rehab School & Community-Based Prevention Services (Vision) Organizational Information Parent Organization Gateway Rehabilitation Center Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Mission: Gateway Rehab's mission is to help all affected by addictive diseases to become healthy in body, mind and spirit. Gateway Rehab School and Community-Based Prevention Services (Vision) strives to serve the region by providing the region with quality service at an affordable cost. Accreditations and Licenses Pennsylvania Dept. of Health, Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Programs currently does not have licensure for prevention programs/activities. Affiliations Network for Student Assistance Services, Pennsylvania Network for Bully Prevention Training Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Single County Authority, Federal Funds through Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, School District General Budget, Private Foundations Contact Information Key Leader(s) C. deRicci Horwatt - Program Director 724-941-2850 724-942-3638 cdh@gatewayrehab.org Contact Person(s) Debra Whiteford - Administrative Assistant 724-941-2850 724-942-3638 dlw@gatewayrehab.org Contact Number(s) 724-941-2850 E-mail(s) cdh@gatewayrehab.org- Program Director dlw@gatewayrehab.org- Administrative Assistant Web Addresses www.gatewayrehab.org Primary Addresses Robinson Plaza Three, Suite 430 6600 Steubenville Pike Route 60 and Park Manor Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15205 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 375 Valleybrook Road Suite 102 McMurry, PA 15317 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Allegheny County, Fayette County, Washington County, Greene County, Beaver County Service Description Consulting Services - Promising Practice - Experienced Staff will provide services to address the prevention and intervention needs to staff, students and parents. Support group facilitation, Student Assistance support, Classroom Presentations and more Focus on Drug/Alcohol Prevention, Violence Prevention, and Service Learning Peer Mediation Training - Promising Practice This two-day training is for selected students and school personnel who are interested in joining an ongoing mediation program at the Middle and/or High School leve. This interactive training will utilize role play, group discussion, and cooperative learning techniques. Bullying Prevention Program - Best Practice The Olweus Research Based Program. This program includes schoolwide and classroom-level activity, individual interventions with bullies and victims, and community involvement. This violence prevention program combines the effort of all school staff (including teachers, principals, guidance counselors, cafeteria workers, custodians, bus drivers, etc.) as well as students, parents, and other members of the community to reduce bullying and other violent behavior. The school's effort includes: Training of staff, establishing a bullying prevention coordinating committee of teachers, staff, and parents, administering the bully/victim survey to determine when and where bullying occurs in school and increasing supervision as needed, establishing school wide rules and applying consistent sanctions against bullying, rewarding children for pro-social behavior, holding regular classroom meetings to discuss bullying and other behavioral issues. B.A.B.E.S. / K-2 - Promising Practice Beginning Alcohol and Addiction Basic Education Studies is a 7-week program for K-2 that encourages interaction between children, puppets, and teachers. Life Skills Training - Best Practice 3-8 An approved "Principals of Effectiveness" program, Life Skills Training (LST) is one of the highest rated, recommended, and researched substance abuse prevention programs today. It is grounded in over 20 years of research. Rather than teaching just ATOD information, it combats the underlying causes of substance abuse. Components of the curriculum include: Drug Resistance Skills; Personal Self-Management Skills; and General Social Skills. Project Alert (MS) - Best Practice An approved "Principals of Effectiveness" program that teaches students, through interactive and sequential lessons, to recognize the internal and external pressures they deal with when they're confronted by drug use. Too Good for Drugs and Violence - Grades 3-8 - Best Practice The goal of this school-based prevention education program is to reduce risk factors and enhance protective factors related to alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among students. The five essential life skills addressed include: goal setting, decision making, communication, identifying and managing emotions (especially anger), and making and keeping friends. High School - This comprehensive school-based prevention education program is designed to equip high school students with knowledge, skills, and attitudes to remain safe and drug free. It is based on the latest research about resiliency, risk, and protective factors - factors which have been identified as critical for young people's healthy, successful growth and development. Second Step Program - K-8 - Best Practice An approved "Principals of Effectiveness" program. Research shows that aggressive behavior in children predicts risk of later delinquency, substance abuse, shool dropout, early parenthood, and depression. The impact on families and communities is considerable. The curriculum is activity-based and motivates students to become engaged in each developmentally appropriate lesson. The foundation of the Second Step curriculum rests on three essential social competencies: empathy, impulse control, and problem solving and anger management. Student Assistance Training (MS and HS Staff) - Promising Practice A competency based 4 day training SAP training for school/agency personnel joining an existing MS/HS Team. Participants are required to complete competency assignments during and after returning to their teams at school. Training Certificate and Act 48 hours will be issued upon completion. Elementary Student Assistance Training - Promising Practice This 4 day training is designed to assist elementary school personnel to identify issues, which pose a barrier to a student's learning and school success. Full teams must attend (i.e. teachers, GC, administrator, nurse, school psychologist). Commitment to implement this program is a must. SAP Team Update/Maintenance - Promising Practice This training will provide information, focused discussion, and application strategies needed for effective and appropriate team functioning. Additional Topics: Promising Practice Safe Schools/Crisis Planning Sexual Harassment Crisis Response Alcohol and Other Drugs: Current Trends Student Assistance Overview for Staff Resiliency Child/Adolescent Grief and Loss Inhalant Abuse Teamwork Underage Drinking Offenders Program - Promising Practice UDOP provides help and education for teens and their families concerned about alcohol and other drug use. The program consists of a series of classes for youth, ages thirteen to twenty, who have had first time alcohol or drug violations or have broken school policies concerning alcohol and other drug use. This program can be used in addition to or in lieu of fines, as conditions of probation or as a requirement for suspended students to return to school. UDOP is appropriate for all teens and families who want to increase their understanding of the effects of alcohol and drug abuse on the individual. Alcohol and other drug abuse is one of the most serious problems facing our country today. The solution begins with teens learning the facts, dangers and consequences of chemical abuse and acquiring refusal skills to avoid continued pressures to use. Available Hours 8:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday. Fees/Cost for Services Please call the office. Eligibility Requirements Determined by service How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call 724-941-2850 and talk with either Debbie Whiteford or deRicci Horwatt Miscellaneous Information Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Genesis of Pittsburgh Nancy Egbert Organizational Information Parent Organization Genesis of Pittsburgh Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Genesis is a comprehensive agency providing a broad range of services that focus on life-enhancing solutions to the many problems surrounding an unplanned or distressing pregnancy. All Genesis services are provided throughout the pregnancy and beyond, for as long as the client feels she needs help. History of Organization Founded and incorporated in November, 1973 Opened Genesis House in 1983 Opened community outreach center in Washington in 1984 Opened community outreach center in Pittsburgh in 1998 Accreditations and Licenses PA Licensed Private Children & Youth Agency PA Licensed Residential Maternity Care Facility PA Licensed Adoption Agency PA Licensed Foster Care Agency Affiliations Real Alternatives Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Individual donations and fund raisers Corporate donations and grants United Way Contributors Choice Foundations Real Alternatives (grant through PA Dept. of Welfare) Contact Information Key Leader(s) Carole McMahon - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Nancy Egbert - Assistant Director Lynda Jucha - Director Genesis of Washington Contact Number(s) 412-766-2693 - Assistant Director 724-225-6701 - Director Genesis of Washington E-mail(s) nancy@genesispgh.org- Assistant Director Web Addresses www.genesispgh.org Primary Addresses Genesis of Pittsburgh, Inc. P. O. Box 41017 185 Dakota Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15202 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses Genesis of Washington 87 E. Maiden Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Genesis of Washington 87 E. Maiden Street 185 Dakota Avenue Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Tri-State area Service Description Complete & confidential adoption services Parenting classes Housing during pregnancy at Genesis House Infant CPR classes Infant care classes Breast feeding classes Life skills classes Counseling during and after pregnancy Free pregnancy testing Free maternity clothes Free baby items including clothing, cribs, car seats, diapers, formula, etc. Childbirth preparedness classes Nutrition classes Available Hours Monday 10:00 AM - 6:00 PM Tuesday 10:00 AM - 5:00 PM Wednesday 10:00 AM - 4:00 PM Thursday Friday Saturday Fees/Cost for Services All services free of charge with the exception of a small fee for housing Eligibility Requirements The client should be pregnant, possibly pregnant or the parent of a child under the age of 12 months. Required Documentation None How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments No appointments necessary For schedule of classes call the center at 724-225-6701 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes - handicapped accessible Languages Spoken or Available English is the primy language but language cards in most languages are available to clients as well as picture cards for those clients who need clothing, equipment, diapers or formula translators can be made available with advance notice Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description volunteers who would like to be trained as counselors especially for Saturdays and volunteers who would like to be receptionists GrassRoutes Counseling Services GRCS Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Co-founders Elliott A. Branch Jr. and Vanessa Drew-Branch founded GrassRoutes Counseling Services (GRCS) in 2011 out of a desire to provide recipients of mental health services with truly client-centered mental health treatment . GRCS's approach to providing mental health treatment was developed using the Integrative Medicine Model which encompasses the use of both scientific-based and evidence-based complimentary and alternative (CAM) therapies in treating illness. GRCS prescribes to this model because the founders believe that this approach allows for greater flexibility in addressing mental health illness and symptoms, and increases long-term mental health stability. Accreditations and Licenses Therapist are Liscened Social Workers granted by the state of Pennsylvania Legal Structure Unincorporated group Contact Information Key Leader(s) Elliott Branch - Executive Director/ Mental Health Therapist 724-503-2146 724-213-9818 ebranchgrcs@gmail.com Vanessa Drew-Branch - Director of Operations/ Mental Health Therapist 724-503-2146 724-213-9818 vdbranchgrcs@gmail.com Contact Person(s) Vanessa Drew-Branch - Dir. of Operations 724-503-2146 724-213-9818 vdbranch@gmail.com Contact Number(s) 724-503-2146 - telephone E-mail(s) grassroutescounseling@gmail.com- Main email Web Addresses www.grcsl.com Primary Addresses 701 Schoonmaker Ave Suite 1000 Monessen, PA 15062 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Westmoreland and Fayette Counties Service Description Mental Health Out Patient Therapy for children, Adolencents and Adults Available Hours Monday-Friday 9:00am - 5:00pm Saturday 10:00 am- 2:00pm Evening Appointments are Available Fees/Cost for Services please refer to our website www.grcsl.com How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call 724-503-2146 or email via website Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Greater Washington County Food Bank Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization OUR MISSION: TO FEED hungry people by securing and distributing food and grocery products through a countywide network of food pantries. TO INCREASE public awareness about the problems of hunger in our community and our solutions. TO EDUCATE the people who come to us on nutrition. OUR VALUES: In carrying out its mission, the Greater Washington County Food Bank is committed to standards of performance represented by the values in which we believe; RESPECT FOR HUMAN DIGNITY - we will serve those who come to us without regard to race, creed, sex,lifestyle, residence or any other discriminatory consideration. We strive to provide a voice for people living in poverty. INTEGRITY - we will be open and honest in all relationships, dealings and transactions. We will strive to earn and convey trust through openness and honesty. STEWARDSHIP - we will keep faith with the public trust through the efficient and compassionate use of resources entrusted to us. We will strive to be mindful that the mission is accomplished through the generosity of others. ACCOUNTABILITY - we will set clear standards for the benchmark against which to measure competence, efficiency and record keeping and report information and all will be subject to an annual independent audit. SERVICE - we will stay close to those we serve. We will commit to provide excellent service. We will continually strive to study, understand and meet the changing needs of the hungry with competence, compassion and kindness. OUR VISION; So that no one goes to bed hungry...we will nourish hungry people and lead the community to eliminate hunger. History of Organization The food bank was intially founded in 1981 when a group of unemployed steelworks, churches, and community groups began distributing food packages to families that were hardest hit by the collapse of the steel industry and the recession in the early's 80's. Subsequently, these pantries were organized into what has become the food pantry network,which was operated by Community Action until 1997 In early January 1998, the Washington County Commissioners created a new organization to operated the food bank. The commissioners believed it was time for the Food Bank to be an independent agency with its own board of directors that could fully direct its engereies to the single purpose fo fighting hunger in the county. The new food bank was quickly incorporated,applied for, and received its federal tax exemp status, 501 (c) 3, and Bureau of Charitable Organization status. In August 1999, the Board of directors became disheartened by the direction the food bank was heading, at which time a new executive director and warehouse manager were hired. Their goal was to restructure and rebuild the reputation of the Food Bank. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Grants State Funding FEMA funding Fundraising Private Donations Contact Information Key Leader(s) Lisa Nuccetelli - Executive Director 724-229-8175 724-229-8178 Frank Esposito - President Contact Person(s) Lisa Nuccetelli - Executive Director Contact Number(s) 724-229-8175 E-mail(s) gwcfb@pulsenet.com Web Addresses gwcfb.org Primary Addresses 1020 RT 519 Eighty Four, Pa 15330 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area 34 Pantries in Washington County Call food bank for locations 724-229-8175 Service Description FEEDING THE HUNGRY IN WASHINGTON COUNTY Available Hours 8 AM TO 4 PM Eligibility Requirements CALL FOOD BANK FOR ELIGIBILITY 724-229-8175 Required Documentation PROOF OF INCOME, RESIDENTS ( ELECTR IC, OR TELEPHONE, UTILITY BILL, LAST FOUR NUMBERS OF SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments CALL FOOD BANK 724-229-8175 Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need Yes Greenbriar Treatment Center GTC Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Greenbriar Treatment Center offers help and hope to those suffering from addiction, and support for the people who love them. Our approach to treatment is based on respect for the dignity of the people we serve and the belief that addiction is a treatable disease. Our chemical dependency treatment providers and MISA (mental illness, substance abuse) professionals will assist you in developing a lifelong recovery plan as you begin your journey towards a sober and serene life. Chemical Dependency and Dual Diagnosis issues do not have to control your life. Help is available! Accreditations and Licenses Greenbriar Treatment Center is licensed by: The Pennsylvania Department of Health - Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Programs The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania - Department of Public Welfare Accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Affiliations Washington Hospital Legal Structure For-profit entity Contact Information Key Leader(s) Mary Banaszak - CEO Holly Martin M.A., CCDP Dpl - COO Peggy O Neill, M.A. - Director of Clinical Services Judy Shannon, B.S. - Director of Community & Corporate Services Contact Person(s) Stefanie Madoskey - Intake Coordinator Contact Number(s) 412-829-2103 - Greenbriar - Monroeville 412-885-7180 - Greenbriar- South Hills 412-788-6292 - Greenbriar - Robinson Twp. 1-724-225-9764 - FAX 724-916-0192 - Greenbriar - North Strabane 1-724-225-9700 - Local 1-800-637-4673 - Toll Free 724-339-7180 - Greenbriar - New Kensington 412-421-4311 - Greenbriar - Squirrel Hill 724-934-8435 - Greenbriar - Wexford 724-222-4753 - Greenbriar- The Lighthouse for Women E-mail(s) smadoskey@greenbriar.net- Intake Coordinator Web Addresses www.greenbriar.net - Main Web Site www.greenbriartraining.com - Trainings and Books Primary Addresses 800 Manor Drive Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 1928 1/2 Murray Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15217 Click here for a Map of this Location. Twin Towers, Suite 365 4995 Steubenville Pike Pittsburgh, PA 15205 Click here for a Map of this Location. 101 Towne Square Way Suite 221 Brentwood, PA 15227 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1840 Washington Road Route 19 Washington, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. 601 Sixth Street New Kensington, PA 15068 Click here for a Map of this Location. Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 6200 Brooktree Road Suite 210 Wexford, PA 15090 Click here for a Map of this Location. (Undisclosed) Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Click here for a Map of this Location. 400 Penn Center Boulevard, Suite 707 Pittsburgh, Pa 15235 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Western Pennsylvania Service Description Dual Diagnosis Program -- Greenbriar Treatment Center's dual diagnosis program is designed to treat chemically dependent individuals whose attempts at recovery are complicated by mental health issues. Our intimate, private treatment center offers a safe and accepting atmosphere for patients to learn new, healthy responses to life. The patients have daily access to Masters level mental health therapists, and nurses experienced in psychiatric as well as substance and mental health treatment. Our Medical Director, John Six, M.D. , and our staff psychiatrist, Oscar Urrea, M.D. lead the team in directing client treatment. Psychiatric consultations, individual and group therapies and psychological testing are utilized as indicated to provide the client with the most individualized care. Treatment planning focuses on the understanding and treatment of chemical dependency, concurrent with the client's mental health disorder. Medication management, coping with a dual disorder and the importance of continued support are all vital educational components in this program. Family educational sessions and 12 Step based meetings offer well rounded treatment for clients in this program. Dual diagnosis treatment is available in all levels of care as indicated by the pre-treatment assessment. Individual Counseling -- Completing the continuum of care, as well as a stand alone treatment option, individual counseling is offered at all sites to clients seeking help for problems with family issues, stress, depression and/or other concerns as they relate to personal or familial substance abuse. Sessions are conducted by appointment only with Masters level therapists. As with all programs, this service can be accessed through Greenbriar's central admissions department. Inpatient / Non Hospital -- (Washington Site Only) Residential treatment is the appropriate level of care for the client who needs a safe, structured environment in early recovery. The client resides at the facility and receives treatment throughout the day and evening hours. Treatment modalities include psycho-educational sessions, individual and group therapy and family educational programming. Special treatment groups such as, mens's & women's group, cocaine and relapse tracks, and recovery in the workplace, are among those available to meet the individual needs of the client population. Attendance at AA/NA meetings is mandatory both in and outside the facility as clients begin the process of building sober support systems and obtaining temporary sponsorship. Assignments are individualized and are assigned by the primary therapist after a thorough psycho-social assessment is completed. Partial Programming -- Clients in this level of care meet up to 7 days a week from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Treatment modalities imitate that of the residential program, and clients are expected to attend the weekly family session in the evening as well. Treatment planning includes attendance at AA/NA meetings during the evening hours. Clients in this program should expect random drug screening at the discretion of the therapist. Attendance and adherence to program guidelines, including recommended 12 Step based meetings is closely monitored. Day Partial Program (Half Day) -- Clients in this program will receive treatment three to four hours a day in either a morning or afternoon session as indicated by client availability. This program meets four to six days per week, with attendance one time per week at an evening family session. Treatment methods and other program guidelines are the same as a full day program. Evening Partial Program (All Sites) -- Clients in this program meet up to four nights per week from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. The program consists of psycho-educational sessions, individual and group therapy sessions and family educational sessions one evening per week. Random drug screening is conducted at the discretion of the therapist, and regular attendance is mandatory with the exception of excused absences. Detoxification -- (Washington Site Only) The process of detoxification allows the client to safely withdraw from alcohol and/or drugs in a medically managed environment. The process is supervised by the Associate Medical Director and his staff of physicians. Registered nurses are available on site 24 hours a day to insure a comfortable and safe experience. The Lighthouse for Women (Half Way House) -- Greenbriar is a pioneer in the treatment of individuals with substance abuse issues that are complicated by mental health concerns. After years of unsuccessful attempts at finding effective longer-term follow-up for our dually diagnosed clients, we at Greenbriar decided to develop our own halfway house. The programming at The Lighthouse was developed by professional mental health and drug and alcohol treatment staff. In addition we solicited significant input from dually diagnosed consumers, who continue to offer suggestions and assistance with our ongoing program evaluation. The Lighthouse staff are specialists in the treatment of dually diagnosed consumers, and each woman s treatment is individualized to meet her recovery needs. Our expectation is that upon discharge, our clients will have developed an understanding and acceptance of their diagnoses, and will have acquired the skills necessary to care for their needs in their own home environment. The facility, originally a private residence which was renovated to create a large personal care home, is now our 25 bed halfway house for women. Our home-like atmosphere now includes numerous bedrooms and bathrooms, a large great room, exercise and laundry areas, an independent dining and food preparation area, as well as staff offices. The Lighthouse for Women completes the Greenbriar Treatment Center full continuum of care for dually diagnosed women. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Intermediate Unit One IU#1 Organizational Information Parent Organization Program Name: Homeless Children's Initiative Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The main purpose of the Pennsylvania Homeless Children s Initiative is to make sure homeless children and youth ages 3- high school graduation have access to appropriate education while removing barriers that homeless children face. Its goal is to have the educational process continue as uninterrupted as possible while the students are living in homeless situations. Other objectives of the Homeless Children s Initiative are to inform local school districts of their responsibilities to homeless students under the Federal McKinney-Vento law, to increase awareness in the community about the needs of homeless children, provide technical assistance about the legislation and policies, and provide tangible assistance to homeless children and youth. Eligibility Criteria for the Services and Programs you offer: Under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 Amendments (Sec. 725), the term homeless children and youths means individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence and includes: (i) children and youths who are sharing the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; are living in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to the lack of alternative adequate accommodations; are living in emergency or transitional shelters; are abandoned in hospitals; or are awaiting foster care placement; (ii) children and youths who have a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings; (iii) children and youths who are living in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings; and (iv) migratory children who qualify as homeless for the purposes of this subtitle because the children are living in circumstances described in clauses (i) through (iii). Contact Information: Phone Number: 724.938.0820. ext.21 Address:742 Orchard Street California, PA 15419 Email: voithoferm@iu1.k12.pa.us michellevoithofer@hotmail.com Hours of Operation: 7:30 a.m.- 3:30 p.m. Website: www.pde.state.pa.us/homeless www.iu1.k12.pa.us Legal Structure School District Contact Information Key Leader(s) Candace Dunn - Director of Special Education Contact Person(s) Michelle Voithofer - Site Coordinator, Homeless Children's Initiative Contact Number(s) 724.938.0820 ext. 21 Primary Addresses 742 Orchard Street California, PA 15419 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Fayette, Greene and Washington Counties Available Hours 7:30 - 3:00 pm Monday - Friday Fees/Cost for Services No Fees Eligibility Requirements Pre K- 12 Required Documentation Individual assesments to meet criteria How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call or email voithoferm@iu1.k12.pa.us Mental Health Association of Washington County MHA Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization We envision a community in which all members with mental health issues are accepted, not stigmatized,and have an opportunity to reach their full potential. The mission of the Mental Health Association is to promote an environment of empowerment and acceptance for all people dealing with mental health issues through advocacy, education and comprehensive services. We foster opportunities for growth, recovery, inclusion and most importantly HOPE. History of Organization MHA has provided advocacy services since 1965. For over 40 years the agency has been a force for change and service expansion. Accreditations and Licenses Licensed Personal Care Home provider Licensed LTSR provider Licensed Mobile Psychiatric Rehabilitation provider Value Behavioral Health Accreditation Affiliations Member of...1. the Mental Health Association of PA, 2. PA Mental Health Consumers Association, 3.PAPSRS,4.Southwest HC Stakeholders, 5.Washington County CSP,6.Western Regional CSP,7. Washington County Health and Welfare,8. Washington County Health Partners,9. WIN and 10.a United Way donor option agency. MHA staff also serve on numerous boards and coalitions. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources MH/MR Washington County MH/MR Fayette County MH/MR Greene County United Way USDA Foundations and private donations Contact Information Key Leader(s) Lynne M. Loresch - Executive Director E-mail(s) Loresch@verizon.net Web Addresses www.mhawashco.org Primary Addresses MHA 575 & 565 North Main Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses MHA EPC 200 Spring Street Bentleyville, PA 15314 Click here for a Map of this Location. MHA LTSR 225 Spring Street Bentleyville, PA 15314 Click here for a Map of this Location. Circle Center 565 N. Main Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Greene and Fayette counties Service Description Long term Structured Residence Enhanced Personal Care Home Health Choices Ombudsman Parent Advocate Advocacy Taxonomy Category Abused Children Abused Children Abused Children Abused Children Drop-in-Center Mobile Psychiatric Rehabilitation Representative Payee Available Hours 9:00-5:00 Monday thru Friday Fees/Cost for Services All services except residential services are free to residents of Washington County Eligibility Requirements Mental Health consumers of Washington County Required Documentation Requirements differ according to intensity of service How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact main office or website for information Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility All service sites fully accessible Languages Spoken or Available English Mesothelioma Web Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Mesothelioma Web is a website about the cancer mesothelioma. This form of cancer has a very long latency period, and frequently doesn't strike until years after a person has been exposed to asbestos. The website consolidates information on symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and oncology specialists with experience treating the disease. http://wwww.mesotheliomaweb.org/ History of Organization Founded in 2000. Accreditations and Licenses N/A Affiliations N/A Legal Structure Unincorporated group Funding Sources The David Law Firm, The Woodlands, Texas Contact Information Key Leader(s) Cheryl Engman - Coordinator Contact Person(s) Bill Sussman - Assistant coordinator Contact Number(s) 877-367-6376 - Mesothelioma Web E-mail(s) info@mesotheliomaweb.org- Mesothelioma Web Web Addresses www.mesotheliomaweb.org/ - Mesothelioma Web Primary Addresses 10655 Six Pines Dr., Suite 260 The Woodlands, TX 77380 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Nationwide Service Description Informational website about the cancer mesothelioma, including details on diagnosis and treatment options. Available Hours 8 AM to 5 PM Fees/Cost for Services None Eligibility Requirements None Required Documentation None How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Website http://www.mesotheliomaweb.org/ or 877-367-6376 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility N/A Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Mon Valley Community Health Services, Inc. MVCHS Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services/SPHS Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Provide a full range of primary medical and related health care services to residents of southwesten Pennsylvania, including low income, disabled, elderly and uninsured persons. History of Organization MVHCS was established in 1979. It is a non-profit organization providing health care services to the medically underserved residents of the Mon Valley. In additional to providing primary health care and family planning services, MVCHS also operates the GED/program for Washington residents and the Women, Infant and Children program for Westmoreland county. Affiliations SPHS Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Grants, insurance billing, self pay Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jeff Burks Mascara - Chief Operating Officer Contact Person(s) Cathy A. Moffit - Project Officer Contact Number(s) 724/684-9000 ext. 4332 - Telephone E-mail(s) cmoffit@sphs.org- Project Officer Web Addresses sphs.org - Parent organization Primary Addresses Eastgate # 8 3rd floor Monessen, PA 15062 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Mon Valley Area including parts of Westmoreland, Fayette, and Washington Counties Service Description A full range of comprehensive primary and preventive health care and family planning services to residents of all ages Available Hours Monday through Friday 8:30 - 4:00 Fees/Cost for Services Most health care insurances accepted sliding fee scale for income eligible patients some free services available Eligibility Requirements Most health care insurances accepted sliding fee scale available with proof of income some free services with proof of income Required Documentation Insurance cards Identification and proof of income requried for sliding fee and no fee services How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call during office hours at 724/684-9000 ext. 4472 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility yes Northwestern Human Services/Woodland Center NHS Human Services/Woodland Organizational Information Parent Organization Northwestern Human Services, Inc. Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Mission Statement: "NHS provides innovative solutions to support the unique needs of the individuals we serve by striving to create a caring and responsive environment that promotes the highest standards of integrity and quality." History of Organization Northwestern Human Services of PA Corporate History and Background Northwestern Human Services, Inc. ("Northwestern"), a non-profit corporation organized under the laws of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is the largest non-profit provider of community-based mental health, mental retardation, substance abuse and other health and human services to the publicly funded sector in Pennsylvania. Northwestern commenced operations in 1965 with the formation of the Northwestern Institute of Psychiatry followed by the addition of the Northwest Center in 1966. During the 1970's and 1980's, additional affiliated entities commenced operations or became affiliated with these organizations. In 1981, Northwestern Human Services, Inc. (formerly the Northwestern Corporation) was formed to be the parent company of the aforementioned subsidiaries. In 1984, Northwestern formally separated from the Northwestern Institute of Psychiatry. The expansion of new services included adult medical day care services, skilled nursing home facilities, home health, adoption, foster care, autism, and juvenile justice service offerings. In addition to Northwestern's expansion of new services, Northwestern continues to maintain a strong core group of services, which are provided to individuals with mental health and mental retardation disabilities and drug and alcohol abuse problems. Northwestern's broad spectrum of mental health and mental retardation services allows clients to be served along a comprehensive continuum of care. The mental health services range from those of low intensity such as outpatient case management to very intense services such as inpatient psychiatric care to maximum care community rehabilitation residences. Additionally, there is a full range of services that bridge the gap of intermediate levels of care, which include minimum and moderate care community rehabilitation residences, as well as partial hospitalization programs and long term structured residences. The mental retardation service offerings also include a wide range of services such as community living arrangement group homes, home based residential programs, intermediate care facilities for individuals with mental retardation, supported living facilities, targeted case management and vocational programs. Individuals with a dual diagnosis (mental retardation and mental illness) are able to take advantage of Northwestern's continuum of programs. Northwestern operates drug and alcohol programs including traditional and intensive outpatient, methadone maintenance, and school-based programs. Northwestern's provision of community based care in both the areas of mental health and mental retardation, which is augmented by its drug and alcohol programs, as well as the ability to meet the service needs of all age groups from young children to our senior citizens, allows for Northwestern to provide a continuum of behavioral health care services in the least restrictive manner to a very broad client base. Northwestern differentiates itself from other behavioral healthcare providers in that most mental health and mental retardation services are performed by relatively small community agencies which focus an a single type or narrow range of services. This narrow scope of services limits many behavioral healthcare providers from competing with the array of services offered by larger firms such as Northwestern, which is able to provide a full range of integrated behavioral healthcare and mental retardation services a continuum of care. NHS maintains its corporate headquarters in Montgomery County, PA 620 Germantown Pike, Lafayette Hill, 19444. Accreditations and Licenses ODP DPW OMHSAS Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources DPW Dept of Aging ODP VBH CCBH Washington County MH/MR Greene County MH/MR Blair County MH/MR Fayette County MH/MR Contact Information Key Leader(s) Tinnesia Snyder - Southern Catchment Area Director Lori Harvey - Assistant Director Shelly Davis - Director MR Services Robyn Shrader - Director TFC/FCP Programs Contact Person(s) Julie Durbin - HR Representative Grace Paul - Utilization/Training Manager Contact Number(s) 724-942-4677 - Catchment Area Director 724-942-4677 - Assistant Catchment Area Director 724-942-4677 - Director MR Services 724-942-4677 - Director TFC/FCP Programs 724-942-4677 - Marketing/CQI Coordinator 724-942-4677 - HR Representative 724-942-4677 - Utilization/Training Manager E-mail(s) tsnyder@nhsonline.org- Southern Catchment Area Director lharvey@nhsonline.org- Assistant Catchment Area Director sdavis@nhsonline.org- Director MR Services rshrader@nhsonline.org- Director TFC/FCP Programs jdurbin@nhsonline.org- HR Representative gpaul@nhsonline.org- Utilization/Training Manager Web Addresses www.nhsonline.org - Northwestern Human Services Primary Addresses 1075 Waterdam Plaza Drive McMurray, PA 15317 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 260 Ohio River Boulevard Baden Plaza Baden , PA 15005 Click here for a Map of this Location. 6 Oliver Road Suite 121 Uniontown, PA 15401 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Statewide Service Description Family Living gives people the choices on where and with whom they want to live; this program assists in finding families who are willing to open their homes to individuals with mental retardation Adult training/Community Day Services offers a unique approach that assists people locate valued social roles within their community as well as helping individuals develop skills and increase independence by providing opportunities such as employment and volunteer opportunities Community Living, Medical Homes This program provides a home to individuals with severe medical and physical problems. These individuals need higher levels of staff support including professional nursing. People living in such homes are involved in meaningful activities, provided out of their home environment, with an emphasis on community integration and self-determination. Community Living provides a home to a group of individuals with Mental Retardation who need varying of staff support. People living in Group Homes are involved in meaningful daytime activities including employment, volunteer work, socialization, community activities and training programs. Home Based Waiver Support is designed to offer a variety of services and support to families who have a family member with mental retardation living at home. Resources and assistance are provided to enable the family to continue to have their family member living at home. Family Based Services provides in-home family and individual therapy by a 2 person team, available to provide support 7 days a week, 24 hours a day to at risk children/adolescents and their families. The program goal is to prevent psychiatric hospitalization and our-of-home placement and to link the family with ongoing services to prevent future crisis situations. Foster Care Plus for children whose needs exceed traditional foster care placement. The program proves structure and specialized foster care homes for children with emotional and behavioral problems. Therapeutic Family Care places children who may be emotionally, behaviorally or mentally challenged with a family who has been specially trained to provide a structured and therapeutic environment. Wrap-Around Enhanced Mental Health Services provides individualized community based counseling services which address the overall needs of the child, including educational developmental and emotional. Services are provided in the home, school or community and must be deemed medically necessary by a physician. Autism Services offer a range of treatment options that may be provided in the home, school or in a day care setting. A team of clinicians including a psychologist, behavior specialist and case manager works with the family of a child with Autism to determine the most appropriate treatment. Office of Social Programs (OSP) Commcare: Traumatic brain injury OBRA: Relocation from nursing facilities to community settings and individuals who need a high level of habilitation services. Available Hours All Office locations: Hours 8:30 AM to 4:30 PM All Programs offer 24 hour support Fees/Cost for Services Eligibility through Medicare, Medicaid, and Private Pay Eligibility Requirements Based on individual needs Required Documentation Based on funding eligibility specific to program How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 724-942-4677 or 1-800-NHS-6061 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility All locations are Handicap Accessible Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Qualified volunteers to work with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in after school or summer program. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation OVR Organizational Information Parent Organization Department of labor and Industry Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To assist Pennsylvanians with disabilities to secure and maintain employment and independence. History of Organization All states have OVR offices except they may be called by different names. OVR started in 1917 to assist disabled returning WW I soldiers. Services have expanded over ther years to include all people with all disabilities. Accreditations and Licenses N/A Affiliations N/A Legal Structure State Government Funding Sources Federal and State funding Contact Information Key Leader(s) Lori Kaczmarek - District Administrator Ron Rudberg - Assistant District Administrator Contact Person(s) Lori Kaczmarek - District Administrator Ron Rudberg - Assistant District Administrator Contact Number(s) 724-223-4430 x252 - Lori Kaczmarek/ District Administrator 724-223-4430 x254 - Ron Rudberg E-mail(s) lkaczmarek@state.pa.us- Lori Kaczmarek/District Administrator rrudberg@state.pa.us- Ron Rudberg / Assistant District Administrator Web Addresses http://www.dli.state.pa.us/ovr - Office of Vocational Rehabilitation Primary Addresses 201 W. Wheeling St. Washington, Pa 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses Mon Valley United Health Center Eastgate 8 Monesson, PA 15062 Click here for a Map of this Location. 137 N. Beeson Blvd. Uniontown, PA 15401 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Greene and Fayette Counties Service Description OVR serves people who have disabilities that present a substantial impediment to employment. Services are provided to individuals who can benefit from, and who need services to prepare for, enter into, engage in, or retain employment. Available Hours 8:00AM to 4:30PM Monday through Friday Fees/Cost for Services It does not cost you anything to apply for services. There is no charge for diagnostic services, vocational evaluation, counseling, or job placement assistance. If you are eligible for services , your counselor will ask you to provide documents about your income and expenses. Dependeing upon your income, you may have to contribute to the cost of OVR services. OVR cannot pay for any services you received before you applied to OVR. Even after you apply, OVR can pay only for those services approved in advance by your counselor. Eligibility Requirements Yop have a disability, that is, physical, mental, or emotional impairment which results in a sudstantial impediment to employment, and you can benefit in terms of an employment outcome from services provided and vocational services are required for you to prepare for, enter, engage in, or retain gainful employment. Required Documentation Medical and financial documentation. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 1-800-442-6367 or visit in person to the OVR office at 201 W. Wheeling St., Washington, PA 15301 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Accessable Languages Spoken or Available Use of Language Services Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No PA CareerLink Washington County CareerLink Organizational Information Parent Organization None Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Jobs, training, careers & connections. PA CareerLink Washington County is a one-stop resource for economic growth through community connections, employment opportunities, training services, and career development. History of Organization One-stop services were created by the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA). Each state created "one-stop-shops" to provide no-cost services to businesses, employers, and job seekers. In Pennsylvania, the one-stop system is branded under the name "PA CareerLink". The WIA model incorporates services previously provided by the state's job centers. Our site's "services cooperative" includes 13 distinct partner agencies sharing operating costs and the provision of services to jobseekers and employers in our community. Accreditations and Licenses None Affiliations Site Partners: Arbor E & T Bureau of Workforce Development Partnership (PA Dept of Labor & Industry) Community Action Southwest County Assistance Office Intermediate Unit 1 PIA Career Services Office of Vocational Rehabilitation Penn Commercial Business/Technical School Pittsburgh Technical Institute (PTI) Southwest Training Services, Inc. SW PA Area Agency on Aging Western Area Career & Technology Center Washington Greene County Job Training Agency, Inc. Legal Structure Other Funding Sources State, federal, partner agency Contact Information Key Leader(s) Nancy R. "Nan" Sninsky - PA CareerLink Administrator Lisa Neil - President Southwest Training Services Inc & PA CareerLink Operator Point of Contact Contact Person(s) Inc. & PA CareerLink Operator Point of Contact Southwest Training Services Nan Sninsky - PA CareerLink Administrator Ray Castner - Bureau of Workforce Development Supervisor Lisa Neil - President Contact Number(s) 724/223-4500 - Main Telephone Line 724/250-1254 - TTY 724/223-4670 - FAX E-mail(s) nsninsky@state.pa.us- PA CareerLink Administrator racastner@state.pa.us- Bureau of Workforce Development Partnership Supervisor Web Addresses www.pacareerlink.state.pa.us www.cwds.state.pa.us - New PA CareerLink web address Service Information Service Description Online applicant search/job matching for jobseekers and employers Staff-assisted registration, enrollment, and job or job candidate searches Labor Market Information for employers and jobseekers On-site recruitments, interviews, and job fairs Information on training providers, training courses, and training funds Initial skills assessment/occupational profiling Job search skill development including resume writing, career building, interviewing skills, computer basics, etc. Youth programs such as career exploration, leadership development, job shadowing, computer literacy, and work experience. Veterans services including employment/job search; training/education, and social services referral Rapid Response services for company downsizing, layoffs, and shut downs On-the-job training and training funds for incumbent workers Available Hours 8:00 to 4:30 Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday 10:00 to 4:30 on Wednesday Fees/Cost for Services No costs for any service. Small room rental fee for employers for onsite recruitments. Eligibility Requirements Open to any jobseeker looking for work or employers looking for workers; funding for some training programs requires eligibility determination Required Documentation Funding for some training programs requires documentation. Some youth programs require documentation. otherwise, none required. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Orientation to services held every Tuesday and Friday at 9:15 am. No appointment necessary. Can accommodate walk-ins if work or other schedule conflict prohibits attendance at orientation. Can access online services via www.pacareerlink.state.pa.us or www.cwds.state.pa.us. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Fully compliant with all ADA requirements for accessibility. Languages Spoken or Available Any language can be accommodated. We use the Language Line Service for over-the-phone interpretation and document translation. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description We need someone to teach Basic Computer Skills (using a mouse, Outlook, Word, internet) on a weekly basis. PA Dept of Health Washington County Satte Health Center Organizational Information Parent Organization Bureau of Community Health Sytems Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To promote healthy lifestyles,prevent injury and disease, and to assure the safe delivery of quality healht care for all Commonwealth citizens. Legal Structure State Government Funding Sources State and fedeal funding. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Artis Hall - District Executive Director Contact Person(s) Barbara Motto RNBC BSN - Community Health Nurse Supervisor E-mail(s) bmotto@state.pa.us Web Addresses www.health.sate.pa.us Primary Addresses 167 N Main St Suite 100 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Mainly to residents of Washington County,but no restrictions for some services Service Description Preventative clinics and testing. Clinics include adult and childhood immunizations. HIV alternate test site. Offer free confidential testing. Tuberculosis screening and treatment clinic. Public health infromation and resource referrals available. Professional nursing services related to our mandated services. Available Hours Monday through Friday. 8am until 4:30 pm. Fees/Cost for Services Most services are free or cost based on income. Eligibility Requirements None Required Documentation None How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Service available by appointment. Call first. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility yes Languages Spoken or Available English. Interpreters available for language and hearing impaired. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Pathways of Southwestern Pennsylvania, Inc. Pathways of SW PA Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Pathways of Southwestern Pennsylvania serves Individuals of all ages with physical and intellectual disabilities. Our commitment to the principles of independence, inclusion and choice assures an opportunity for all Individuals to realize their full potential and be integral members of the community. History of Organization Pathways of Southwestern Pennsylvania, Inc., formerly known as UCP of SW PA up to July 1, 2009, has been providing services to individuals in Washington, Greene, and Fayette Counties for over 40 years. In 1964, United Cerebral Palsy of Washington County was incorporated as a non-profit social service organization and in 1967 the agency expanded to include Greene and Fayette Counties and became UCP of SW PA, Inc. In 1993, Rainbow's End Learning Center, Inc., was developed as an integrated child-care program recognizing the needs of parents of children with and without disabilities. These programs include Early Intervention (EI), Adult Training Facility (ATF), a Residential Program, Exceptional Choices, Recreation Station, and The Pennsylvania Elks Home Service Program. A corporate structure was developed to include the following family of corporations: UCP of SW PA, UCP Home and Community Services, Your Child's Place, and The UCP Foundation. On July 1, 2009 UCP of SW PA became Pathways of Southwestern Pennsylvania, UCP Foundation became Pathways Foundation and UCP Home and Community Services became Home and Community Services. Accreditations and Licenses The agency provides a wide range of services to individuals (birth to senior citizens) with disabilities through programs licensed by various government agencies such as the Pennsylvania Departments of Health, Education, Public Welfare, and Aging. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Department of Public Welfare; Office of Developmental Programs; Office of Long Term Living; Office of Childhood Development and Early Learning; Federal Funds; Medical Assitance; Specific Managed Care Organizations/Health Insurance; County MH/MR Offices; Private Pay; Intermediate Units; CCIS/DPW; Department of Education/Child and Adult Care Food Program; Area Agency on Aging Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jill Ealy - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Kimberly McBane - Program Operations Director Contact Number(s) 724-229-0851 - Administrative Office - North Main Street 724-225-8145 - Program Office - Jefferson Avenue E-mail(s) kmcbane@pathwaysswpa.org- Program Operations Director Web Addresses www.pathwaysswpa.org - Agency website Primary Addresses 190 North Main Street Suite 306 Washington , PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 655 Jefferson Avenue Washington , PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 140 N. Beeson Street Suite 402 Uniontown , PA 15401 Click here for a Map of this Location. 289 North Avenue Washington , PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 130 Bill George Drive Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area The location of our programs are within a tri county region; Washington, Greene and Fayette counties. We provide services for individuals with funding from other counties and may expand into additional counties in the future. Service Description Older Adult Daily Living Program, licensed by the Department of Aging, provides day services to adults (age 60 and over) with developmental disabilities. The Adult Training Facility (ATF), licensed by the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare with program locations in Washington and Waynesburg, provides educational experiences, daily living and survival skills, social development, community awareness, physical exercise, and vocational / prevocational skills for individuals with mental retardation and developmental disabilities that are 18 years of age and older. ATF is an individualized teaching and training program whose primary goal is to enable adults to live as independently as possible. Every attempt is made to accommodate each individual's likes/dislikes, as well as their strengths, wants, and needs. Currently, 68 individuals receive services at these facilities. Home and Community Services Inc(H&CS),formerly UCP Home and Community Services, Inc., began offering services in 1994 to individuals of all ages with physical disabilities and/or other related conditions whose desire is either to remain within their community or to relocate from nursing facilities to community settings. Services are offered in Washington, Greene, and Fayette Counties. H&CS provides non-medical, in home support, which assists individuals with disabilities to live as independently as possible in their own home. Services focus on all ages including children, adults, and the elderly. H&CS currently provides services to over 260 individuals. On July 1, 2009 UCP H&CS became Home and Community Services, Inc. Recreation Station is a parent supervised creative play center that supports families who have children of all abilities. This 5,600 sq. ft. facility allows families and children of diverse abilities and backgrounds to interact in a social setting. Families who have multiple children (with and without disabilities) utilize a single location where, regardless of abilities, they all can participate in the same activities and play areas. One such play area is a clock tower that includes a lift for children in wheelchairs so they have the ability to see the world from someplace other than ground level. Children in wheelchairs rarely have this opportunity. This clock tower, as well as a fully-accessible train. Your Child's Place, a prescribed pediatric extended care facility for children with complex medical needs that prevent them from attending typical child care centers, offers services daily infants and young children, birth to age eight. The hours of operation are from 6:30 AM to 6:00 PM, Monday through Friday. Children who require specialized care or support for acute health situations that require the support of a pediatric nurse, are eligible for services. Many of the children are technology dependent. Additional assistance given to children with special needs includes airway management, respiratory support, monitoring equipment, oral/eternal feeding support, medication management and administration, post-surgical care, special therapies (physical, occupational, and/or speech-language), and management of adaptive equipment. Monitoring equipment consists of oxygen and A & B (heart rate and breathing) monitors that will be completely mobile (can be used throughout the facility) and are observed and recorded by pediatric nursing staff and aides. There is a strong educational component offered through age-appropriate learning activities directed by an early childhood specialist, development specialist, or therapist. The Pennsylvania Elks Home Service Program is a medical care coordination service operated through the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks. A registered nurse visits the homes of persons who have physical and developmental disabilities to provide appropriate referrals and coordination of needed services. These disabilities include, but are not limited to, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida, speech, hearing, and visual disorders. Currently, there are 345 individuals enrolled in this program. This service is offered free of charge to persons of any age. Rainbow's End Learning Center, Inc., with locations in Washington, PA and Waynesburg, PA, provides a safe, well-supervised learning environment for children of all abilities. Licensed by the Pennsylvania Department of Education and Department of Public Welfare, children with and without disabilities interact and play together in classrooms that provide stimulating learning environments. A higher than typical staff to child ratio makes it possible for each child to receive the maximum benefit from each activity and lesson. Our program's philosophy is developed around an educationally based, hands-on approach to learning. This philosophy is adapted to meet the individual needs of the children in each classroom environment, infancy (6 weeks of age) through kindergarten (6 years old). A summer program is also available for children ages 5 through 11 years at both locations. Rainbow's End has a current enrollment of 174 children. The Early Intervention (EI) Program offers supports and services designed to assist families with infants and toddlers (birth through age two), with special needs, to promote the development of their child. Early Interventionists provide services within the child's natural environment. This typically includes the child's home, child care center, or other community setting. This approach is intended to help the child's caregivers learn ways to support their children within their daily routines and activities. Related services include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech pathology, vision support, hearing support and social work services are provided as appropriate. Pathways of SW PA provides EI services to 221 children residing in Washington and Greene Counties. All services are available year round and are provided at no cost to families. The Residential Program provides 24 hour supervised living arrangements in houses located within communities in Washington and Greene County. These individuals live in a family setting consisting of three individuals per residence. With support of the residential staff, each person participates in all aspects of typical community living which includes work, social activities within the community, and/or attending the day program at the Adult Training Facilities (ATF) in Washington, PA and Waynesburg, PA. There are currently 19 individuals in this program. The Exceptional Choices program services are available for children and adults with mental retardation, age three (3) years old and above. The aim of this program is to assure that individuals and their families are able to exercise choice and control in their services and supports. We build upon the natural supports already in place by forming a partnership with the individual and their family. Currently, the Exceptional Choices program serves 10 individuals. Available Hours Business Hours 8:00am to 4:00pm M-F; Program Hours vary according to the specific program Fees/Cost for Services Most of Pathways of SW PA's programs are provided at no cost to the individual receiving services. However, some of the programs do require a fee. Please contact us to discuss any possible pricing. Eligibility Requirements Varies according to the specific program. Please contact us for your specific needs/interests. Required Documentation Varies according to the specific program. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact us at 724-229-0851 or 724-225-8145 to discuss your individual service needs. Pecosh Counseling & Consulting PCC Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Counseling with integrity. Accreditations and Licenses Licensed Professional Counselor, National Certified Counselor Legal Structure For-profit entity Contact Information Key Leader(s) Michael Pecosh - Therapist 7242492829 7242492829 7242069222 mike@washingtontherapist.com Contact Person(s) Michael Pecosh - Therapist 7242492829 7242492829 7242069222 mike@washingtontherapist.com Contact Number(s) 7242492829 - Telephone E-mail(s) mike@washingtontherapist.com- mike@washingtontherapist.com Web Addresses www.pecosh.com - Website Primary Addresses 2155 Park Ave. Suite 250 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington and surrounding communities Service Description Therapy and counseling Available Hours M-H 9-9, F 8-5, S 9-1, Closed Sunday Fees/Cost for Services Most insurance accepted How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact us at 724-249-2829 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Presbyterian SeniorCare Organizational Information Parent Organization Presbyterian SeniorCare Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Presbyterian SeniorCare is western Pennsylvania's largest provider of care and services to older adults. From assisted living to respite to rehabilitation and nursing care, the award-winning not-for-profit provides the full range of care and services. In addition to its unique Longwood at Home program, the organization offers a variety of quality, affordable living options for age and income-eligible older adults through SeniorCare Network, its real estate manangement affiliate. History of Organization Established in 1928, Presbyterian SeniorCare is a faith-based, not-for-profit organization. In 1951, it moved from its original Glenshaw, PA, location to Oakmont. It then expanded its service area to Washington, PA. In addition to the Oakmont and Washington campuses, Presbyterian SeniorCare also is the parent organization of Longwood at Home, Longwood at Oakmont, SeniorCare Network and Presbyterian SeniorCare Foundation. Accreditations and Licenses First in Pennsylvania to be accredited by CARF-CCAC as an Aging Services Network; licensed by the Pennsylvania Department of Health. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Patricia Kornick - Director of Communications Web Addresses www.SrCare.org Primary Addresses 1215 Hulton Road Oakmont, PA 15139 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 835 S. Main St. Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Nine-county area Service Description Adult day services, assisted living,nursing care, rehabilitation services, respite care, and world-renowned Alzheimer's and memory support care. Available Hours 24/7 Fees/Cost for Services Varies. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Visit www.SrCare.org or call 724-222-4300 (Washington Campus) or 412-828-5600 (Oakmont Campus). Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Volunteers assist in a variety of areas to help promote residents' physical, social and emotional well being. Presbyterian SeniorCare works with churches, schools and other organizations and individuals to cultivate mutually rewarding volunteer experiences. Pressley Ridge Pressley Ridge Organizational Information Parent Organization Pressley Ridge Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Our mission is to improve the adjustment and achievement of children and families we serve; lead in the development of innovative programming through evaluation, research and outcome measurements; and advocate to improve the system of care for children and their families. To provide the best service possible, Pressley Ridge bases its work on the following strongly held values: Idealism is imperative; Relationships are paramount; Joy in our work is essential; Re-education is our foundation; We strive for quality, nothing less than the best; We are all teachers and we are all learners. History of Organization Founded in 1832, Pressley Ridge got its start as the Protestant Home for Children and the Pittsburgh and Allegheny Home for the Friendless, two of Pittsburgh's oldest agencies for abandoned, neglected, and orphaned children. The similarities of these two institutions eventually lead to a complete merger in 1969 with the Board of Directors transforming it s focus from orphanage care to adopting the Re-Education Philosophy as the model for services and treatment for troubled children. In 2003, the agency was renamed Pressley Ridge to reflect our diverse programs and locations. Accreditations and Licenses COA Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Contact Information Contact Person(s) Craig Sedley, M.Ed. - Coordinator Pa. Central Admissions Contact Number(s) 1-888-777-0820 - Coordinator Pa. Central Admissions E-mail(s) casam@pressleyridge.org- Coordinator Pa. Central Admissions Web Addresses www.pressleyridge.org - Coordinator Pa. Central Admissions Primary Addresses 530 Marshall Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15214 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Statewide Service Description Treatment foster care goal is to help children alleviate problem behaviors and learn the skills to live within their own families and communities. Additionally, the treatment foster care program develops and sustains a bond between the children and their own biological families. The program seeks to address problems within the family of origin as well as their children in treatment foster care. Pressley Ridge offers a range of residential treatment services for children and youths with mental health and delinquency issues. Although the specific problems these children face may vary, therapeutic placement is for children and youth who require out-of-home care and treatment. These residential services are available in a variety of settings such as single homes, as well as campus and wilderness based programs. The primary goal of our educational services is to provide intensive, therapeutic, short-term educational programs while helping youth successfully adjust to and cope with their everyday environment, thereby facilitating their ultimate return to the public school setting. The evaluation of learning is not solely defined by letter grades. Achievement is measured by looking at where the youth is at the beginning of the school year, and measuring the change that occurs during the course of the year. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Redevelopment Authority of Washington County Contact Information Key Leader(s) William R. McGowen - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Brenda Williamson - CDBG Director Contact Number(s) 724-228-6875 E-mail(s) redevelopment@racw.net Web Addresses www.racw.net Primary Addresses 100 West Beau Street Suite 603 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Home Rehabilitation Program Homebuyer Assistance Program Access Program Available Hours 8:30 am - 5:00 pm How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments call 724-228-6875 Ruth York Morgan Health Education Learning Place Ruth York Morgan H.E.L.P. Center Organizational Information Parent Organization The Washington Hospital Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The Ruth York Morgan Health Education Learning Place is dedicated to providing a current and diverse collection of information resources and timely individualized services to assist patients, families and consumers to become active participants in their healh and medical care, and to make informed decisions regarding their health and medical management. History of Organization H.E.L.P. was created, in 2002, through the vision and generosity of James and Nancy Cameronin memory of Nancy's mother, Ruth York Morgan. The Ruth York Morgan H.E.L.P. was developed as a free community information resource center for patients, families and members of the community.It is dedicated to providing access to current and credible collection of health issues, wellness promation, and illness prevention. Affiliations The Washington Hospital. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Gifts and donations through The Washington Hospital Foundation. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Kathleen M. Allen, B.S.N. - Coordinator, H.E.L.P. Contact Person(s) Kathleen M. Allen - Coordinator Contact Number(s) Phone: 724-250-4310 E-mail(s) kallen@washingtonhospital.org Web Addresses www.washingtonhospital.org/rymhelp Primary Addresses 155 Wilson Ave/ Washington, Pa. 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area The Washington Hospital Communities Service Description Assist visitors to the center in locating appropriate materials to address their health information needs. Conduct computerized searches of creditable health information resources. Provide fax, e-mail and telephone reference services. Provide patient information based on physician refrrrals. Assist consumers in using the web to search for knowlegeable health information. Maintain current copies of several consumer health journals and magazines. Provide recipes for special medical needs. Free mail delivery of information packets. Available Hours Monday through Friday, * a.m. - 4 p.m. closed weekends and major holidays Fees/Cost for Services FREE Eligibility Requirements none Required Documentation none How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Stop by the Center located on the 3rd floor of The Washington Hospital Call 724-250-4310, you may leave a voice-mail at theis number, also. Fax: 724-250-4303 E-mail Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes We also have special computer set-ups for the handicapped person. Languages Spoken or Available English Senator J. Barry Stout Contact Information Key Leader(s) Sharon Russell - District Administrator Sharon Willison - Social Service Coordinator Joyce Popovich - Research Analyst Linda Stettner Fehrman - Constituent Services Specialist Contact Person(s) Linda Armstrong - Administrative Assistant Primary Addresses 1024 Route 519 Suite 400 Eighty Four, PA 15330 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 10 East Wing Harrisburg, PA 17120 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Allegheny County, Beaver County, Greene County, Washington County, Westmoreland County Available Hours Monday - Friday 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM Senior LIFE Washington Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization SeniorLIFE is committed to enhancing the ability of seniors to live safely in the community as long as possible by coordinating comprehensive healthcare and supportive services for our members, provided at the LIFE Center and complemented by home care services as necessary. Senior LIFE is a Medicare Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) operating as a LIFE program in the state of Pennsylvania. It is an innovative model of care for seniors 55 years of age and older who are eligible for Medicare and Medical Assistance or able to pay privately, and who are Medically Eligible. Accreditations and Licenses A Medicare Approved Provider Affiliations Senior LIFE is a provider of the PACE program. The National PACE Association lists all providers nationwide of the program. Their website is www.npaonline.org Legal Structure For-profit entity Contact Information Key Leader(s) Megan Detwiler - Executive Director 724-222-5433 Contact Person(s) Samuel Baer - Outreach Coordinator 724-222-5433 sbaer@seniorlifewashington.com Emily Ronan - Outreach Coordinator 724-222-5433 eronan@seniorlifewashington.com Contact Number(s) 1-877-998-LIFE (5433) - Toll Free Web Addresses www.seniorlifewashington.com - Senior LIFE Washington Website www.seniorcaregreene.com - Senior CARE Greene Website Primary Addresses 2114 North Franklin Drive Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 55 Sugar Run Road Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington and Greene Counties Service Description Senior LIFE provides services to seniors who want to continue to live independently at home. This includes social, recreational, and medical services at our LIFE Center, as well as supplemental home care services as needed. Adult Day Care services are also available. Available Hours Monday through Friday 8:00 am- 4:30 pm. On call services are 24/7/365 Fees/Cost for Services 98% of members qualify for services at no cost through Medicare and/or Medicaid. This is subject to meeting income and asset guidelines that can be explained by Senior LIFE Outreach Coordinators. Eligibility Requirements Must be 55 or older and live in the service area of Senior LIFE, and be able to live safely in the community. Required Documentation Will be reviewed with a Senior LIFE Outreach Coordinator How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 724-222-5433 and ask to speak to either Samuel Baer or Emily Ronan (Outreach Coordinators) Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available Primarily English, but can accomodate any language Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Need No Southwest Behavioral Care, Inc. SPHS Behavioral Health Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization SPHS Behavioral Health building on more than 25 years of experience, serves Southwestern Pennsylvania providing opportunites and resources for people through a unigue continuumof affordabl;e quality care including; education, intervention, case management, treatment, aftercare and referral services. SPHS Behavioral Health, Inc. shall provide services to any individual in need of services regardless of age, sex, race, color, religious affiliation, disabilites, ethnic back ground of national origin. History of Organization The Mon Yough Westmoreland D/A service system initiated in July 0f 1978 affiliated with SPHS in July of 1990 to become Comprehensive Substance Abuse Services (CSAS) providing D/A intervention and treatment services to residents of Westmoreland and Washington Counties. In july of 2001 the mental health services provided under an other affiliate corp. was transferred to CSAS with the sole purpose if integrating both D/A and MH services. As a result the corporate name was changed to Southwest Behavioral Care, Inc., dba, SPHS Behavioral Health which now provides integrated D/A and MH services in seven counties. Accreditations and Licenses PA Dept. of Public Welfare, Office of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Div. of Licensing PA Dept. of Health, Division of D/A program Licensure Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilites (CARF) Affiliations Southewestern Pennsylvania Human Services, Inc. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources County MH County D/A PA HealthCHoices Commercial Pay Insurances Self Pays Contact Information Key Leader(s) Timothy J. Merlin - Executive Director of Southwest Behavioral Care Inc. Jeff Berks Mascara - CEO/Vice President of SPHS INc. Susan Barrett - Clinical Supervisor of Clinical Services Chris Garrett - Director of MH Intervention and Community Services Stephanie Madl - Clinical Director of Behavioral Health Treatment services Bill Leach - Director of MH Community Residential Rehab. and Supportive Housing Contact Person(s) Timothy J. Merlin - Executive Director of SBC Donna Dalfonso - Managed care Coordinator for SBC Contact Number(s) (724) 684-6489 - Executive Director Jeff Berks Mascara - CEO/Vice President of SPHS E-mail(s) tmerlin@sphs.org- Executive Director mascara@sphs.org- CEO/Vice President of SPHS Inc. Web Addresses www.SPHS.org Primary Addresses 301 East Donner Ave. Suite 102 Monessen, PA 15062 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 351 West Beau Street Suite 203 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area 7 county Southwestern PA area including; Washinton, Westmoreland, Fayette, Greene, Indiana, Armstrong and Cambria Service Description MH & D/A Student Assistance Services Child & Adolescent Summer Therapeutic Summer Camp Services Child and Adolescent Therapeutic Foster care service (Host Home) MH Adolescant Behavioral Health Rehab. Services (BHRS) MH Adult Supportive Housing services MH Adult Community Residential Rehabilitation services MH Crisis Stabilization/Diversion Services MH Crisis Intervention services including; walk-in, phone and mobile MH Community Treatment Team Services MH Case Management Services Adult and Adolescent MH Outpatient Treatment Adult and Adolescent D/A Outpatient Treatment MH In-School THerapy Services MH Adult Partial Hospitalization services MH Forensic Services at Washington County Jail. Adult Co-Occurring Treatment Servic4es Adult Co-Occurring Partail Hospitalization Available Hours Monday thru Thurday 8:30 am till 9:00 pm Friday 8:30 am till 5:00 pm Saturday By appointment only Fees/Cost for Services Assessment/Evaluation $ 97.50/hour Psychiatric Evaluation $275/Evaluation Psychological Testing $ 89/hour Individual Therapy $ 89/hour Group Therapy $ 40/hour/person Family Therapy $ 89/hour Clozapine $ 60/bundled Medication Checks $ 35/visit Medication Injections $ 35/visit Drug Screen $ 6.75/kit Confirmation $ 15/drug Eligibility Requirements Child, adolescent or adult resident of Washington County suffering from substance abuse, mental health, Children of Alcoholic disorders. Required Documentation Photo Identification Insurance card Social Security Number Any documantation of mandated referral How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call office numbers 24/7 walk-in seen daily Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility yes, all facilities are labor & industry approved Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Southwestern PA AIDS Planning Coalition SWPAPC Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Mission: To respond in a diverse manner to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southwestern Pennsylania by planning, adovcating, and support the development of culturally competent, comprehensive systems of high quality care, prevention, and education services. History of Organization The Southwestern PA AIDS Planning Coalition was incoporated in Pittsburgh, PA in November of 1992 and was the first HIV/AIDS Planning Coalition in the state. In the greater Pittsburgh area, several AIDS service providers began collaborating to improve the delivery of service to consumers to do a regional needs assessment and strategic service planning in the 11 southwestern counties designated by the Pennsylvania Department of Health as Southwestern Pennsylvania. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Federal, state and local funding, including contributions. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Dr. Doyin Desalu - Executive Director 412 363-1022 412 363-5994 sw.papc@verizon.net Contact Person(s) Judy Sylvester - Planning Director 412 363-1022 412 363-5994 swpapc.planning@verizon.net Primary Addresses 201 S. Highland Ave. Suite 101 Pittsburgh, PA 15206 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area 11 counties in SW PA: Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Cambria, Fayette, Greene, Indiana, Somerset, Washington, and Westmoreland Service Description SWPAPC is one of 7 AIDS Planning Coalitions in Pennsylvania mandated originally under the Ryan White CARE (Comprehensive AIDS Resource Emergency) Act of 1990, recently renewed under Part B of the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program of 2009, to conduct needs assessments, to plan for HIV/AIDS care and prevention services, and receive and allocate federal and state funds so that AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) can provide direct client services. The planning process also includes determination of service gaps, priority setting, program development, monitoring, and evaluation. Additionally, the Coalition works to assure quality services through technical assistance and capacity building support to member agencies and organizations. SWPAPC continues to work tirelessly to bring diverse representation to the planning table in order to meet this complex mandate that demands broad-based participation. Current membership has expanded to include mental health service providers, drug and alcohol service providers, and housing service providers, as well as interested and affected individuals. Available Hours 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM Monday through Friday How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 412 363-1022 for information on HIV/AIDS resources in the region. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Accessible Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Various skills including clerical and computer skills. Southwestern PA Human Services SPHS Organizational Information Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jeff Burks Mascara - Executive Vice President/CEO Contact Person(s) Luther Sheets - Cheif Operating Officer Web Addresses www.sphs.org Primary Addresses 300 Chamber Plaza Charleroi, PA 15022 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Green, Fayette & Westmoreland Counties Southwestern Pennsylvania Area Agency on Aging, Inc. AAA Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services, Inc. Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of Southwestern Pennsylvania Area Agency on Aging, Inc. is to promote the well-being of older adults through a planned, coordinated and collaborative program of health and social services. History of Organization The Southwestern Pennsylvania Area Agency on Aging, Inc. (Area Agency on Aging)established in 1974 as an entity responsible for the development and management of the overall service delivery system for older adults in Fayette, Greene and Washington Counties, has operated as a private, non-profit corporation since 1985. Part of a national network of agencies established by the federal Older Americans Act, the Area Agency on Aging is funded primarily through the Pennsylvania Department of Aging. Affiliations Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services, Inc. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Pennsylvania Department of Aging Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare Contact Information Key Leader(s) Leslie Grenfell - Executive Director Timothy Landrin - Director of Long Term Care Contact Person(s) Timothy Landrin - Director of Long Term Care Kathryn Costantino - Washington County AAA Supervisor Contact Number(s) 724-489-8080 ext. 4477 - Director of Long Term Care 724-228-7080 - Washington County AAA Supervisor 724-489-8080 ext. 4430 - Administrative Office 1-888-300-2704 - Toll Free E-mail(s) landrin@swpa-aaa.org- Director of Long Term Care Web Addresses www.swpa-aaa.org Primary Addresses 305 Chamber Plaza Charleroi, PA 15022-1607 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 150 West Beau Street Suite 216 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Fayette and Greene Counties Service Description Adult Day Care - Provides group activities in a supportive environment for individuals with physical,mental or psychosocial limitations. Emphasis is placed on greater independence with daily living skills. APPRISE Insurance Counseling - Helps Medicare patients understand Medicare statements, assists in submitting claims or filing appeals, helps clarify Medicare-covered expenses and shows ways to compare supplemental policies for maximum coverage. Assessment - Provides a comprehensive, clinical assessment of a consumer s need for aging services to determine the most appropriate and effective means of meeting those needs. Care Management - Coordinates the care, planning and delivery of all services to individuals in need of services to assure the maximum possible independence within the community. Congregate Meals - Hot, nutritious meals provided to older adults gathered at area senior centers. Domiciliary Care (Dom Care) - Provides supervised alternative group-home living arrangements for those unable to live alone due to physical or mental impairment. This service is available to adults 18 years of age and older. Dom Care home providers are paid a monthly tax-exempt reimbursement for up to three individuals. Family Caregiver Support - Provides assistance to persons caring for an older adult living in the community. This support program includes benefits counseling, education, information on community-care providers and limited financial assistance to enhance the caregiver role. Also assists older caregivers caring for relatives 18 years of age and younger. Home Support - Provides unskilled or semi-skilled maintenance to ensure a safe and sanitary environment. Home-Delivered Meals - Provides well-balanced, appetizing meals to those assessed as having difficulty with preparing nutritious meals. Intake and Referral - Provides information, receives referrals for aging services, and conducts pre-screenings for the Agency s assessment unit. 1-800-734-9603. Legal Services for the Elderly - Provides professional consultation and representation on various legal matters. Services are limited to civil, non-fee generating issues. Medicaid Waiver Program - The Pennsylvania Department of Aging (PDA) Waiver program provides intensive in-home services for consumers found to be clinically and financially eligible for nursing home care who prefer to be cared for at home. Includes, but is not limited to: personal care, home support, nursing services, occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech therapy, and home health aides. Nursing Home Transition - This process assists people with moving from a nursing home back to the living environment of their choice. The program supports consumers by coordinating services to help maintain an individual in the community as long as they choose. Ombudsman - Provides an advocacy force to protect and enhance the health, safety, welfare and rights of consumers receiving long-term care through investigation and resolution of complaints made by or on behalf of consumers. Outreach - Provides speakers on various subjects regarding aging services and programs as well as representation and literature for various community functions. Personal Assistance Service - Provides regular, specialized assistance with activities of daily living, in the early morning, evenings or on weekends, to those assessed as having a physical or medical disability. Personal Care - Provides periodic assistance with bathing, eating, grooming, ambulating or taking medications. PrimeTime Health - Provides health promotion and disease prevention services and programs at senior centers, senior housing facilities and senior gathering sites. Protective Services - Provides resources and supports to prevent, detect, reduce, or eliminate abuse, neglect, and exploitation of older adults. 1-800-537-2424. Senior Community Centers - 24 senior centers, 19 satellite centers provide hot, nutritious meals, recreation, socialization, education and volunteer opportunities. Senior Community Services Employment Program (SCSEP)- Provides part-time and full-time employment opportunities to persons 55 years of age or older with local public and private employers. Senior Times newspaper - A monthly newspaper containing articles, schedules of events, senior center activities and other news to educate and entertain older adults. Socialization/recreation - In addition to senior community centers, various programs and activities that promote healthy lifestyles are provided, including the annual Senior Games and victory celebration and awards banquet, annual cook-off, golf tournament and regional health fairs. Volunteer opportunities - A partial listing includes delivery of meals to the homebound, serving on leadership board, volunteering at senior community centers, through the APPRISE insurance counseling program and the Monongahela River Pennsylvania Senior Environment Corps. Transportation - A coordinated effort to provide transportation for older adults including the individual county's Shared-Ride programs for senior citizens 65 years and older Available Hours 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Fees/Cost for Services Consumers who meet certain income guidelines help to pay for the cost of some services. Co-payments are based on a sliding fee scale according to a consumer's income. Eligibility Requirements 60 years of age or older or spouse assessed and determined to be in need of services. In certain programs the eligibility is 18 years of age and older. Required Documentation Income verification for Cost Sharing Program. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Intake and Referral Toll Free 1-800-734-9603. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available Language Line is used for non-English speaking consumers. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Volunteers are always needed in the specific program areas listed below: APPRISE program volunteers counsel consumers about Medicare, Medicaid, supplemental insurance, Medicare Part D Prescription drug plans, long term care insurance and other public and private insurance options. SWPA AAA Monongahela River Pennsylvania Senior Environmental Corps (MREC) volunteers monitor the quality of our area's streams. Volunteers in the Ombudsman Program visit long term care facilities to empower and help residents resolve complaints. Volunteers drivers and runners deliver well-balanced, appetizing meals to consumers assessed as having difficulty with preparing nutritious meals in the Home Delivered Meal Program Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission's CommuteInfo Program CommuteInfo Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission's CommuteInfo program is coordinated in partnership with transportation management associations, transportation providers, businesses, and non-profit service organizations throughout Southwestern PA. The CommuteInfo program is designed to increase the number of people who travel to work or school by riding transit, carpooling, vanpooling, or bikepooling. The goal is for commuters living, working or attending school within the 10-county Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission region (including Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Greene, Indiana, Lawrence, Washington, and Westmoreland counties) to choose ridesharing at least twice a week. The CommuteInfo program provides resources and information to assist individuals traveling to work or school and helps regional employers learn more about commuting options. Commuters can register with CommuteInfo to request a commuting options report which includes contact information for the regional fixed route transit operators, nearby park-n-ride facilities and a list of other individuals making a similar commute who are interested in vanpooling, carpooling, and/or bikepooling. Commuters can request their commuting options report on-line or call our toll-free phone number: 1-888-819-6110. Employers can access technical assistance, articles, posters, and surveys to use during employee recruitment, with job applicants or with existing employees. Employers can contact CommuteInfo staff toll-free at: 1-888-819-6110. History of Organization The Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission (SPC) is no newcomer to ridesharing, having been an early proponent of alternative commuter options since the energy crunch days of the early 1970s. At that time, SPC was instrumental in initiating a third-party vanpool program and started a call-in service for ridesharing information and assistance. Since that time, SPC has been engaged in ongoing outreach efforts to encourage major regional employers to participate in the program and to promote ridesharing among their employees. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Various Contact Information Key Leader(s) Lisa Kay Schweyer - Program Developer for CommuteInfo Program 412-391-5590 375 lkschweyer@spcregion.org Contact Person(s) Lisa Kay Schweyer Contact Number(s) 1-888-819-6110 - Toll-free E-mail(s) commuteinfo@spcregion.org- Contact Web Addresses www.commuteinfo.org - CommuteInfo Primary Addresses 425 Sixth Avenue Suite 2500 Pittsburgh, PA 15219 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area 10-county Southwestern Pennsylvania Commission region (including Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Greene, Indiana, Lawrence, Washington, and Westmoreland counties) Service Description The CommuteInfo program provides resources and information to assist individuals traveling to work or school and helps regional employers learn more about commuting options. Commuters can register with CommuteInfo to request a commuting options report which includes contact information for the regional fixed route transit operators, nearby park-n-ride facilities and a list of other individuals making a similar commute who are interested in vanpooling, carpooling, and/or bikepooling. Commuters can request their commuting options report on-line or call our toll-free phone number: 1-888-819-6110. Employers can access technical assistance, articles, posters, and surveys to use during employee recruitment, with job applicants or with existing employees. Employers can contact CommuteInfo staff toll-free at: 1-888-819-6110. Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No SPHS Aging Services Diversified Human Services, Inc. Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of the corporation is to provide quality aging services to residents of Washington County and the Mon Valley portion of Fayette County. Our purpose is to take a consumer-driven approach to meet the changing needs of the older adult population. History of Organization Diversified Human Services, Inc.(DHS), began operating on July 01, 1985, as a private, non-profit corporation chartered by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Affiliations 1). Mon Valley Community Health Services, Inc. 2). Southwest Behaviorial Care, Inc. 3). Connect, Inc. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources 1). Pennsylvania Department of Aging 2). Southwestern Pennsylvania Area Agency on Aging Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jeff Burks Mascara - CEO/ Executive Vice-President Contact Person(s) Mary Mariani - Supervisor Consumer Services Contact Number(s) (724) 489-1100 or toll free 1-800-803-6625 E-mail(s) marymariani@dp.net Web Addresses www.sphs.org Primary Addresses 301 Chamber Plaza Charleroi, PA 15022 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 102 West Pike Street Houston, PA 15342 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area All of Washington County Mon Valley portion of Fayette County Service Description 1). Senior Community Center Services 2). Nutrition Services - Congregate and Home-Delivered Meals 3). In-Home Services 4). Senior High-Rise Supportive Services 5). Prime-Time Health Services 6). Peer Counseling Services (H.E.L.P.-Helping Elders Live Positively) Available Hours Senior Community Centers hours of operation. (8:30am - 4:30pm) In-Home Services hours of operation. (24 hours/7 days a week) Fees/Cost for Services For In-Home Services: SWPA Area Agency on Aging and other contract agencies service reimbursement rates. Private Pay rates vary. Donations accepted for Senior Center and Nutrition Services Eligibility Requirements Typically 60 years of age as referenced by the Older Americans Act. Required Documentation As required by funding source and contract agencies. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments For Senior Center Services: Contact individual centers during operation hours. For In-Home Services: Contact Supervisor of Consumer Services 24/7 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility All Senior Community Centers are ADA accessible. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Volunteers are always needed to work within the senior centers and to deliver home-delivered meals. SPHS CARE Center Organizational Information Parent Organization Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The SPHS CARE Center supports and promotes the health and well being of individuals and families with particular emphasis on eradicating the negative effects of substance abuse, sexual assault, and family dysfunction by providing counseling, education, advocacy, and other services to the community. History of Organization The CARE Center, Inc., which now operates under the name of SPHS CARE Center, was founded in 1964. In 2002, the CARE Center became affiliated with Southwestern Pennsylvania Human Services, Inc. (SPHS). Accreditations and Licenses PA Dept. of Health Licensed Outpatient Treatment Facility; a licensed satellite office of SPHS Behavioral Health is co-located at the CARE Center; Mon Valley Academy II is licensed by the PA Dept. of Education Affiliations The CARE Center is a formal part of the SPHS human services system. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Mutliple funding sources, as well as fee for service. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Jeff Burks Mascara - CEO Contact Person(s) Kellie McKevitt - Director Cheryld Emala - Clinical Supervisor, Behavioral Health and Drug and Alcohol Programs Don Morris - DUI/Underage Drinking Program Supervisor Andrew Shrader - RIP/ODPP Supervisor Angela Lancaster - Mon Valley Academy II/Supervisor Contact Number(s) 724-228-2200 - Maiden Street Site Programs 724-229-5782 - DUI Program 724-229-5007 - STTARS Program 724-229-5007 - Child Advocacy Center 724-489-9100. ext. 4595 - Mon Valley Academy II E-mail(s) cemala@sphs.org- Cheryld Emala kmckevitt@sphs.org- Kellie McKevitt ashrader@sphs.org- Andrew Shrader/RIP-ODPP Supervisor Primary Addresses 75 East Maiden Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 351 West Beau Street, Suite 201 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 351 West Beau Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 75 East Maiden Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington and Greene Counties primarily; referrals accepted from surrounding counties. Service Description The SPHS CARE Center provides a range of outpatient mental health and substance abuse services in the behavioral health and drug and alcohol treatment programs. The RIP/ODPP provides partial level of care for court referred drug and alcohol treatment. DUI/Underage drinking services provide CRN evaluations and court ordered classes to individuals with driving under the influence and/or underage drinking charges. The STTARS Program serves victims of sexual assault through counseling, advocacy, and support. The Washington County Child Advocacy Center is a collaborative effort between SPHS CARE Center, Washington County Children and Youth, Washington County District Attorney's Office, Washington Hospital and local law enforcement that provides comprehensive forensic interviews and coordinated response for child victims of abuse. Many services are also available in our Greene County offices. Available Hours Vary by program, evening hours available by appointment Fees/Cost for Services Vary by program; sexual assault services are provided free of charge Eligibility Requirements Vary by program Required Documentation Varies by program How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call or walk-in Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility all sites Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description The STTARS Program provides training for individuals interested in becoming volunteers for the sexual assault hotline. SWPA - SDHP - Regional Housing Coordinator Organizational Information Parent Organization Allegheny County Department of Human Services Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The role of the Regional Housing Coordinator (RHC) is to create a bridge (systems) between the Medicaid home and community based waiver programs and the housing sector. The RHC works with local agencies, private and public organizations, housing professionals, and others to identify, develop, and facilitate access to housing options and opportunities for people with disabilities. The RHC provides education and outreach to service and housing professionals in the region to increase awareness and understanding about the housing needs of people with disabilities. Southwest Region: Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Greene, Indiana, Lawrence, Washington and Westmoreland. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Mary Penny - Statewide Housing Coordinator Ashley Newhouse - SW Regional Housing Coordinator E-mail(s) ashley.newhouse@alleghenycounty.us Web Addresses www.phfa.org - Pennsylvania Housing Finance Agency www.sdhp.org - Self Determination Housing Project of Pennsylvania www.dpw.state.pa.us - Department of Public Welfare www.alleghenycounty.us/dhs - Allegheny County Department of Human Services Primary Addresses One Smithfield Street, 1st Floor Pittsburgh, PA 15222 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area SWPA 10 county region Service Description The role of the Regional Housing Coordinator (RHC) is to create a bridge (systems) between the Medicaid home and community based waiver programs and the housing sector. The RHC works with local agencies, private and public organizations, housing professionals, and others to identify, develop, and facilitate access to housing options and opportunities for people with disabilities. The RHC provides education and outreach to service and housing professionals in the region to increase awareness and understanding about the housing needs of people with disabilities. Southwest Region: Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Fayette, Greene, Indiana, Lawrence, Washington and Westmoreland. Eligibility Requirements Offers Technical Assistance to Housing and Service Providers Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility YES Languages Spoken or Available All through language line Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Test organization Contact Information Key Leader(s) Bob Smith - Leader 724-111-1111 Tom Jones - Co-Leader 724-222-2222 Service Information Service Description Test services Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Test organization Contact Information Key Leader(s) Bob Smith - Leader 724-555-5555 bobs@aol.com Service Information Service Description Test services Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No The Arc of Washington County The Arc Organizational Information Parent Organization Aadvantage Inc. Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of the Arc of Washington is to promote the inclusion of developmentally challenged citizens in everyday community life. Our goals are to provide advocacy, assurance, assistance and accessiblity. We are committed to ensuring that advocacy and outreach services are available in our area. History of Organization Arc Washington was established in 1952 by a group of parents of children with mental retardation. In an effort to adapt to meet the changing needs of our community, Arc Washington restructured its services, resulting in a corporate parent and three subsidiaries. All four are private, non-profit organizations under Section 501 (c)3 of the Internal Revenue Code. AAdvantage, Inc. (formerly Arc Washington County, Inc.) is responsible for the advocacy and leadership of the Arc Washington County Chapter. Its mission is to promote inclusion of developmentally challenged citizens in everyday community life. Arc Human Services maintains operations for all residential and vocational programming, affirmative employment and children's services. Its mission is to teach individuals skills so that they may live and work in the community. Residential Recovery Services, the mental health subsidiary of AAdvantage, Inc. community residential rehabilitation services for adult mental health clients in Washington and Greene Counties. AAdvantage Foundation, Inc. (formerly Arc Washington Foundation, Inc.) supports operations and programming of the Arc by raising private funds from corporations, foundations, churches, organizations and individuals. Affiliations Arc Human Services Residential Recovery Services Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Federal, state and county funds and Local foundations Contact Information Key Leader(s) Mike Reardon - Executive Director Christy Lewis - Director Contact Person(s) Christy Lewis - Director of Arc of Washington County Contact Number(s) 724-745-3010 - Telephone E-mail(s) Christy.Lewis@arcofwpa.org- Director help@arcofwpa.org- General Web Addresses www.arcofwpa.org Primary Addresses Foxpointe Centre 201 S. Johnson Rd. Suite 200 Houston, PA 15342 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Greene, Allegheny, Beaver and Butler Counties Service Description The Arc of Washington County focuses on advocacy, information, referrals, and education for individuals and families. The Arc of Washington County provides a much needed resource for individuals with disabilities in Washington County. We provide a one-stop-shop for individuals and families researching and accessing services. The Arc of Washington County works with the Arc of The United States and the Arc of Pennsylvania to promote active citizenship and inclusion for individuals with disabilities. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call or email for additional information Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility yes Volunteer Description Volunteers welcome The Caring Network, Inc Prescription Assistance Program Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Mission: The Caring Network, Inc. identifies areas of need for residents residing in Washington County. The main focus is uninsured, underinsured residents of Washington County. The coordinators help provide the above population receive their medications for free or at a low cost. History of Organization The Caring Network was started in 2005 with a start-up grant from United Way and a private funder. In three years The Caring Network has hepled over 800+ residents of Washington County receive free or low cost medications, with a savings of over $1,600,000. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources The Caring Network is funded through, Washington County Redevelopment Authority, The Washington County Commissioners, United Way of Washington County and private donations. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Sherri Hewitt-Laird - Executive Director/Volunteer Contact Person(s) Rob Miklic - Director Contact Number(s) 724-884-0290 - Progeram Coordinator 724-884-0290 - Executive Director E-mail(s) rm@thecaringmission.com- Program Coordinator shl@thecaringmission.com- Executive Director Web Addresses www.caringnetworkrx.org Primary Addresses 1050 Jefferson Ave Washington , Pa 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area The Caring Network assists clients from Washington County. Service Description Medication Assistance - Search internet for pharmaceutical companies offering free or low cost medications. Complete applications, communicate with clients physicians and submit applications for processing. Available Hours Monday - Friday 8:30a.m. to 4:30p.m. Fees/Cost for Services $5.00 processing fee per medication, fee not to exceed $25.00 regardless of number of medications. Eligibility Requirements Income guidelines are: Single person- less than $21,000 Two People_ less than $32,000 Three People- less than $36,000 Four people- less than $45,000 Required Documentation PROOF OF INCOME Most recent paycheck stub Unemployment check, if available Most recent 1040 Federal tax form, if available Copies of social security, or pension letters, if available How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 724-884-0290 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Make phone calls, mailings, & process outcome data. The Integrated Care Corporation ICC Organizational Information Parent Organization The Integrated Care Corporation Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Our purpose at The Integrated Care Corporation is to deliver Early Intervention services of outstanding quality. Our passionate and important mission is to make a real difference in the life of your child so they may have the greatest foundation from which to grow. We accomplish our mission by teaming with you and being effective in our work. We will consistently provide exceptionally trained, caring professionals to administer therapies within the scope of our service. We will regularly evaluate the needs of your family and the progress of your child, and will adjust our methods as necssary. To ensure a positive, lifelong service, we will educate you every step of the way so you may help your child each and everyday. History of Organization For over 16 years, The Integrated Care Corporation has been providing Early Intervention services in ten Western Pennsylvania counties including Washington, Fayette and Greene. Accreditations and Licenses We are regularly monitored by each of the counties that our Early Intervention program serves. Legal Structure For-profit entity Funding Sources The Integrated Care Corporation receives funding for Early Intervention services through Medical Assistance and County Behavioral programs. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Lance Queer - Founder and President 1(888)645-5683 (724)593-8547 (724)593-7448 integrate@lhtot.com Contact Person(s) Elaine Harvey - Program Coordinator 1(888)645-5683 (724)593-8547 (724)593-7448 octten@verizon.net Contact Number(s) 1(888)645-5683 - Toll Free (724)593-7448 - Fax E-mail(s) integrate@lhtot.com- President octten@verizon.net- Program Coordinator Web Addresses www.integratedcare.us - Corporate office Primary Addresses 371 Bethel Church Road Ligonier, PA 15658 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Ten Western Pennsylvania counties including Washington, Greene, and Fayette Service Description Our Early Intervention program provides physical, occupational, speech, developmental, vision and hearing therapy to children from birth through three years of age. These services are provided to the children in their natural environment, which can include the child's home, the home of a caregiver or day care center. Our therapists collectively average 15 years of birth to three years experience and more than 18 years of professional experience. They are highly qualified and caring individuals We believe that integrating this professional expertise and care with your knowledge and experience is the key to success for your child. Our Early Intervention services are designed to help each child reach his or her greatest potential, increase independence and reduce frustration for both the family and the child. You are the expert on your child. You know the vision, needs and goals for your child and family. We believe in working with you, focusing on those needs and striving to accomplish those goals. It would be our privilege and honor to help your child achieve their full potential, to work with you, and to help guide your family through each phase of service best suited for your child's highest well being. We encourage you to select us to be a part of your new team of professionals. Available Hours Our office hours are Monday - Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Our therapists' hours vary depending on the needs of the child and his or her family. Fees/Cost for Services Early intervention (EI) is a Federal Entitlement Program, therefore, services for qualifying children are free of charge to the child's family. Eligibility Requirements The Early Intervention Program is specific to children under the age of three who are at least 25% delayed in any one or more of the five major areas of development. Required Documentation County Early Intervention Service Coordinators provide us with the referrals and required documentation. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact us, toll free, at 1(888)645-LOVE(5683). Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Not applicable as services are provided in child's natural environment. Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No The Washington Hospital Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Our vision is to position The Washington Hospital as the preferred regional health care provider in Washington and Greene counties through excellence in the provision of health care services. Located in Washington with multiple outpatient sites throughout Washington and Greene counties, the hospital has 265 beds in addition to a 16-bassinet nursery and an 8-bed residential hospice. The hospital s medical staff includes more than 350 primary care and specialty physicians providing a full range of medical and surgical care. The hospital offers a full range of services, including orthopedic care, women s health care, emergency care, medical/surgical care, critical care, and outpatient diagnostic and treatment services. Specialty services include a cardiovascular center of excellence, comprehensive hospice care, children s therapy, occupational medicine, and diabetes education and management. In the past few years, the hospital has also introduced such services as the Wilfred R. Cameron Wellness Center; Strabane Woods of Washington, an assisted living facility; Strabane Trails of Washington, an independent living facility; Donnell House, the region s only residential hospice; and the Ruth York Morgan Health Education Learning Place, a health information resource center at the hospital. History of Organization The Washington Hospital was founded in 1897. Accreditations and Licenses The Washington Hospital is licensed by: The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Medicare Medicaid Champus The Washington Hospital is accredited by: - Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations - Pennsylvania Department of Health - Pennsylvania Medical Society - Pennysylvania State Board of Nursing - The Food and Drug Administration - American Academy of Sleep Medicine - American College of Radiology - American Medical Association for Residency Programs - The Nuclear Regulatory Commission - American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer - American Osteopathic Association - CMS-CLIA - College of American Pathologists - Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education - National League for Nursing - The American Association of Blood Banks - National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Services - Accreditation Association of Ambulatory Health Care - Pennsylvania Department of Health Laboratories Affiliations The Washington Hospital is a member of the American Hospital Association, The Hospital and Healthsystem Association of Pennsylvania, Hospital Council of Western Pennsylvania and the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Contact Information Key Leader(s) Telford W. Thomas - President and CEO Contact Person(s) Jamie Ivanac - Community Relations Coordinator Contact Number(s) 724.225.7000 E-mail(s) info@washingtonhospital.org Web Addresses www.washingtonhospital.org Primary Addresses 155 Wilson Avenue Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Greene and southern Allegheny counties Service Description Located in Washington with multiple outpatient sites throughout Washington and Greene counties, The Washington Hospital has 265 beds in addition to a 16-bassinet nursery and an 8-bed residential hospice. The hospital s medical staff includes more than 350 primary care and specialty physicians providing a full range of medical and surgical care. The hospital offers a full range of services, including orthopedic care, women s health care, emergency care, medical/surgical care, critical care, and outpatient diagnostic and treatment services. Specialty services include a cardiovascular center of excellence, comprehensive hospice care, children s therapy, occupational medicine, and diabetes education and management. In the past few years, the hospital has also introduced such services as the Wilfred R. Cameron Wellness Center; Strabane Woods of Washington, an assisted living facility; Strabane Trails of Washington, an independent living facility; Donnell House, the region s only residential hospice; and the Ruth York Morgan Health Education Learning Place, a health information resource center at the hospital. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes The Washington Hospital Teen Outreach Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To serve as an advocate for youh, parents, professionals and community by medeling quality education to improve communication, promote healthy adolescent behavior, reduce risk and encourage wellness. History of Organization The Teen Outreach originated in 1989 by the Director, Mary Jo Podgurski. The first program was an in school program called PPP (Postpone, Prevent, Prepare). Since then we have added many youth oriented programs. Affiliations The Washington Hospital Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Grants Contact Information Key Leader(s) Mary Jo Podgurski, RNC, MA, FACCE - Director Contact Person(s) Joan Adley - Associate Director Web Addresses www.healthyteens.com Service Information Service Area Washington, Greene, Fayette counties Service Description PPP (Postpone, Prevent, Prepare) The is a fun, dynamic and interactive class on educational theories that encourage experiential learning. Session focus on postponing sexual involvement, reducing risk, removing misinformation regarding sexuality, and empowering young people with the skills needed to assist them in reaching sexual health. PPT (Pregnant and Parenting Teens Program). The program provides intensive mentoring and education services to teens in Washington, Greene and Fayetts Counties. PPT focuses upon PRIDE (Parenting Responsible and Independently with Dignity and Empowerment) by offering intensive weekly educational mentoring to young parents. Services are also available for teens who are experiencing early childbearing. Peer Education - This program is for high school youths in grades 9 - 12. The focus is to train them so they can teach their younger peers. They accompany our adult educators to middle and elementary schools and provide role plays, interactive learning experiences and discussions on relationships, peer pressure and postponing sex. They are under the supervision of Outreach staff professionals at all times during these teaching sessions. The ECHO Program is an early intervention program that seeks to reach young people and their parents before a child is at risk for displaying unhealthy behaviors. ECHO is outcome based, providing intensive one on one educational mentoring in the home and in school. Parents are an integral part of this mentoring. R.E.A.L. DADS Fathering Program provides support, information and motivation to young fathers in the areas of parenthood, relationships, sexuality and responsible manhood. Our fathering program is committed to supporting, educating and challenging young fathers to actively parent as well as identify a father's role in the family. POWER (Positive Options for Waiting through Education for Real life) is an in-school adstinence program that targets students of both genders from fifth to eighth grade. The focal pont of the POWER Program is skill building. Refusal skills, communication slikks, and problem solving and decision-making skills combine to assist young people make healthy choices. Parent/Youth Sexuality Education classes are taught by our the teen outreach Director, Mary Jo Podgurski. They were initiated in 1984 to increase parent'child communication while introducing sexuality and puberty information in a relaxed, gentle fashion. Classes are divided into parent/daughter and parent/son sessions and tafget young people ages 9 - 12 in the "What's Up as You Grow Up Program" and yuth 13 - 15 in the 'Reaching for Adulthood Program". These classes are offered monthly and receive consistent glowing evaluations from parents and children alike. Available Hours Office hours are 8:00 AM - 4:00 PM during school months. Summer hours vary, please call the office. Our social workers are available also after hours Fees/Cost for Services Most services are free. Please call the office for this information. Eligibility Requirements Please call the office for this information. Required Documentation Please call the office for this information. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call the office to request services. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Handicapped ramp. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Please call the office for current list of volunteers needed. Three Cities Services Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Providing clinical counseling services to individuals, families and organizations on issues related to anxiety, depression, stress and life transitions. History of Organization Since 1992, Three Cities Services has been providing counseling and consulting services to individuals and businesses in the form of individual and family counseling and consulting workshops to businesses and industry. Accreditations and Licenses Licensed Clinical Social Worker, LCSW Licensed Professional Counselor, LPC Board Certified Diplomat, Clinical Social Worker Certified Industrial Ergonomist, CIE Associate Faculty, Waynesburg College, Graduate School of Counseling Psychology. Affiliations National Association of Social Workers PA Association of Social Workers Oxford Research Institute, ORI Pittsburgh Human Resources Assoc. PHRA Employee Assistance Program Association, EAPA Funding Sources Accepts insurance reimbursement from: Medicare Medicaid Highmark Blue Cross/Blue Shield United Behavioral Health Aetna Cigna UPMC UPMC for You Gateway Value Behavioral Health TriCare Value Options Private Pay EAP's Corporate Contracts Contact Information Key Leader(s) Paul J. Tripoli LCSW LPC BCD - Owner Contact Person(s) Paul J. Tripoli LCSW - Owner Contact Number(s) 724-747-9408 - Owner E-mail(s) threeX@verizon.net- Owner Primary Addresses 6 Apple Valley Road Suite 101 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 8 East Pine Avenue Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Nation Wide Consulting Services Service Description Private clinical counseling services to individuals and families experiencing stress, anxiety, depression and life transitions. Work Place Services provided to individuals and corporations for issues related to environmental and mental stress, employee assistance related issues and human resources related issues. Also conducted: ergonomic assessments, stress management assessments and environmental assessments. Services are provided in the form of individual assessments, company wide assessments, work shops, seminars and corporate coaching. Available Hours All hours by phone: 724-747-9408. Clinical Counseling; by appointment only. Fees/Cost for Services I accept the fee schedule of most of the major health insurances for clinical counseling services. Corporate services are by bid and contract only. Eligibility Requirements Must have current health insurance that covers mental health/substance abuse services or able to self pay. Required Documentation N/A How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call me directly: 724-747-9408. Paul J. Tripoli LCSW Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available Italian Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Transitional Employment Consultants TEC Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization TEC's mission is to assist individuals with disabilities to become productive, independent members of the community by providing job readiness training and placement into competitive employment. History of Organization TEC was established in 1984 with a grant secured by the Washington County Mental Health Association. This was a collaborative effort involving the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation Washington District Office (OVR), the Washington/Greene Counties Mental Health/Mental Retardation Program (MH/MR), the Mental Health Association of Washington County, and the University of Pittsburgh to provide supportive and/or supported employment services for consumers of mental health. During the past twenty-four years the agency has expanded to meet the growing demand for comprehensive employment services to all disability groups. Accreditations and Licenses N/A Affiliations PA Association of Rehabilitation Facilities Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Washington County MH/MR Program; Department of Labor's Office of Vocational Rehabilitation; Fayette County MH/MR Program; and, United Way of Washington County Contact Information Key Leader(s) Peggi Fawcett - Executive Director Terry Bennett - President Board of Directors Sheila Gombita - Vice President Board of Directors Sandy Guthrie - Treasurer Board of Directors Lisa Buday - Secretary Board of Directors Contact Person(s) Peggi Fawcett - Executive Director Contact Number(s) 724-225-5085 - Fax 724-438-4005 - Uniontown Office 1-888-576-2365 - Toll free 724-379-7907 - Donora Office 724-225-3535 - Washington Main Facility E-mail(s) pfawcett@tecwg.org- Executive Director Primary Addresses 330 Central Avenue Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 221 Fifth Street Donora, PA 15033 Click here for a Map of this Location. 137 North Beeson Avenue, Suite 119 Uniontown, PA 15401 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington, Greene, Fayette and Westmoreland Counties Service Description Flood control services. Snow removal and plowing services. Supported employment services for people with disabilities. Vocational assessment. Vocational Exploration Job readiness training Temporary work Job development. Job placement High school tranisiton from school to work services. Follow-up employment support services. Interpreting services for the deaf and hearing impaired. Lawn and landscaping services. Available Hours TEC Main Facility: Monday - Friday, 8:00 am - 4:30 pm. Job support hours vary depending on the schedule of the individual employed in the community. Fees/Cost for Services N/A Eligibility Requirements Individuals must have a disability Required Documentation Referral information from the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, the Washington County MH/MR Program, the Fayette County MH/MR Progam, and School District I.E.P. team documentation and referral. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Access services from the Washington County MH/MR Program, the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation, the Fayette County MH/MR Program, and School District Special Education Directors. For more information contact TEC at 724-225-3535. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Sign Language Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Conduct mock employment interivews. Spring cleaning of main facility. Employers to allow community based assessments for consumers. Tri-County Patriots for Independent Living TRIPIL Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Independent Living Centers are organizations owned and operated by people with disabilities. Our mission is to promote self-help and empowerment through peer support and information sharing, to remove societal limitations which prevent total integration and to re-orient service systems to foster self-actualization and personal growth rather than dependency. They are charged with doing whatever it takes to accomplish this mission within the community. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Supported by grants from the PA Office of Vocational Rehabilitation and the Federal Rehabilitation Services Administration. Tax deductible contributions are appreciated. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Kathleen Kleinmann - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Bob Romero - Membership Director Contact Number(s) 724.223.5115 - Main phone number 724.228.4028 - TTY number 724.223.5119 - Fax number E-mail(s) bobr@tripil.com- Membership Director Primary Addresses 69 E Beau Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington,Greene,and Fayette counties Service Description Housing referral service; technical assistance and recommendations for making existing and new structures accessible; care counseling; attendant care; homemaker services (in Washington Co. only); in-home skills training; skills training centers; support groups, individual and family counseling; adovcacy. Available Hours 8:30 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. Monday - Friday Fees/Cost for Services Vary; sliding-fee scale exists based on income and services received. Eligibility Requirements Any individual with disabilities and residing in tri-county area. Guidelines vary with specific programs. Call for information. Required Documentation Proof of income if requested. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call for an appointment or to request additional information Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Fully accessible Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Tri-County Patriots for Independent Living (Waynesburg ) TRIPIL Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Independent Living Centers are organizations owned and operated by people with disabilities. Our mission is to promote self-help and empowerment through peer support and information sharing, to remove societal limitations which prevent total integration and to re-orient service systems to foster self-actualization and personal growth rather than dependency. They are charged with doing whatever it takes to accomplish this mission within the community. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Supported by grants from the PA Office of Vocational Rehabilitation and the Federal Rehabilitation Services Administration. Tax deductible contributions are appreciated. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Kathleen Kleinmann - Executive Director Kathleen Kleinmann - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Mike Matthews - Independent Living Specialist Mike Matthews - Independent Living Specialist Contact Number(s) 724-852-2016 - Phone 724-852-1869 - Fax E-mail(s) mike@tripil.com- Office manager mike@tripil.com- Office manager Primary Addresses 30 N Washington Street Waynesburg, PA 15370 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Greene Service Description Housing referral service; technical assistance and recommendations for making existing and new structures accessible; peer counseling; attendant care; homemaker services (in Washington Co. only); in-home skills training; skills training centers; support groups, individual and family counseling,Individual Education Plan advocacy for students; adovcacy. Available Hours 8:30 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. Monday - Friday Fees/Cost for Services Vary; sliding-fee scale exists based on income and services received. Eligibility Requirements Any individual with disabilities and residing in tri-county area. Guidelines vary with specific programs. Call for information. Required Documentation Proof of income if requested How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call for an appointment or to request additional information Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Try-Again Homes, Inc. TAH Organizational Information Parent Organization Same as above Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Try-Again Home, Inc., is a private, non-profit corporation committed to providing safe nurturing places for children in need and dedicated to the growth, development, and empowerment of individuals and families for healthier communities. History of Organization Try-Again Homes, Inc., was founded in 1976 by several ministers and laymen to help disadvantage and abused children in Southwestern Pennsylvania. Today, we provide a wide array of services throughout western Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Accreditations and Licenses 55.Pa. Code Chapter 3700-Foster Family Care Agency 55.Pa. Code Chapter 3680-Administration of Private Children & Youth Service Agencies 55.Pa. Code Chapter 3350-Adoption Services 55.Pa. Code Chapter 3800-Child Residential & Day Treatment Facilities Lic #05cproo4- WV. Dept. of Health & Human Resource Div. Charleston, WV Lic #244 - WV. Dept of Health & Human Resources. Behavioral Health -Specialized Foster Care & Transitional living for children. Affiliations Child Welfare League of America Child Rights Information Network Foster Family Therapy Association Pennsylvania Council of Children, Youth & Families. Foster Treatment Association WV Child Care Association Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources State, County government, Federal, Foundation & donor Contact Information Key Leader(s) Gwendolyn Davis - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Besty Hay - Intake Secretary Contact Number(s) Kim Gavran - PA - Operations Director 1-800-245-4450 E-mail(s) gdavis@try-againhomes.org- Director kgavran@try-againhomes.org- PA- Director of Operations christiec@try-againhomes.org Web Addresses www.try-againhomes.org Primary Addresses P.O. Box 1228 365 Jefferson Ave Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 30 East Main St. Carnegie, PA 15106 Click here for a Map of this Location. 30 East Main ST. Carnegie, PA 15106 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Six county - Southwestern PA Washington, Westmoreland, Indiana, Allegheny, Greene, Fayette Service Description YAIL (Young Adult Independent Living Program) - Dependent adolescents ages 16-18 who have undergone a planned discharge from foster care or a residential living group facility. This residential program staffed 24/7 provides guidance, life-skills training and the knowledge necessary to achieve self-sufficiency. TransParenting - Seminars (educational) to parents of children whom are in the process of divorce or separation. Seminar is court ordered and is intended to reduce parental conflict through this difficult period. TIPP/Mentoring (Truancy Intervention/Prevention Program) This program is designed to encourage school attendance and early intervention to excessive school absences. We work in partnership with school districts and Children & Youth to intervene early before any disruptive patterns form. In-Home Counseling - This provide is intended for youths ages 6 to 17 who have exhibited incorrigible behaviors or parent child conflict. This service is to reduce the risk of out-of-home placement. Family Visitation Center - Provide family visits and supervision to children who have been removed from their natural family due to abuse, neglect or incorrigibility. This is a residential home which provides for a more "homelike" environment to enhance family and child interaction and communication. Intensive Counseling - Work with Juvenile offenders through individual, family and group counseling. We comply with the BARJ principles to reduce out-of-home placements, and to recognize the victims of their acts. We attempt to engage them in activities that redirect their energies into productive young adults. Independent Living Program - Program provides life skills training, guidance and support for 16-21 year olds who have been in out-of-home placement. This program addresses the needs of this popluation and is an integral part of the continuum of services offered. It also offers a variety of approaches to help prepare youth for "real life" responsibilities and ultimately independence. After School Program - This program is for at-risk young adolescents who exhibit problems at home, school or community and are at risk of placement within the juvenile system. This program is structured within our administrative office were youth attend daily after-school for instruction in academic tutoring, behavioral modification, family intervention, socialization in public settings, mentoring and a varity of other interventions to minimize or reduce the risk of placement. Adventure Based Therapy - Adventure based therapy is used to supplement other types of treatment and put adolescents outside of comfort zone to assist in accomplishing treatment goals. We perform this service for clients of other agencies, the general public, and corporations seeking a team-building goal plan. Activities vary from ropes courses, tower initiatives, white-water, climbing, hiking, caving, skiing, etc. Foster Care - We place children from birth through 18 years of age who have been abused and/or neglected. We may also elect to place a child who is in a home with excessive conflict. Adoption - Try-Again Homes, Inc., is a licensed adoption agency in Pennsylvania. We are an approved SWAN (Statewide Adoption Network) Affiliate agency, allowing us to work with the waiting children & families in the County Children & Youth System. Family Group Decision Making - This program is based on the belief that no one know the family strengths, weaknesses, the concerns, or the issues better than the family themselves. This is a process in which the family takes an active role in the planning and intervention of their child, by including all pertinent family members and others who may have a significant impact on their childrens lives. CAN DO - This program is a co-ed transitional program for 18-22 year olds with mental health &/or substance abuse issues. The young adults who reside in the CAN-DO house were previously homeless and are taught to become productive independent citizens. Available Hours Office hours: 8:30 to 4:30 Twenty four hour emergency on-call. 1-800-245-4453 (724)225-0510 Fees/Cost for Services None County, State and Federally funded programs. Note: TransParenting is a $40.00 Fee Court Mandated services Eligibility Requirements Referrals are either through County Children & Youth Services, Juvenile Courts or other county related services. Required Documentation N/A How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact local County Children & Youth Office or Juvenile Probation office. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Washington Administrative Office Languages Spoken or Available English - Spanish is available upon advance request Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No U. S. Census Bureau Organizational Information Parent Organization Department of Commerce Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Our purpose is to provide an accurate Census count for Washington County as well as all the counties in Pennsylvania. As part of the fulfillment of that goal, we have jobs available to local residents in the coming months for census employment in the areas of census takers, crew leaders and assistant crew leaders. These jobs require (1)a basic skills test, (2) an application, (3) the I.D. required by Homeland Security in order to fill out an I-9 form as for any other U. S. employer, and (4) a background check. The jobs offer competitive wages and mileage reimbursement for use of the applicants' vehicle. Their training is paid and travel to and from training is considered to be compensable time. The phone number to use to schedule a test and apply for the jobs is 1-866-861-2010. History of Organization Thomas Jefferson came up with the idea for a Census when the more remote areas of the U. S. felt they were not being fairly represented in Washington c. 1790. The mandate was made by the constitution that the U. S. would count its citizens every 10 years and then use those population figures to choose representation for the government in Washington. This function still exists, and also this count is used for funding for many programs and is important to the communities in Washington County. Hospitals, libraries, fire companies, to name a few, benefit from grants and funding based on the accuracy of the Census. Contact Information Key Leader(s) See website Contact Person(s) See website Contact Number(s) See website E-mail(s) see website Web Addresses Census.gov - site helps explain purpose of census and has information on the jobs mentioned earlier. Service Information Service Area Nationwide Service Description Furnishing jobs and ensuring accurate census count of local communities Available Hours website available 24-7 Fees/Cost for Services None Eligibility Requirements Over 18 years of age, High school graduate, required I. D. Required Documentation List is available on the website on the page for Identification on the I-9 document How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments 1-866-861-2010 to schedule a test and application for Census jobs. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Most sites Languages Spoken or Available Make special needs known Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No United Way of Washington County Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization OUR MISSION To improve lives by mobilizing the caring power of communities. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Contact Information Key Leader(s) Barbara Murphy - President 724-225-3310 barbara@unitedwaywashco.org Contact Person(s) Jessica Tennant - Special Events and Communications Coordinator 724-225-3310 jtennant@unitedwaywashco.org Contact Number(s) 1-866-224-7840 - HelpLine Information & Referral E-mail(s) uwwc@unitedwaywashco.org- General Email Web Addresses www.unitedwaywashco.org Primary Addresses 590 Washington Road Suite 200 Washington , PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Let us help you find the help you need. United Way of Washington County HelpLine 724-225-3310 Available Hours Monday - Friday 9:00am - 5:00pm Fees/Cost for Services No Fee Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Urban League of Greater Pittsburgh Washington County,Food Stamp Participation Program Organizational Information Parent Organization Hunger Services Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Hunger Services is charged with helping households expressing need find an adequate community food resource. In that regard,we manage the three(3)anti-hunger programs: 1. Emergency Food Assistance (EFA)2. Food for Early Develop(FED)3.Food StampParticipation Project(FSPP) Please refer all clients and comsumers who may need to sure up their food supply.We provide electronic pre-screen application from the field,by phone and submit directly to County Assistance Offices electronically. History of Organization The Urban League is 88 years old and is the largest social service and civil rights agency devoted to empowering African Americans to enter the economic and social mainstream community in greater Pittsburgh. Accreditations and Licenses The Urban League with the help of the United Way,local,state and federal governments and foundations operate programs providing services to more than 34,000 people of all races each year. Affiliations United Way Code 103 Contact Information Key Leader(s) Ester L. Bush - President and CEO Ester L. Bush - President and CEO Contact Person(s) Bertram Mitchell - Food Stamp Particition Project,Washington county,Field Representative Contact Number(s) 1-866-395-3663, Toll Free - Washington county Field Rep. E-mail(s) jjackson@ulpgh.org- Hunger Services,Program Manager dwilliams@ulpgh.org- Director of Housing bmitchell@ulpgh.org- Washington co.Field Rep. Primary Addresses 610 Wood Street Pittsburgh, Pa 15222-2222 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington,Allegheny and Westmoreland counties Service Description All services are available by request or referral from any community based organizations,faith based organizations,social services,hunman services,small group or individual. All can be done from almost any location. Electronicall pre-screen canidates in the field or by phone. Complete and submit quickly applications to the CAO. How to move with greater assurance through the enrollment process. Disscuss the nutritional and economical value of food stamps. What it takes to qualify for the program. Available Hours 9-5,some evenings and weekends.Some emergency services are available at the 800 number. Fees/Cost for Services free Eligibility Requirements Based on income guidelines Required Documentation Personal id.proof of income and resources How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments By telephone and appointments Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description As needed bases to complete assigned projects Visiting Angels Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization At Visiting Angels we strive to maintain the independence and dignity of our clients, by ensuring the highest quality service and the most competent caregivers at the most reasonable price, while nurturing a working environment of mutual respect and cooperation. Visiting Angels is committed to helping people in all spectrums of life by providing non-medical at-home care. We offer up to 24-hour a day care and intermittent care, as well as respite care. Our caregivers also compliment Hospice services for clients in the last phases of life, so they may live as comfortably as possible History of Organization In the 1980's Jeffrey Johnson was employed as Director of Social Work in a nursing home in the Baltimore, Maryland area. He listened as families of clients, who often expressed frustration that they had few alternatives other than to place their loved ones in a nursing facility. Before long, Jeffrey resolved to establish his own business to provide care for homebound senior citizens. In 1998, Jeffrey joined with three other directors (including 2 with extensive experience operating their own non-medical home care agencies) to establish Visiting Angels as a nationwide network of home care agencies and in just 4 years, this goal was fully realized. Accreditations and Licenses Home care License 14293601 Affiliations Washington County PDA Waiver Clients Veterans Association Legal Structure For-profit entity Contact Information Key Leader(s) Val Candee - Owner 724-745-6857 724-745-6856 v.candee@visitingangels.com Contact Person(s) Kim Jackson - Marketing Liaison 724-745-6857 Web Addresses www.visitingangels.com/washingtonpa - Canonsburg Office Primary Addresses 332 W. Pike Street Canonsburg, PA 15317 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Western Allegheny County and Washington County Service Description Bathing Assistance medication reminders Errands Errands light housekeeping meal preparation companionship care respite care laundry Available Hours Services available 24 hours a day, 7 days week. Fees/Cost for Services Free in-home assessment to determine rate. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 724-745-6857 Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Washington City Mission City Mission, the Mission Organizational Information Parent Organization N/A Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The Washington City Mission exists to share Christ, to shelter, to heal and to restore the homeless to independent living - without discrimination. History of Organization The Mission was founded in 1941 by The Rev. Burt McCausland, a local minister and businessman, to serve those who became homeless during the Depression. In the beginning, homeless men were the primary recipients of services. However, in 1986, the Mission opened the Avis Arbor Women's Shelter and in 2003 expanded into a larger facility to meet the needs of the growing homeless population of women and children. Through the years, the Mission has changed its programs to better serve an ever growing number of people. However, what has not changed is our commitment to share the love and Word of Jesus Christ to all who pass through our doors. Accreditations and Licenses Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability (ECFA) Affiliations The Associatiion of Gospel Rescue Missions Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Donations from individuals, churches and businesses; Hidden Treasure Stores; grants and special events. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Thomas R. Schaffer - President Dean Gartland - Director of Programs Robert Scott, PhD - Director of Clinical Services Clarence Camara - Director of Operations Shirley Fierro - Director of Development Contact Person(s) Jessica Zuklich - Associate Director for Grant Acquisition Grace Reyes - Women's Program Coordinator Paul Smith - Men's Social Service Coordinator Vicki Lemley - Administrative Assistant for Programs Tim Hogan - Associate Director for Volunteers and Cultivation Donna Bussey - Associate Director for Public Relations Helen Colletti - Associate Director for Administration Contact Number(s) 1-800-226-8412 - Toll free 724-222-3510 - Fax 724-222-8530 - Main number/Service Directory E-mail(s) psmith@citymission.org- Social Service Coordinator greyes@citymission.org- Women's Program Coordinator ccamara@citymission.org- Director of Operations dgartland@citymission.org- Director of Programs rscott@citymission.org- Director of Clinical Services tschaffer@citymission.org- President sfierro@citymission.org- Director of Development Web Addresses www.citymission.org - Washington City Mission Primary Addresses 84 W. Wheeling Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Tri-State Area Service Description Chapel and Devotional Program: The Mission holds two Chapel services per week and daily devotional services to help address the spiritual needs of homeless residents. Work Readiness Program: Residents at the Mission participate in work training (not employment) at the Mission for up to 40 hours per week to facilitate the enhancement of a strong work ethic and work skills. Pastoral Counseling and Referral: Staff counselors and chaplains carry a case load of residents to help address the underlying causes of homelessness and provide referral resources outside the Mission for appropriate collaborative care as needed. Arbuckle Medical Clinic Program: Homeless men, women and children receive free medical care. One full-time nurse practioner along with many volunteer doctors and nurses tend to the physical, emotional and spiritual health of those we serve. Men's Shelter Program: Homeless residential and guest/transient facility, 56 beds, three meals per day, up to one year. Avis Arbor Women and Children's Shelter: Homeless residential and guest/transient facility for homeless women with/out children, 32 beds, three meals a day, up to one year stay. Food Service Program: Three meals each day for residents and walk-in guests. Emergency Assistance: Emergency food, clothing, and household items are offered to homeless persons, victims of fire and natural disasters, and persons in financial crisis. Available Hours The Men and Women's Shelter Programs can accept homeless persons 24 hours a day 365 days a year (depending upon bed availability). Fees/Cost for Services There is no cost or fee for homeless services of the Washington City Mission unless a resident has an outside income. In that case, the resident is required to pay up to a maximum 25% program fee and save most of the remainder of his/her income towards future independent living arrangements. Eligibility Requirements Homeless men 18 years of age or older. Homeless women 18 years of age or older with or without children. Required Documentation Not required How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call 724-222-8530. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility The Men's Program, Women's Program and Food Services are all handicap accessible. Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Washington Communities Mental Health/Mental Retardation Center , Inc. washcommmhmr Organizational Information Parent Organization none Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Washington Communities MH/MR Center exists to provide eligible Public and Private Consumers with community-based Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Service while protecting the confidentiality and integrity of each consumer. All Services shall be compassionate,accessible, affordable, and meet or exceed all appropriate professional standards. Washington Communities will strive to teach, support, and encourage the highest possible level of Community life for the adults and children served. History of Organization Washington Communities MH/MR Center has been "Here to Care" since 1968 when it was a one dimensinal agency providing follow-up care to individuals discharged to the community from local State Mental Hospitals. Today, Washington Communities is a multi-service provider incorporated as a Public non-profit with an executive Board of Directors. It is one of three Mental Health Base Service Units (points of entry) in Washington County serving individuals with a variety of mental health issues. It is also the Base Service Unit for individuals with developmental challenges and children and families who need Early Intervention services. Services provided include: Emergency/Crisis Intervention Outpatient Therapy and Medication Management Case Management for MH Children /Adults Support and Service Coordination for the Developmentally Challenged Accreditations and Licenses Licensed by the Department of Public Welfare as an Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic Affiliations Value Behavioral Health of PA. Provider Advisory Council Cameron Wellness Center Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Washington County Mental Health/Mental Retardation Program Managed Care Organizations Commercial Insurances (Limited) Self Payers Contact Information Key Leader(s) Selma Tansey - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Scott A. Berry - BSU Administrative Management and Crisis/Emergency Supervisor Contact Number(s) 724-225-6940 - Main Clinic Number 724-225-6940 - Emergency/Crisis Number 724-229-2580 - Children's Services 724-229-2590 - Blended Case Management 724-229-2620 - Mental Retardation 724-225-6940 - Adult Outpatient Primary Addresses 378 West Chestnut Street Suite 205 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County and Surrounding Areas Available Hours For Appoontments and Walk-Ins:Monday through Friday 8:30Am to 5:00PM Telephone Answers 24/7 How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact the clinic by phone or walking in monday through friday 8:30 am until 5:00 pm and request an intake or assistance. For emergcncy/crisis services contact the clinic by phone or by walking in and identifying that it is an emergency. In the evening utilize the 24 hour crisis response service by contacting the clinic by phone Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Elevator available Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Washington Communities That Care Nancy J Lawson Organizational Information Parent Organization Washington School District Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization To support a community that fosters the healthy development of responsible, self-reliant, compassionate citizens. We believe that all adults in our community share responsibility for nurturing, educating, and supporting our children. History of Organization Washington Communities That Care (WCTC) is a juvenile delinquency prevention process that has been in operation since the fall of 2000. The group consists of Key Leaders, who are influential people of the community that guide and mentor the project. The Community Prevention Board is an array of citizens, agency personnel, educators and others committed to improving the quality of life in the City of Washington community for children and families. The most significant role that WCTC has played in the past several years is to improve the communication between those who serve the people of Washington as well as with those people. We are committed to raising the awareness of community ownership by citizens and empowering them to be the leaders to improve their quality of life. Funding Sources Pennsylvania Commission on Crime & Delinquency. Local Mini-Grants. In-Kind Contact Information Key Leader(s) Dr. Roberta DiLorenzo - Project Director Marjorie King - Co-Chair Carla Dunlap-Spinks - Co-Chair Chrysia Melnyk - Secretary Contact Person(s) Corrie Ulrich - Community Mobilizer Contact Number(s) 724-225-9730 - Telephone E-mail(s) washctc@hotmail.com- General Web Addresses www.washingtonctc.com - Local Office Primary Addresses 1099 Allison Avenue Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area City of Washington and East Washington Service Description Assist in the development of Neighborhood Teams to encourage a sense of community throughout the area. Implement activities for youth as an alternative to substance abuse and juvenile crime through a joint effort of community resources. Conduct a community risk and resource assessment. Implement research-based prevention programming in the community. Available Hours Monday through Friday 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Fees/Cost for Services None Eligibility Requirements None Required Documentation None How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact our office at 724-225-9730 or washctc@hotmail.com Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available Yes Washington County Behavioral Health and Developmental Services BHDS Organizational Information Parent Organization Washington County Board of County Commissioners Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of Washington County BHDS is to enrich the quality of life for persons with mental illness and/or developmental disabilities through a supportive and ongoing network of services. Implicit to this mission is the commitment to serve Mental Health/Intellectually Disabled individuals with respect and dignity at all times. Washington County BHDS provides services and supports to consumers that promote recovery and integration through a collaborative rehabilitation network of professional providers, individuals, families and community driven resources. History of Organization Established by the Pennslvania Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities Act of 1966 Affiliations Member of County Commissioners Association of Pennslvania's (CCAP)Pennsylvania Association of County Administrators of Mental Health and Developmental Services (PACA MH/DS) Legal Structure Local Government Funding Sources Pennslvania Department of Public Welfare,Value Behavioral Health and the Washington County Board of County Commissioners Contact Information Key Leader(s) Janice M. Taper - BHDS Administrator Contact Person(s) Vickie J. Amos - Early Intervention Program Coordinator John W. Orndoff - Chief Fiscal Officer Mary Jo Patrick-Hatfield - Mental Health Program Director of Planning, Development and Quality Scott Berry - Mental Health Director of Crisis, Emergency and Disaster Services Perri Linn Greco - Menatl Health Director of Child and Adolescent Services Thomas D. Jones - Developmental Services Program Director Contact Number(s) 724-228-6832 E-mail(s) amosv@co.washington.pa.us grecop@co.washington.pa.us orndoffj@co.washington.pa.us hatfielm@co.washington.pa.us jonest@co.washington.pa.us taperj@co.washington.pa.us berrysco@co.washington.pa.us Web Addresses www.co.washington.pa.us - Washington County Web Site Primary Addresses 100 W. Beau Street, Suite 302 Washington, Pa. 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Available Hours Office of BHDS Administrator hours are 8:00AM to 4:30PM. Mental Health Crisis Services are available thru 911 twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. Fees/Cost for Services Pennsylvania's Medical Assistance Program, either through a managed care organization or the traditional fee-for-service system, pays for many of these services, when rendered to eligible individuals. People who use services, but are not on Medical Assistance and are without access to other insurance, will be assessed for their ability to pay for services by the county MH/MR office. Eligibility Requirements Must be resident of Washington County and have a mental health disorder and/or be diagnosed as functioning with the Intellectual Disability level of retardation. Required Documentation Intellectual Disability: Must have psychological evaluation by licensed psychologist indicating that individual functions in mental retardation and that disability has occurred prior to age 22. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact service centers at: Centerville Clinic, Inc 1070 Old National Pike Rd. Fredericktown, Pa. 15333 724-632-6801 Southwest Behavioral Care, Inc. 568 Galiffa Drive Denora,Pa. 15033 724-379-1420 Washington Communities MH/MR Center 378 W. Chestnut Street Washington, Pa. 15301 724-225-6940-MH 724-229-2620-MR/Early Intervention Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Administrator's Office is located within handicapped accessible facility Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Washington County Children and Youth Services CYS Organizational Information Parent Organization Washington County Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Working in partnership with the community, Washington County Children and Youth Services is committed to providing the hightest quality of services to ensure that children in Washington County have the opportunity to grow up in a safe, stable, and permanent family, free from the threat of abuse, neglect and exploitation. Accreditations and Licenses Licensed by the PA Department of Public Welfare Legal Structure Local Government Funding Sources Federal State Local (County) Contact Information Key Leader(s) Lori Harbert - Administrator Christy Stanek - Deputy Administrator Jackie Forte - Fiscal Director Contact Person(s) Lori Harbert - Administrator Contact Number(s) 724-228-6884 1-888-619-9906 - Toll Free in PA only Web Addresses www.co.washington.pa.us/ Primary Addresses 100 W. Beau Street Suite 502 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Intake and Assessment - receive and investigate allegations of child abuse and neglect Adoption - provides adoption services to children who are legally free and conducts family profiles for individuals and families who want to adopt a child or children. Foster Care - Provides foster care for children who are unable to remain safely in their own homes. Recruits, trains and certifies families who want to become foster parents. Child Protective Services - Provides direct supportive services to children and families to assure children are able to remain safely in their own homes and to assure parents are able to meet the physical, emotional and educational needs of their children. Available Hours Normal office hours 8:30 am to 4:30 pm Emergency services are available 24 hours/day, 365 days a year Fees/Cost for Services none Eligibility Requirements none Required Documentation none How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call agency phone number. In case of emergency call 911. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English, Spanish Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Washington County Department of Human Services Human Services Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The Washington County Department of Human Services has the responsibility to oversee the coordination of the human services system through elimination of service duplication as well as the improvement and development of new services. The department works closely with the private non-profit sector to maximize community resources through utilization of multiple sources of availabe funding. The total Human Service budget is in excess of 90 million dollars with a staff complement of approximately 500 employees. The following programs are coordinated and managed under the Human Services Department: Aging, Children and Youth , Child Care Information Services, Mental Health/Mental Retardation, the County Health Center in addition to Food, Transportation, and Homeless and Housing Assistance Programs. Legal Structure Local Government Funding Sources Federal State County Contact Information Key Leader(s) Timothy M. Kimmel - Director Contact Person(s) Jason Bercini Jennifer L. Johnson Contact Number(s) 724.228.6863 - Telephone Number 724.250.6519 - Fax Number E-mail(s) johnsonj@co.washington.pa.us Web Addresses www.co.washington.pa.us Primary Addresses 100 West Beau Street Suite 703 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description The following programs are coordinated under the Human Services Department: Aging, Children and Youth, Child Care Information Services, Mental Health/Mental Retardation Services, and the County Health Center in addition to Food, Transportation, and Homeless and Housing Assistance. Available Hours 9 am to 4:30 pm Fees/Cost for Services Free Eligibility Requirements As per program requirements Required Documentation As per program requirements How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call or visit office Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Accessible Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Washington County Department of Veterans Affairs Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The Veterans Affairs office is responsible in assisting veterans and thier dependents in applying for and securing the rights and benefits as established by County, State and Federal regulations. Process, compile and maintain records of death and burial of Washington County deceased wartime veterans and widows/widowers. Provides free flags and emblem markers to organizations that assume responsibility for decorating the graves of deceased veterans each Memorial Day. Accreditations and Licenses Accredited by the Pennsylvania Department of Military and Veterans Affairs Legal Structure Local Government Funding Sources County Contact Information Key Leader(s) Barry Grimm - Director Contact Person(s) Susan Meighen - Veteran's Affairs Coordinator Contact Number(s) 724-228-6865 - Veteran's Coordinator 724-228-6872 - Fax Number E-mail(s) grimmbar@co.washington.pa.us meighens@co.washington.pa.us Web Addresses http://www.co.washington.pa.us/maindepartment.aspx?menuDept=15 Primary Addresses 100 West Beau Street Suite 703 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Available Hours 9:00 AM to 4:30 PM Monday-Friday. Fees/Cost for Services Free. Eligibility Requirements Washington County Resident and a veteran with honorable discharge and their family. Required Documentation DD214 (Discharge papers/seperation papers. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Phone Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Washington County Faith in Action Program Organizational Information Parent Organization Tri-County Patriots for Independent Living Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization We provide a volunteer based support service to our neighbors who are older citizens and people with disabilities. We help people stay active within the community and in their own homes. Our volunteers provide non-medical assistance to maintain independent lifestyles. You do not need to be a member of a faith-based congregation to get help from our volunteers. We link seniors and people with disabilities in Washington County with community activities, social services, and health care. Our aim is to make it possible for them to live independently in their own homes, enjoy effective, loving relaitonships with their families, and experience an improved quality of life. History of Organization We have been providing in-home services to older citizens and people with disabilities since July, 1999. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources TRIPIL Services, donations from Coalition Partners, Care Receivers, Volunteers, and local businesses. Fund raisers. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Candace Bernier - Program Director Candace Bernier - Program Director 724-223-5115, ext. 204 none candy@tripil.com Candace Bernier - Program Director 724-223-5115, ext. 204 candy@tripil.com Contact Person(s) Candace Bernier - Program Director Candace Bernier - Program Director 724-223-5115, ext. 204 none candy@tripil.com Contact Number(s) 724-223-5115, ext. 204 - Program Director E-mail(s) candy@tripil.com- Program Director Primary Addresses 69 E. Beau Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Reading or helping to pay bills. Telephone reassurance. Meal preparation Light housekeeping Linkage to available services Transportation Caregiver Relief Supportive Visiting Minor household maintenance Shopping and errands Spirituality nurturing Available Hours 8:30 am to 4:30 pm, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. You may leave a message Monday - Friday. Fees/Cost for Services None. Donations accepted. Eligibility Requirements Older citizens and people with disabilities in Washington County. Required Documentation None How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Telephone, e-mail or write. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Faith in Action is a Volunteer-based support service that allows older citizens and people with disabilities in Washington County to stay active in the community and in their own homes. Volunteers provide in-home, non-medical services. Volunteers are recruited from congregations and community organizations, and serve mainly from their faith and life experiences. New volunteers attend a training and orientation session of approximately 2 hours. Volunteers serve in their own communities, and choose the services and times they wish to serve. Washington County Habitat for Humanity Habitat for Humanity Washington County Organizational Information Parent Organization Habitat for Humanity International Contact Information Key Leader(s) Laura Karl Vincenti Contact Person(s) Laura Karl Vincenti Contact Number(s) 724-222-4340 - Telephone 724-222-7729 - Fax E-mail(s) info@habitatwashpa.org- General Web Addresses www.habitatwashpa.org - local affiliate Primary Addresses 54 W. Wheeling Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Washington County Health Center Organizational Information Parent Organization Washington County Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Provider of rehabilitation, skilled nursing, and long term nursing care services, as well as Adult Day Care services. History of Organization The Health Center dates back to the the early 1800's when it was established as the County's hospital and home. We have been in our present location/facility since 1977, and currently are licensed to serve 288 nursing facility residents and 21 Adult Day Care clients daily. Accreditations and Licenses Licensed by the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Pennsylvania Departemnt of Aging. Affiliations Pennsylvania Association of County Affiliated Homes (PACAH) Legal Structure Local Government Funding Sources Medicare Most Health Insurances Private Pay Medicaid Contact Information Key Leader(s) Nancy Shoun-Few - Administrator Lisa Baldi - Director of Nursing Debbie Batley - Director of Social Service/Admissions/Adult Day Care Contact Person(s) Debbie Batley - Director of Social Service/Admissions/Adult Day Care Nancy Shoun-Few - Administrator Contact Number(s) 724.223.7184 - Director of Social Service/Admissions/Adult Day Care 724.223.7198 - Administrator 724.228.5010 - Main Health Center Number E-mail(s) batleyd@co.washington.pa.us Primary Addresses 36 Old Hickory Ridge Road Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Primarily Washington and surrounding counties, but there are no geographic limitations Service Description Long Term Nursing Care Services Adult Day Care Rehabilitation Skilled Nursing Services Available Hours Nursing Home - 24 hours per day every day of the year Adult Day Care - Monday through Friday from 8:00AM to 4:30 PM Fees/Cost for Services Varies by service Eligibility Requirements Per State and Federal guidelines Required Documentation Per State and Federal guidelines How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Contact the Health Center at 724.223.7185 or 724.228.5010 Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Fully handicapped accessible Languages Spoken or Available All as needed Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Volunteer program for teens through adult age group. Washington County Housing Authority Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of the Washington County Housing Authority is to develop, manage, and administer quality housing for low and moderate-income persons and to promote economic growth and quality living environments in our communities. We strive to pursue this mission within the context of limited government resources by providing assistance to our clients (residents) that results in (1) leveraging HUD resources with those of the private sector and other public agencies, (2) efficient program administration, and (3) creative approaches to problem solving. Legal Structure Authority Funding Sources Department of Housing and Urban Development Contact Information Key Leader(s) Stephen K Hall - Executive Director Barbara A Hixenbaugh - Deputy Executive Director Contact Person(s) Pat Kesneck - Section 8 Coordinator Dottie Kesneck - Tenant Selection Supervisor (Public Housing) Contact Number(s) 1-800-224-0034 724-228-6060 E-mail(s) wcha@pulsenet.com Web Addresses www.wacoha.com Primary Addresses 100 Crumrine Tower Franklin Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 243 Second St. California, PA 15419 Click here for a Map of this Location. 100 Franklin St. Crumrine Tower Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 266 Lincoln Ave. Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Box 663 Fredericktown, Pa 15377 Click here for a Map of this Location. 110 Galletin Dr. Donora, PA 15033 Click here for a Map of this Location. 518 Dawson St. Canonsburg, PA 15317 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1100 Administration Bldg. Washington , PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 1 Middleland Ave. North Charleroi, PA 15022 Click here for a Map of this Location. 304 Washington St. Bentleyville, PA 15314 Click here for a Map of this Location. 39 N. Main St. Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. 400 W. Main St. Monongahela, PA 15063 Click here for a Map of this Location. 110 Chess Ave. New Eagle, PA 15067 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Public Housing Section 8 Vouchers Available Hours 8:30am to 4:30pm How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments All individuals interested in being on the waiting list for public housing may obtain an application either by calling the main office at 724 228-6060 or by coming to the office in person at 100 Franklin St., Crumrine Tower, Washington, PA 15301. We also have a waiting list for the Section 8 Voucher Program, however, applications are not being taken at the present time. We will publish in the newspaper when we are taking them again. Miscellaneous Information Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Washington County Literacy Council Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization We provide free and confidential one-on-one literacy training to low-level or non-reading adults. This includes improving reading, writing, and math skills as well as English as a Second Language (ESL). Services are available throughout Washington County. History of Organization Washington County Literacy Council has been teaching adults to improve their reading skills for more than twenty years. Affiliations We are affiliated with ProLiteracy America, the National Institute for Literacy and the National Center for Family Literacy. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources We rely on grant funding, the United Way, and private and corporate donations. We currently receive no government funding. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Amy Ross Manko - Executive Director Contact Person(s) Raymond C. Adams - Executive Assistant Contact Number(s) 724-228-6188 - Telephone 724-228-7966 - Fax E-mail(s) WCLC4Literacy@yahoo.com- General email Web Addresses www.wclc4literacy.org - Website Primary Addresses 55 S. College St. Lower Level Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Adult Basic Literacy Education Family Literacy Early Literacy Available Hours Tutoring hours as needed, office hours - Monday thru Friday from 10am to 5pm Fees/Cost for Services All services are free of charge Eligibility Requirements None Required Documentation None How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call the office to schedule an intake screening. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Ramps and elevator, with three handicapped parking spaces in adjacent public parking lot. Languages Spoken or Available Spanish and English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description The organization is almost solely made up of volunteers. We currently need volunteer tutors, Baby Book Bag stuffers, fundraisers and newsletter authors. Washington County Transportation Authority Washington Rides Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of WCTA is to promote and provide high-quality, cost-effective transportation to the citizens of Washington County and surrounding areas as appropriate, especially older adults, persons with disabilities, and economically disadvantaged individuals, including those on Medical Assistance. History of Organization The Washington County Transportation Program was established circa 1982. Until the creation of the Authority in 2001, program adminstration was handled by the County Human Services Department and administered by a broker based in Pittsburgh. Affiliations PA Public Transportation Association Community Transportation Association of America Legal Structure Authority Funding Sources Pennsylvania Bureau of Public Transportation; Department of Public Welfare; Washington County Department of Human Services (HSDF and MATP); SW PA Area Agency on Aging; Washington County MH/MR; Passenger Fares; miscellaneous agency revenue Contact Information Key Leader(s) Sheila J. Gombita - Executive Director Laura J. Atkinson - Assistant Director Contact Person(s) David L. White - Operations Safety & Training Supervisor Tammy Sullivan - Customer Service Manager Heidi Warren - Administrative Manager Alison Lambdin - Scheduler Contact Number(s) 1-800-331-5058 - Toll Free 724-223-8747 - Main Number E-mail(s) info@washingtonrides.org- General Web Addresses www.washingtonrides.org Primary Addresses 382 West Chestnut Street Suite 108 Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Washington Rides provides transportation service that is Shared-Ride in nature. That means you will likely be riding with others, and that other individuals may be picked up and dropped off before you reach your destination. We try to make sure, in most instances, that no one rides for more than an hour, but the trip may well take longer than if you were going by yourself, and passengers need to plan accordingly. The service provided is Door-to-Door. Many of the vehicles have wheelchair lifts. Passengers who need and request assistance will receive it, between the door of the pick-up point and the door of the destination. Drivers cannot, however, take a wheelchair up or down steps, or provide lifting assistance for passengers. All passengers must be registered with Washington Rides before using our services, and advance reservations are required. Washington Rides Does NOT Provide Emergency transportation or ambulance service. Service in which the distance from the origin to the destination is less than one-quarter mile. Attendants or escorts for passengers. Assistance within a residence. Lifting or carrying assistance. Senior Shared-Ride The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) funds transportation for persons aged 65 and over. Individuals can ride to a senior center near their home or to adult day care at no cost to the passenger. Trips to medical appointments can be made for a minimal fare, and social, recreational, and work trips for a slightly higher charge. Persons aged 60-64 can also ride to a senior center near their homes or an adult day care at no charge. Free trips to senior centers and discounts for medical trips are subsidized by the Southwestern PA Area Agency on Aging. Rural Transportation Program for Persons with Disabilities (PwD Program) PennDOT also sponsors a program similar to Senior Shared-Ride, for persons with disabilities. Anyone with a qualifying disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act can become certified to use this service, and can request a trip for any purpose. A fare is charged to the passenger. The PwD Program cannot be used instead of other available services, such as fixed-route bus service or ADA complementary paratransit. Medical Assistance Transportation Program (MATP) This service is provided to eligible persons who are in need of assistance in making trips to and from medical providers enrolled in the Medical Assistance Program, for the purpose of receiving medical treatment or for purchasing prescription drugs or medical equipment. The program is funded through the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare (DPW). As the MATP provider for Washington County, Washington Rides must offer customers the least expensive and most appropriate form of transportation available. Depending on the individual and the destination, this could be Washington Rides shared-ride service, fixed-route bus service, or reimbursement for mileage in a private vehicle. Determination of the mode is made on a case-by-case basis. Welfare-to-Work Transportation Program For individuals who qualify based on their economic situation, temporary transportation is available through the PennDOT-sponsored Welfare-to-Work Program. Service is provided for trips related to work and child-care, on a temporary basis until more permanent transportation resources can be identified. The local County Assistance Office screens applicants for this program. Veterans Transportation Program This service is provided through a special van for ambulatory veterans who need transportation to the VA Medical Centers in Pittsburgh. Non-ambulatory veterans would likely be eligible for such transportation through one of our other programs or through the VA Medical Centers. General Public Service In addition to all of the agencies and programs that provide funding for transportation services, Washington Rides service is available to the general public. Any member of the public may use the service. The only difference is that the service is not subsidized, and the passenger must pay the full fare, not just a co-payment. Call for details. Available Hours Hours of transportation service are from 6:00 AM until 8:00 PM, Monday through Saturday, for most services. Regular service is not available on Sundays, or on Thanksgiving Day or Christmas Day. Fees/Cost for Services Reduced fares are provided to those individuals who are eligible for one of the programs. Fares are based on trip origin and destination. Call for more information. Eligibility Requirements See program descriptions for eligibility requirements. There are no eligibility requirements for the General Public Service. Required Documentation Depending on program, one or more of the following documentation may be required: proof of age, certification of disability, proof of Medical Assistance eligibility, certification of military service, proof of income. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Reservationists are available to schedule trips Monday through Friday, from 7:30 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Accessible. Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Washington County Women's Network Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization We are a colobration group of women who come together to honor, support and encourage women in our community. Formed in 1996, we honor women who have overcome obstacles in their lives such as substance Abuse, Victimization both sexual abuse and domestic violence and medical/physical challenges at our annual event the Saturday before Mother's Day at the Washington Crown Center. We share their story in hopes that someone will hear it and be able to change their lives also. That is why our logo is Sunrise and our slogan, Life is Full of Possibilities" was adopted to let women know anything is possible. We also have informational booths/ job employement booths and health related booths there that day so contacts can be made. Our Mission is to recognize women of all ages and walks of life in the community who have overcome barriers to become successful. History of Organization Formed in 1996 by two women who worked in social service agencies: Cindy E. Patterson and Dee Walker. The first event was held in November of 1996. We continue to hold an annual event " A Celebration of Acheivements" the Saturday before Mother's Day at Washington Crown Center. Affiliations We are a collobrative group of women on the committee from different social service agencies, businesses and community members. Legal Structure Unknown Funding Sources In Kind Donations and Private donations. Contact Information Contact Person(s) Barbara J. Mundell O'Hara - Committee Chair Contact Number(s) 724-223-5477 - Samantha Lee, Committee Chair E-mail(s) sml-wwsedutrain@earthlink.net - Committee Chair Web Addresses None Primary Addresses c/o Washington Women's Shelter, Inc. 308 E. Maiden Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington and Greene Counties Available Hours NA Fees/Cost for Services NA Eligibility Requirements To be honored as a nominee they have had to overcome an obstacle such as drug/alcohol abuse, sex violence/ domestic violence/ physcial challenge. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments We accept nominations in Jan - March for the awards ceremony. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility NA Languages Spoken or Available NA Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description We can use volunteers to help with our event in May. The Saturday before Mother's Day at the Washington Crown Center. To Help with the event. Washington Drug and Alcohol Commission, Inc. WDAC Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of the Washington Drug and Alcohol Commission, Inc. (WDAC) is to enrich the quality of life for persons who have experienced problems related to the use or abuse of alcohol and other drugs. This organization will ensure that clients receive the appropriate level of drug/alcohol treatment, while efficiently utilizing various funding sources to help eliminate financial impediments for the client who is seeking drug/alcohol treatment. The case management unit will link clients to appropriate treatment and supportive services. Our primary goal is to be culturally competent in assisting clients to assume a life long plan of recovery that is suitable to his/her individual needs, and to help maintain a network of treatment and prevention opportunities that will provide a seamless system of services to the community. History of Organization Since July, 2002, WDAC has been and an independent non-profit corporation serving as the Single County Authority (SCA) for Washington County. Per our contract with the Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Programs (BDAP)and the Department of Public Welfare (DPW),it is our responsibility to utilize state/federal funding for the provision of a comprehensive system of quality substance abuse treatment, prevention, and intervention services to Washington County residents. Affiliations WDAC contracts with 7 outpatient treatment programs, 14 inpatient rehabs, 16 halfway houses, 2 hospitals, and a methadone clinic fot the provision of substance abuse treatment services. There are 2 contracted agencies for the provision of alcohol and other drug prevention services to our community and local schools. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Bureau of Drug and Alcohol Programs Department of Public Welfare Grant oppoortunities Contact Information Key Leader(s) David Blum - Executive Director Melinda Strawn - Chief Fiscal Officer Bobbie Bane - Case Management Supervisor Contact Person(s) Tammy Taylor - Administrative Assistant II Web Addresses www.wdacinc.org Primary Addresses 90 West Chestnut Street Millcraft Building Suite 310T Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County Service Description Intensive case management: Client advocacy and linkage to services in areas of need, such as housing, child care, vocational/educational services, etc. Case management: Screening and assessment for appropriate treatment referral within one week of the first clint contact, determination of appropriate level of care, and referral for treatment. Available Hours Monday - Friday 8:30AM - 4:30PM Fees/Cost for Services Assessments are free of charge. Eligibility Requirements Must be a Washington County resident and be eligible for medical assistance or lack of resources/private insurance to pay for drug and alcohol treatment. Required Documentation Proof of income is required if the client is employed. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Call 724-223-1181 or 800-247-8379 or come to the office to schedule an appointment. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need Yes Volunteer Description Office assistance Washington-Greene Alternative Residential Services, Inc. Washington-Green ARS, Inc. Organizational Information Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization The mission of Washington-Greene ARS, Inc. is to assist each consumer to grow and learn by promoting independence and encouraging relationships to each consumer s satisfaction and also by providing a high quality of care in a healthy environment. History of Organization Washington-Greene ARS, Inc. has been in operation since 1987. ARS provides residential services to mentally challenged adults throughout Washington County. We currently maintain 10 residential facilities, which provide 24-hour supervision for 3-8 residents at each site and an Adult Training Facility which provides services in prevocational development to over 40 individuals. Accreditations and Licenses Licensed by Department of Public Welfare, Department of Health and Area Agency on Aging. Affiliations Pennslyvania Association of Resources for People with Mental Retardation Legal Structure For-profit entity Funding Sources State and Federal Contact Information Key Leader(s) Gregory Pilarski - Director Cynthia M. Peterson - QMRP Supervision Martin L. Ware - President Contact Person(s) Gregory Pilarski - Director Cynthia M. Peterson - QMRP Supervisor Martin L. Ware - President E-mail(s) wgars@yahoo.com- Gregory Pilarski, Director Primary Addresses 621 N. Main Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 357 E. Maiden Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington and Greene Counties Service Description Group homes and Adult Training Facility Available Hours Administration Office 9:00 a.m. - 4:00 pm Eligibility Requirements Must be 18 years of age to reside in the group homes and have mental retardation How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Through the administration office Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Yes Languages Spoken or Available English Speaker Available No Volunteer Use No Volunteer Need No Washington-Greene Counties Weatherization Program Weatherization Program Organizational Information Parent Organization ACTION-Housing, Inc. Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Our Mission To empower people to build more secure and self-sufficient lives through the provision of decent, affordable housing, essential supportive services, asset building programs, and educational and employment opportunities. Our Vision We envision an organization that continues to link its activities with other public, non-profit and private entities in a common effort to address the needs of our clients. We envision an organization that will provide decent, safe and affordable housing for the most vulnerable populations despite their physical, developmental and income limitations. We envision an organization that will be a leader in the design and implementation of innovative technology in the delivery and management of social services. We envision an organization that will develop new programs in the areas of education and workforce development to better serve the needs of the agency's clients. We envision an organization that will maintain a strong, diverse, knowledgeable and involved board of directors that is fully committed to the agency's mission and will be willing to take substantial risks in order to effectively address the problems and needs of our clients. We envision an organization that will maintain and continually build a talented, dedicated, diverse and highly motivated staff that possesses all of the skills required to carry out the agency's mission and is representative of the populations served. We envision an organization that will recognize that the clients we serve are the highest priority in the agency's mission and thus, we will serve them in a comprehensive, holistic and effective manner. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources DOE, LIHEAP Contact Information Key Leader(s) Kenneth M. Provlic Jr. - Administrator Contact Person(s) Kathy L. Schmuck - Assistant Program Administrator Contact Number(s) 724-483-2799 - Fax 724-483-2399 - Telephone 1-800-841-6899 - Telephone E-mail(s) kprovlic@wea.actionhousing.org- Administrator kschmuck@wea.actionhousing.org- Assistant Program Administrator Web Addresses www.actionhousing.org - Corporate Office Primary Addresses 425 6th Ave., Suite 950 Pittsburgh, PA 15219-1819 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses Washington-Greene Counties Weatherization Program 434 Fallowfield Ave. Charleroi, PA 15022 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington and Greene Counties Service Description Weatherization Program Insulation Reglazing of windows Weatherstripping Door sweeps Safety check on heating system. Safety Check on Hot Water Tank Mobile Homes, underbelly insulation Pipe wrap Attic insulation Available Hours 9:00 - 4:00 Weekdays Fees/Cost for Services No Cost to Client Eligibility Requirements Income Eligibility 150% Poverty Level Required Documentation Income Verification and Ownership Verification Application, and latest copies of utility bills. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please call the office and request application. Wesley Spectrum Services WSS Organizational Information Parent Organization Wesley Spectrum Services Vision, Mission and/or Purpose of Organization Our mission is to provide transformational support for children and families as they strive to become more independent, responsible, and caring members of the community History of Organization Wesley Spectrum Services is the result of a merger between Wesley Institute and Spectrum Family Network. Since 1965, the agecny has been providing a myriad of services that include but are not limited to Mental Health and Addiciton Treatment, Enhanced Behavioral Health including Family Based Mental Health, Family Focused Solution Focused Therapy, Autism Treatment, Education Services incuding Acute Partial Care and Approved Private Schools, In-Home Services, Shelter Services, Foster Care and Adoption Services. Mission Values - Wesley Spectrum Services Believes that The Organization's Purpose is to Serve: Wesley Spectrum Services intentionally balances serving and leading in ways that provide the greatest opportunity to advance mission and impact the community. Children and Families are at the Center of Decision Making: At the foundation of every decision is the question: What is in the best interest of each child and family we serve? Every Person is Valuable: Every individual is valuable and will be treated with dignity and respect in a caring environment for those we serve and those that serve the organization. Every Person has Strengths: Acquiring life long skills leading to real and sustainable change begins with identifying and developing a person's strengths and talents. Knowledge and Timely Access to Resources is Vital: An individual needs to be aware of and have timely access to resources that meet their needs. Children and Families Should be Heard: In partnership with families, Wesley Spectrum Services has a responsibility to be a committed and credible voice to remove those barriers which limit the potential of the children and families. Partnerships are Essential to our Success: Advancing Wesley Spectrum Services mission requires a holistic approach to service that is only made possible through the creation of partnerships and alliances with other community resources. Accreditations and Licenses Accredited by the Council on Accredidation (COA) Lisenced by the State of Pennsylvania for Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Partial Hospitalization, Intensive Outpatient and Outpatient Services. Legal Structure Non-profit corporation Funding Sources Wesley Spectrum Services welcomes Donations and Grants in addition to Medical Assistance (VBH and CCBH) and some private insurances (please call for information). Wesley Spectrum Services also works with Washington County to provide funding for those who lack insurance. Contact Information Key Leader(s) Doug Muetzel - CEO Contact Person(s) Rachel Nash - Assistant Director - Outpatient Services Contact Number(s) 724-222-7500 - Washington Office - 412-831-9390 - Corporate Office E-mail(s) rnash@wesleyspectrum.org- Rachel Nash, Assistant Director dmuetzel@wesleyspectrum.org- CEO and project director Web Addresses www.wesleyspectrum.org - Wesley Spectrum Services Primary Addresses 241 Johnston Road Pittsburgh, PA 15241 Click here for a Map of this Location. Additional Addresses 26 South Main Street Washington, PA 15301 Click here for a Map of this Location. Service Information Service Area Washington County and surrounding counties including Allegheny, Beaver, Westmoreland and Sommerset Counties. Service Description Drug and Alcohol / Addiction Treatment; Mental Health Therapy; Co-occuring Services; Assessment and Psychiatric Services; Foster Care and Adoption Services; In-Home Counseling. See below for more specific details IN-HOME FAMILY COUNSELING Foster care and family transition services. Partial Hospitalization Mental Health and Substance Abuse Therapy Services as well as Co-occurring Services for Adults Outpatient services for Drug and Alcohol clients Outpatient services for adolescents with co-occurring disorders. Case management services for co-occurring clients. Intensive outpatient Mental Health and Substance Abuse Therapy Services as well as Co-occurring Services for Adults and Adolescents Outpatient Therapy for MENTAL HEALTH, SUBSTANCE ABUSE as well as CO-OCCURING Services for Adults and Adolescents Intensive outpatient services for drug and alcohol clients Available Hours Monday through Thursday 8AM-8PM Friday 8AM -4PM Fees/Cost for Services Insurances typically cover most costs. Psychiatric Evaluation $175 PCPC/ASAM $75 Diagnostic evaluation $130 Individual psychotherapy $90 Family psychotherapy $$70 Group $45 Medication check $50 Partial/Intensive Outpatient group $30 Case Management $25 Eligibility Requirements For outpatient and Partial Hospital Services an asessment will be completed to determine the appropriate level of treatment. Please bring a copy of your insurance. In-Home Services are coordinated through Washington County CYF. Please call 724-222-7500 for details or questions regarding any of our services. Required Documentation Insurance information is needed. When possible, WSS will work with persons who do not have insurance to acquire funding. How to Access Services or Schedule Appointments Please stop in or call us at 724-222-7500. Miscellaneous Information Handicap Accessibility Our office is Handicap Accessible. Languages Spoken or Available English and Spanish Speaker Available Yes Volunteer Use Yes Volunteer Need No Volunteer Description Volunteers are welcome and coordinated through our corporate office. Please call 412-831-9390 for details.

Alex Jones From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Changes must be reviewed before being displayed on this page.show/hide details Jump to: navigation, search Page protected with pending changes level 1 For other people named Alex Jones, see Alex Jones (disambiguation). Alex Jones Alex Jones thumbs up.jpg Jones, circa 2009 Born Alexander Emerick Jones February 11, 1974 (age 40) Dallas, Texas, United States Occupation Radio host, film producer Known for Various conspiracy theories such as 9/11 Truth and New World Order theories; Website InfoWars.com PrisonPlanet.TV Alexander Emerick "Alex" Jones (born February 11, 1974) is an American radio host, author, conspiracy theorist[1][2] and documentary filmmaker.[3] His syndicated news/talk show The Alex Jones Show, based in Austin, Texas, airs via the Genesis Communication Network on more than 90 AM, FM, and shortwave radio stations across the United States and on the Internet.[4] His websites include Infowars.com and PrisonPlanet.com.[5][6] His YouTube channel has been viewed over 360 million times.[7] Jones has been the center of many controversies, including his statements about gun control in the wake of Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting.[8] He has accused the U.S. government of being involved in the Oklahoma City bombing,[9] the September 11 attacks,[10] and the filming of fake Moon landings to hide NASA's secret technology[11] and the killing of "thousands of astronauts".[12] He believes that government and big business have colluded to create a New World Order through "manufactured economic crises, sophisticated surveillance tech and—above all—inside-job terror attacks that fuel exploitable hysteria".[13] Jones describes himself as a libertarian and a conservative. Contents [hide] 1 Biography 2 Reception and impact 3 Media 4 Films 4.1 Author 4.2 Film subject 4.3 Acting 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Biography[edit] Jones was born on February 11, 1974, in Dallas, Texas,[14] and grew up in the suburb of Rockwall and Austin, Texas. His father was a dentist and his mother a homemaker.[9] In one of his video podcasts, he reports that he is of German, Welsh, mostly[15] British, and partially Native American descent.[15] He was a lineman on his high school's football team and graduated from Anderson High School in Austin, Texas in 1993.[9] As a teenager, he read Gary Allen's None Dare Call It Conspiracy, which strongly impacted him, and which he calls "the easiest-to-read primer on The New World Order".[16] After high school, Jones attended Austin Community College.[17] He began his career in Austin with a live, call-in format public-access television cable TV program. In 1996, Jones switched format to KJFK, hosting a show named The Final Edition.[18] During this time, Ron Paul was running for congress and was a guest on Jones' show several times.[19] The two share many beliefs and have been friends since then.[19] In his early shows, he frequently talked about his belief that the U.S. government was behind the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995,[20] using the incident to put down a growing "states rights movement".[21] In 1998, he released his first film, America Destroyed By Design. In 1998, Jones organized a successful effort to build a new Branch Davidian church as a memorial to those who died during the 1993 fire that ended the government's siege of the original Branch Davidian complex near Waco, Texas.[22] He often featured the project on his public-access television program and claimed that David Koresh and his followers were peaceful people who were murdered by Attorney General Janet Reno and the ATF during the siege.[18] In 1999, he tied with Shannon Burke for that year's "Best Austin Talk Radio Host" poll as voted by The Austin Chronicle readers.[23] Later that year, he was fired from KJFK-FM for refusing to broaden his topics, his viewpoints making the show hard to sell to advertisers, according to the station's operations manager.[18] Jones argued: "It was purely political, and it came down from on high," and, "I was told 11 weeks ago to lay off Clinton, to lay off all these politicians, to not talk about rebuilding the church, to stop bashing the Marines, A to Z".[18] He began spreading his show via internet connection from his home.[20] In early 2000, Jones was one of seven Republican candidates for state representative in Texas House District 48, an open seat swing district based in Austin, Texas. Jones stated that he was running "to be a watchdog on the inside",[24] but withdrew from the race after a couple of weeks. In July, a group of Austin Community Access Center (ACAC) programmers claimed that Jones used legal proceedings and ACAC policy to intimidate them or get their shows thrown off the air.[25] In 2001, his show was syndicated on approximately 100 stations.[20] After the 9/11 terrorist attack, Jones began to speak of a conspiracy by the Bush administration as being behind the attack, which caused a number of the stations that had previously carried him to drop his program.[26] On June 8, 2006, while on his way to cover a meeting of the Bilderberg group in Ottawa, Canada, Jones was stopped and detained at the Ottawa airport by Canadian authorities who confiscated his passport, camera equipment, and most of his belongings. He was later allowed to enter Canada lawfully. Jones said regarding the reason for his immigration hold, "I want to say, on the record, it takes two to tango. I could have handled it better."[27] On September 8, 2007, he was arrested while protesting at 6th Avenue and 48th Street in New York City. He was charged with operating a bullhorn without a permit. Two others were also cited for disorderly conduct when his group crashed a live television show featuring Geraldo Rivera. In an article, one of Jones's fellow protesters said, "It was ... guerrilla information warfare."[28] Reception and impact[edit] Jones during a 9/11 Truth Movement event on September 11, 2007, in Manhattan Mainstream sources have described Jones as a conservative,[29][30][31][32] a right-wing conspiracy theorist,[33][34][35][36] and a libertarian.[37] Jones sees himself as a libertarian and rejects being described as a right-winger.[38] He has also called himself a paleoconservative[39] and an "aggressive constitutionalist".[40][41] Jones has been the center of many controversies, such as the one surrounding his actions and statements about gun control after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting,[8] and has accused the U.S. government of being involved in the Oklahoma City bombing[9] and September 11 attacks.[10] Jones was in a "media crossfire" in 2011, which included criticism by Rush Limbaugh, when the news spread that Jared Loughner had been "a fan" of the 9/11 conspiracy film Loose Change, of which Jones had been an executive producer.[42] In January 2013, Jones was invited to speak on Piers Morgan's show after promoting an online petition to deport Morgan due to his support of gun control laws.[43] The interview turned into "a one-person shoutfest, as Jones riffed about guns, oppressive government, the flag, his ancestors' role in Texan independence, and what flag Morgan would have on his tights if they wrestled".[43] The event drew widespread coverage,[43] and according to The Huffington Post, Morgan and others such as Glenn Beck "agreed that Jones was a terrible spokesman for gun rights".[44] Jones's appearance on the show was a top trending Twitter topic the following morning.[45] On June 9, 2013, Jones appeared as a guest on the BBC's Sunday Politics. After a discussion about conspiracy theories surrounding the Bilderberg Group meetings with presenter Andrew Neil and journalist David Aaronovitch, a critic of such theories, which was dominated by Jones's shouting and regular interruptions, Andrew Neil ended the item, describing Jones as "an idiot"[46] and "the worst person I've ever interviewed".[47][48] Jones was still shouting, according to Neil on Twitter, until he knew he was off-air.[46][47] Media[edit] Main article: The Alex Jones Show The Alex Jones Show syndicated radio program is broadcast nationally by Genesis Communications Network to more than 90 AM and FM radio stations in the United States, and to WWCR Radio shortwave. Live-broadcast times are weekdays 11:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. CST and Sundays from 4:00 to 6:00 p.m. CST. The Sunday broadcast is also broadcast by Emmis Communications' KLBJ Radio. As of 2013, according to Jones, the radio show has over 15 million listeners a week, which would be 2.5 million per day.[49] Also, the show reportedly has a demographic heavier in younger viewers than other conservative pundits.[26] In 2011, he had a larger on-line audience than Glenn Beck and Rush Limbaugh combined.[42] Author Will Bunch says that Jones was in part a model for Glenn Beck who "synthesized" some of the paranoia of Jones's commentaries into his persona.[26] Jones is also the operator of several web sites centered on news and information about civil liberties issues, global government, and a wide variety of current events topics. Several of these sites are www.infowars.com, www.prisonplanet.tv, www.prisonplanet.com, and www.jonesreport.com. As of February 2014, his YouTube channel, TheAlexJonesChannel, has received more than 360 million views and 750,000 subscriptions.[7] He has been able to mobilize his followers to create "Google bomb" actions that bring particular terms to the top of search engine listing, a tactic which has then inspired other online media, such as The Drudge Report, to cover the story.[50] Films[edit] Alex Jones and fans at the Première of A Scanner Darkly, an animated film by Richard Linklater, in which Jones has a voice credit.[20] Year Film Notes 1998 America: Destroyed by Design 1999 Police State 2000 1999 Are You Practicing Communism? Produced by Mike Hanson 2000 America Wake Up or Waco 2000 The Best of Alex Jones 2000 Dark Secrets Inside Bohemian Grove 2000 Police State II: The Takeover 2001 Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports: Exposed 2001 911 The Road to Tyranny: Special Emergency Release 2002 911 The Road to Tyranny 2002 The Masters of Terror: Exposed 2003 Matrix of Evil 2003 Police State 3: Total Enslavement 2004 American Dictators: Documenting the Staged Election of 2004 2005 Martial Law 9-11: Rise of the Police State 2005 The Order of Death 2006 TerrorStorm: A History of Government-Sponsored Terrorism 2007 Endgame: Blueprint for Global Enslavement 2007 Endgame 1.5 2007 TerrorStorm: A History of Government-Sponsored Terrorism - Second Edition 2007 Loose Change: Final Cut by Dylan Avery Executive producer 2008 The 9/11 Chronicles: Part 1, Truth Rising 2008 Fabled Enemies by Jason Bermas Producer 2009 DVD Arsenal: The Alex Jones Show Vols. 1–3 2009 The Obama Deception: The Mask Comes Off 2009 Fall of the Republic: Vol. 1, The Presidency of Barack H. Obama 2009 Reflections and Warnings: An Interview with Aaron Russo 2010 Police State IV: The Rise Of FEMA 2010 Invisible Empire: A New World Order Defined by Jason Bermas Producer 2012 New World Order: Blueprint of Madmen Author[edit] Year Book Publisher 2002 9-11: Descent Into Tyranny Progressive Press 2008 The Answer to 1984 Is 1776 The Disinformation Company Film subject[edit] Year Film Notes 2003 Aftermath: Unanswered Questions from 9/11 by Stephen Marshall 2009 New World Order by Luke Meyer and Andrew Neel 2010 The Fall of America and the Western World by Brian Kraft Acting[edit] Year Film Role 2001 Waking Life Man in Car with P.A. (cameo) 2006 A Scanner Darkly Street Prophet (cameo) See also[edit] Portal icon September 11 attacks portal Portal icon Radio portal 9/11 conspiracy theories References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ Byford, Jovan (2011-10-12). Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 11. ISBN 9780230349216. Retrieved 23 November 2013. 2.Jump up ^ Alex Jones: Boston explosion a government conspiracy 3.Jump up ^ Rolling Stone 4.Jump up ^ List of Alex Jones Radio Show Affiliated Stations. 5.Jump up ^ Fox News 6.Jump up ^ "The Alex Jones Show". Tune In. Retrieved January 13, 2013. 7.^ Jump up to: a b "TheRealAlexJones About". Retrieved February 13, 2014. 8.^ Jump up to: a b "Alex Jones' pro-gun tirade at Piers Morgan on British presenter's own show". The Guardian. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 9.^ Jump up to: a b c d Zaitchik, Alexander (2011-03-02). "Meet Alex Jones, the Talk Radio Host Behind Charlie Sheen's Crazy Rants". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on March 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 10.^ Jump up to: a b Stahl, Jeremy (September 6, 2011). "Where Did 9/11 Conspiracies Come From?". Slate. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 11.Jump up ^ "Alex Jones Radio Show: Jones says the US used fake footage in Moon landings". June 29, 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 12.Jump up ^ "Alex Jones Radio Show: Jones says NASA covering up thousands of dead astronauts". July 11, 2011. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 13.Jump up ^ Alexander Zaitchik (March 2, 2011). "Meet Alex Jones". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 14.Jump up ^ Jones, Alex. Coast to Coast AM. January 27, 2007. 15.^ Jump up to: a b Alex Jones Puts Anti-Semitic Caller in His Place!! (2011-03-04). Alex Jones Channel/Prisonplanet.tv/Genesis Communications Network. Retrieved April 06, 2014. 16.Jump up ^ "Meet Alex Jones". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 17.Jump up ^ Howard Stern Radio Show, February 26, 2013. 18.^ Jump up to: a b c d Nichols, Lee (December 10, 1999). "Psst, It's a Conspiracy: KJFK Gives Alex Jones the Boot Media Clips". The Austin Chronicle. 19.^ Jump up to: a b "How Radio Host Alex Jones Has Cornered the Bipartisan Paranoia Market". New York. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 20.^ Jump up to: a b c d "Meet Alex Jones". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 21.Jump up ^ Kay, Jonathan (2011-05-17). Among the Truthers: A Journey Through America's Growing Conspiracist Underground. HarperCollins. pp. 26–. ISBN 9780062004819. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 22.Jump up ^ Connie Mabin (April 19, 2000). "Branch Davidians hope a new church can close wounds". The Independent (UK). Associated Press. Retrieved January 29, 2011. 23.Jump up ^ "Best of Austin 1999 Readers Poll". 1999. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 24.Jump up ^ Scott S. Greenberger (January 4, 2000). "Nine to seek Greenberg's House seat" (fee required). Austin American-Statesman. p. B1. 25.Jump up ^ Nichols, Lee (2000-07-14). "Alex Jones: Conspiracy Victim or Evil Mastermind?". Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2012-01-02. Retrieved 2008-05-20. "Alex Jones is no stranger to conspiracy theories." 26.^ Jump up to: a b c Bunch, Will (2011-09-13). The Backlash: Right-Wing Radicals, High-Def Hucksters, and Paranoid Politics in the Age of Obama. HarperCollins. pp. 73–. ISBN 9780061991721. Retrieved January 10, 2013. *p 73 "His highly conspiratorial tone and Web-oriented approach brings in a younger demographic than do Beck and other well-known talkers" *p 73 "he's aired on roughly 60 stations (it used to be more before his 9/11 inside-job rants)" *p 74 "Beck, naturally, synthesized the parts of Alex Jones inspired style that worked for him." 27.Jump up ^ Payton, Laura (2006-06-08). "Bilderberg-bound filmmaker held at airport". The Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 28.Jump up ^ Grace, Melissa; Xana O'Neill (2007-09-09). "Filmmaker arrested during city protest". Daily News (New York). Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 29.Jump up ^ "BART Officer Threats". cbs5.com. Retrieved 2010-12-13.[dead link] 30.Jump up ^ An article in the San Jose Mercury News describes Alex Jones as a "conservative radio talk show host". 31.Jump up ^ Two articles in the St. Louis Post-Dispatch from March and April 2009 describe Jones as a "conservative radio commentator" 32.Jump up ^ Norman, Tony (2009-08-14). "A nutty way of discussing health care". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 33.Jump up ^ Gosa, Travis L. (2011). "Counterknowledge, racial paranoia, and the cultic milieu: Decoding hip hop conspiracy theory". Poetics 39 (3): 187. doi:10.1016/j.poetic.2011.03.003. Retrieved 2011-07-11. 34.Jump up ^ Black, Louis (2000-07-14). "Unknown Title". Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-05-20. "Jones is an articulate, sometimes hypnotic, often just annoying conspiracy theorist." 35.Jump up ^ Duggan, Paul (2001-10-26). "Austin Hears the Music And Another New Reality; In Texas Cultural Center, People Prepare to Fight Terror" (Fee required). Washington Post. p. A22. Retrieved 2008-05-20. "[His cable show] has made the exuberant, 27-year-old conspiracy theorist a minor celebrity in Austin." 36.Jump up ^ "Conspiracy Files: 9/11 - Q&A: What really happened" (FAQ). BBC News. 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2008-05-19. "Leading conspiracy theorist and broadcaster Alex Jones of infowars.com argues that ..." 37.Jump up ^ ABC News 38.Jump up ^ Roddy, Dennis B. (April 10, 2009). "An Accused Cop Killer's Politics". Slate. Retrieved July 23, 2009. 39.Jump up ^ Rosell, Rich (27 November 2006). "Dark days, the Alex Jones interview". digitallyobsessed.com. Archived from the original on unspecified. 40.Jump up ^ "The Alex Jones Show". Austin, TX: KLBJ. July 21, 2008. Archived from the original on September 26, 2010. 41.Jump up ^ Hammack, Laurence (June 6, 2009). "Roanoke man charged with making online threats". The Roanoke Times. Archived from the original on June 9, 2009. 42.^ Jump up to: a b ALEXANDER ZAITCHIK (March 2, 2011). "Meet Alex Jones". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 43.^ Jump up to: a b c "Piers Morgan vs. Alex Jones feud: helping or hurting gun control? (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 44.Jump up ^ "Piers Morgan: Alex Jones 'Terrifying', A Perfect 'Advertisement For Gun Control'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 45.Jump up ^ "Social media abuzz over Piers Morgan vs. Alex Jones". CNN. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 46.^ Jump up to: a b Dixon, Hayley (June 9, 2013). "'Idiot' Bilderberg conspiracy theorist Alex Jones disrupts BBC politics show". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved June 9, 2013. 47.^ Jump up to: a b Topping, Alexandra (June 9, 2013). "Andrew Neil calls Alex Jones an idiot in Sunday Politics clash". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved June 9, 2013. 48.Jump up ^ Taylor, Adam (9 June 2013). "Conspiracy Theorist Alex Jones Goes Berserk During BBC Show". Business Insider. Retrieved 9 June 2013. 49.Jump up ^ "Infowars Viewer Count". January 18, 2013. Event occurs at 4:08. Retrieved February 13, 2014. 50.Jump up ^ "Meet Alex Jones | Politics News | Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 10, 2013. External links[edit] Find more about Alex Jones at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Alex Jones at the Internet Movie Database Alex Jones's channel on YouTube [show] v· t· e Articles on 9/11 conspiracy theories · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Authority control WorldCat· VIAF: 161163920· LCCN: no2007072090 Categories: 9/11 conspiracy theorists Alex Jones 1974 births Living people American anti–illegal immigration activists American anti-war activists American film directors American film producers American gun rights advocates American libertarians Conservative talk radio Conservatism in the United States American talk radio hosts American political pundits American pro-life activists American social commentators Anti-globalism activists Anti-vaccination activists Conspiracy theorists Film directors from Texas People from Dallas, Texas Radio personalities from Texas Writers from Austin, Texas Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages العربية Čeština Deutsch Eesti Español Esperanto فارسی Français 한국어 Hrvatski Bahasa Indonesia Italiano עברית Magyar مصرى Nederlands 日本語 Norsk bokmål Polski Português Română Русский Simple English Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Suomi Svenska Українська ייִדיש Edit links This page was last modified on 6 April 2014 at 20:41. 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Jesse Ventura From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Jesse Ventura Jesse Ventura.jpg Ventura giving a speech at Rally for the Republic in September 2008 38th Governor of Minnesota In office January 4, 1999 – January 6, 2003 Lieutenant Mae Schunk Preceded by Arne Carlson Succeeded by Tim Pawlenty Mayor of Brooklyn Park, Minnesota In office 1991–1995 Personal details Born James George Janos July 15, 1951 (age 62) Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S. Political party Independent Other political affiliations Reform Party (1998–2000) Independence Party of Minnesota Spouse(s) Terry Ventura Children Tyrel Ventura Jade Ventura Residence Cabo San Lucas, Mexico Dellwood, Minnesota, US Profession U.S. Navy UDT sailor Professional Wrestler Color commentator Actor Talk Show host Politician Author Religion None (atheist)[1] Military service Allegiance United States of America Service/branch United States Navy Years of service 1969–1975 Rank PO3 collar.png Storekeeper Third Class[2] Unit Underwater Demolition Team 12 (Reserve)[3] Battles/wars Vietnam War Awards National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg National Defense Service Medal Vietnam Service Ribbon.svg Vietnam Service Medal James George Janos[4] (born July 15, 1951), better known by his stage name, Jesse Ventura, is an American politician, actor, author, veteran, and former professional wrestler who served as the 38th Governor of Minnesota from 1999 to 2003. Born James George Janos, Ventura served as a U.S. Navy Underwater Demolition Team member during the Vietnam War.[3] After leaving the military, he embarked on a professional wrestling career from 1975 to 1986, taking the ring name Jesse "The Body" Ventura. He had a long tenure in the World Wrestling Federation as a performer and color commentator, and was inducted into the company's Hall of Fame in 2004.[4] Ventura also pursued a film career, appearing in films such as Predator (1987). Ventura first entered politics as Mayor of Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, from 1991 to 1995. Four years after his mayoral term ended, Ventura was the Reform Party candidate in the Minnesota gubernatorial election of 1998, running a low-budget campaign centered on grassroots events and unusual ads that urged citizens not to "vote for politics as usual". Ventura's campaign was successful, with him narrowly and unexpectedly defeating both the Democratic and Republican candidates. The highest elected official to ever win an election on a Reform Party ticket, Ventura left the Reform Party a year after taking office amid internal fights for control over the party.[5] As governor, Ventura oversaw reforms of Minnesota's property tax as well as the state's first sales tax rebate. Other initiatives taken under Ventura included construction of the METRO Blue Line light rail in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area, and cuts in income taxes.[6][7] Ventura left office in 2003, deciding not to run for reelection. After leaving office, Ventura became a visiting fellow at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government in 2004. He has since also hosted a number of television shows and has written several political books. Ventura remains politically active and currently hosts a show on Ora TV called Off the Grid.[8] He has publicly contemplated a run for President of the United States in 2016. Contents [hide] 1 Early life 1.1 Post Navy 2 Professional wrestling career 2.1 Early career 2.2 Singles and tag team success 2.3 Retirement and commentary 2.4 Litigation 2.5 Return to the World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment 2.6 Finishing moves 2.7 Nicknames 2.8 Championships and accomplishments 3 Acting career 3.1 Actor 3.2 Other media 4 Political career 4.1 Mayor of Brooklyn Park 4.2 Governor of Minnesota 4.2.1 Political positions 4.2.2 Views on political parties 4.2.3 Wellstone memorial 4.2.4 Political criticisms 4.2.5 Consideration of bids for other political offices 4.3 Electoral history 5 Post-gubernatorial life 5.1 Bush/Cheney administration and torture 5.2 Questions regarding 9/11 5.3 Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura 5.4 Books written by Ventura 5.5 Lawsuit against the TSA 6 Controversies 6.1 Navy SEAL background controversies 6.2 Opie and Anthony incident 6.3 Tailgating allegations 6.4 Chris Kyle controversy 6.4.1 Lawsuit against Kyle 7 Personal life 7.1 Family 7.2 Steroid use 7.3 Health problems 7.4 Religion 8 Books 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links Early life[edit] Ventura was born James George Janos, on July 15, 1951,[9] in Minneapolis, Minnesota, a son of George William Janos, and his wife, Bernice Martha (née Lenz). Both of his parents were World War II veterans. Ventura has an older brother who served in the Vietnam War. Ventura has described himself as Slovak, since his father's parents were from what is now Slovakia; his mother was of German descent.[10][11] Ventura was raised as a Lutheran. Ventura attended the Cooper Elementary School and graduated from Roosevelt High School in 1969. Ventura served in the United States Navy from December 1, 1969, to September 10, 1975, during the Vietnam War era. He graduated in BUD/S class 58 in December 1970[12] and was part of Underwater Demolition Team 12[3][13] Ventura has frequently referred to his military career in public statements and debates.[14][15][16] He was criticized by hunters and conservationists for stating in an interview with the Minneapolis Star Tribune in April 2001, "Until you have hunted men, you haven't hunted yet."[16][17] In January 2002, Ventura - though he had never outright claimed combat service in Vietnam, but heavily suggested it - disclosed he had not seen combat. He was stationed at Subic Bay in the Philippines, and for this he received the Vietnam Service Medal, given to all military personnel who supported the war effort even though stationed outside of South Vietnam. Post Navy[edit] Near the end of his service in the Navy, Ventura began to spend time with the "Dago" chapter of the Mongols motorcycle club, in San Diego. He would ride onto Naval Base Coronado on his Harley-Davidson wearing his Mongol colors. According to Ventura, he was a full-patch member of the club and even third in command of his chapter, though he never had any problems with the authorities.[18][19][20] In the fall of 1974, Ventura left the bike club to return to the Twin Cities. Shortly after that, the Mongols entered into open warfare with their biker rivals, the Hells Angels.[18] Ventura attended North Hennepin Community College in suburban Minneapolis in the mid-1970s.[18] At the same time, he began weightlifting and wrestling. He was a bodyguard for The Rolling Stones for a time, before he entered professional wrestling and changed his name to Jesse Ventura.[21] Professional wrestling career[edit] Jesse Ventura Jesse Ventura on a FDA poster.jpg Poster used in a 1987 education campaign aimed at teenagers, featuring then-professional wrestler Jesse Ventura. Ring name(s) Jesse "The Body" Ventura[4][22] Billed height 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m)[4][22] Billed weight 245 lb (111 kg)[4] Born July 15, 1951 (age 62)[4][22] Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S. Billed from Brooklyn Park, Minnesota, U.S.[23] San Diego, California, U.S. Trained by Eddie Sharkey[4] Debut October 1975[4] Retired 1986[22] Early career[edit] He created the stage name Jesse "The Body" Ventura to go with the persona of a bully-ish beach bodybuilder, picking the name "Ventura" from a map as part of his "bleach blond from California" gimmick.[4] As a wrestler, Ventura performed as a heel and often used the motto "Win if you can, lose if you must, but always cheat!" Much of his flamboyant persona was adapted from "Superstar" Billy Graham, a charismatic and popular performer during the 1970s and '80s.[4][24] Years later, as a broadcaster, Ventura made a running joke out of it claiming that Graham stole all of his ring attire ideas from him. Singles and tag team success[edit] In 1975, Ventura made his debut in the Central States territory, before moving to the Pacific Northwest, where he wrestled for promoter Don Owen as Jesse "The Great" Ventura.[4][24] During his stay in Portland, Oregon, he had notable feuds with Dutch Savage and Jimmy Snuka and won the Pacific Northwest Wrestling title twice (once from each wrestler), and the tag team title five times (twice each with Bull Ramos and "Playboy" Buddy Rose, and once with Jerry Oates). He later moved to his hometown promotion, the American Wrestling Association in Minnesota, and began teaming with Adrian Adonis as the "East-West Connection" in 1979. In his RF Video shoot in 2012 he revealed that shortly after he arrived in the AWA he was given the nickname "the Body" by Verne.[23][24] The duo won the promotion's World Tag Team Championship on July 20, 1980, on a forfeit when Verne Gagne, one-half of the tag team champions along with Mad Dog Vachon, failed to show up for a title defense in Denver, Colorado.[4] The duo held the belts for nearly a year, losing to "The High Flyers" (Greg Gagne and Jim Brunzell).[4] Retirement and commentary[edit] Shortly after losing the belts, the duo moved on to the World Wrestling Federation, where they were managed by "Classy" Freddie Blassie.[4] Although the duo was unable to capture the World Tag Team Championship, both Adonis and Ventura became singles title contenders, each earning several title shots at World Heavyweight Champion Bob Backlund.[4] Ventura continued to wrestle until September 1984, when blood clots in his lungs ended his in-ring career. Ventura claimed the blood clots were a result of his exposure to Agent Orange during his time in Vietnam.[4][25] Ventura did return to the ring in 1985 forming a tag-team with "Macho Man" Randy Savage & Savage's manager (and real life wife) Miss Elizabeth. Often after their televised matches Ventura would taunt and challenge fellow commentator Bruno Sammartino, but nothing ever came of this. He also participated in a six-man tag team match in December 1985 as he, Roddy Piper, and "Cowboy" Bob Orton defeated Hillbilly Jim, Uncle Elmer, and Cousin Luke in a match which was broadcast on Saturday Night's Main Event. The tag match against the Hillbillies came about after Piper and Orton interrupted Elmer's wedding ceremony and Ventura, who was under instruction from Vince McMahon to "bury them", insulted Elmer and his wife during commentary of what was a real wedding ceremony at the Meadowlands Arena by proclaiming when they kissed "OMG they look like two Carp in the middle of the Mississippi River going after the same piece of corn" (according to Ventura the wedding was real as at the time the New Jersey State Athletic Control Board would not allow the WWF to stage a fake wedding in the state of New Jersey, so Stan Frazier (Uncle Elmer) and his fiance agreed to have a real in-ring wedding).[4] After a failed comeback bid, he began to do color commentary on television for All-Star Wrestling (replacing Angelo Mosca) and later Superstars of Wrestling (initially alongside WWF owner Vince McMahon and the semi-retired Sammartino, and then just with McMahon after Sammartino's departure from the WWF in 1988), hosted his own talk segment on the WWF's Superstars of Wrestling called "The Body Shop" (in much the same heel style as Piper's Pit, though the setting was a mock gym), and did color commentary on radio for a few National Football League teams (among them, the Minnesota Vikings and Tampa Bay Buccaneers).[4] Ventura most notably co-hosted Saturday Night's Main Event with Vince McMahon and the first six WrestleManias (1985–1990) and most of the WWF's pay-per-views at the time with Gorilla Monsoon (the lone exception for Ventura being the first SummerSlam, in which Ventura served as the guest referee during the main event). Following a dispute with Vince McMahon over the use of his image for promoting a Sega product, McMahon—who had a contract with rival company Nintendo at the time—released Ventura from the company in August 1990.[26] In February 1992 at SuperBrawl II, Ventura joined World Championship Wrestling as a commentator. His professional wrestling commentary style was an extension of his wrestling persona (i.e. a "heel"), as he was partial to the villains, which was something new and different at the time (Vince McMahon, who was always looking for ways of jazzing things up, came up with the idea of Ventura doing heel commentary at a time when most commentators, including McMahon himself, openly rooted for the face).[4] However, he would still occasionally give credit where it was due, praising the athleticism of wrestlers such as Ricky "The Dragon" Steamboat and Randy Savage (who was championed by Ventura for years, even when he was a face, a point Ventura regularly made on-air to McMahon and Monsoon). Occasionally he would even acknowledge mistakes made by the heels, including those made by his personal favorites such as Savage or wrestlers managed by heel's Bobby "The Brain" Heenan and "The Mouth of the South" Jimmy Hart. One notable exception to this rule was the WrestleMania VI Ultimate Challenge title for title match between WWF Champion Hulk Hogan and the WWF Intercontinental Champion The Ultimate Warrior. Since they were both fan favorites, Ventura took a neutral position in his commentary; even praising Hogan's display of sportsmanship at the end of the match when he handed over the WWF Championship to the Warrior after he lost the title, stating that Hogan was going out like a true champion (though during the match, which was also the last match at Wrestlemania he called, Ventura did voice his pleasure when both broke the rules, at one point claiming "This is what I like. Let the two goody two-shoes throw the rule book out and get nasty"). The praise of Hogan's action was unusual for Ventura because he regularly rooted against Hogan during his matches, usually telling fellow commentator Gorilla Monsoon after Hogan had won a championship match at a Wrestlemania that he would "come out of retirement and take this dude out". Hogan and Ventura were, at one point, close friends.[27] Ventura, however, abruptly ended the friendship after he discovered, during his lawsuit against Vince McMahon, that Hogan was the one who had told Vince about Ventura's attempt to form a labor union in 1984.[27] Ventura was released by WCW President Eric Bischoff for allegedly falling asleep during a WCW Worldwide TV taping at Disney MGM Studios in July 1994, though it's been speculated the move may have had more to do with Hulk Hogan's arrival shortly before.[4] Ventura generally worked well with most of his fellow commentators, with the exception being Jim Ross during his time with WCW. In a radio interview, Ventura stated that working with Ross was hard as he would often say something controversial in favor of the heel wrestler or manager, only for Ross (who at that time had only worked with those who favored the fan favorites) to ignore the comment and continue with his play-by-play. Litigation[edit] In 1987, while negotiating his contract as a WWF commentator, Ventura waived his rights to royalties on videotape sales when he was falsely told that only feature performers received such royalties. In 1991, having discovered that other non-feature performers received royalties, Ventura brought an action for fraud, misappropriation of publicity rights, and quantum meruit in Minnesota state court against Titan Sports. Titan removed the case to federal court, and Ventura won an $801,333 jury verdict on the last claim. The judgment was affirmed on appeal, and the case,[28] 65 F.3d 725 (8th Cir.1995), is an important result in the law of restitution. Return to the World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment[edit] In mid-1999, Ventura reappeared on WWF television during his term as Governor of Minnesota, acting as the special guest referee for main event of SummerSlam held in Minneapolis.[4] Ventura would continue his relationship with the WWF by performing commentary for Vince McMahon's short-lived XFL.[4] On the March 20, 2003, episode of SmackDown!, Ventura appeared in a taped interview to talk about the match between McMahon and Hulk Hogan at WrestleMania XIX.[4] Less than a year later, he would be inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame on March 13, 2004, and the following night at WrestleMania XX, he approached the ring to interview Donald Trump, who had a front row seat at the event.[4] Trump affirmed that Ventura would receive his moral and financial support were he to ever reenter the world of politics. Alluding to the 2008 election, Ventura boldly announced that "In 2008, maybe we oughta put a wrestler in the White House". On the June 11, 2007, episode of Raw, Ventura appeared to give comments about Vince McMahon.[4] Ventura was guest host on the November 23, 2009, episode of Raw during which he retained his heel persona by siding with the number one contender, Sheamus over WWE Champion John Cena. This happened while he confronted Cena about how it was unfair that Cena always got a title shot in the WWE while Ventura didn't during his WWE career. After that Sheamus attacked Cena and put him through a table. Ventura then made the match a Table match at TLC: Tables, Ladders & Chairs. During the show, for the first time in nearly 20 years, Vince McMahon joined Ventura at ringside to provide match commentary together. Finishing moves[edit] Body Breaker[4][22][29] (WWF) / Inverted bearhug[29] (AWA) Nicknames[edit] "The Great"[4] "The Body"[4][22] "The Governor"[4] "The Mind"[4] Championships and accomplishments[edit] American Wrestling Association AWA World Tag Team Championship (1 time) – with Adrian Adonis[30] Cauliflower Alley Club Iron Mike Mazurki Award (1999) Central States Wrestling NWA World Tag Team Championship (Central States version) (1 time) – with Tank Patton[31] Continental Wrestling Association AWA Southern Heavyweight Championship (2 times)[32] International Wrestling Institute and Museum Frank Gotch Award (2003) NWA Hawaii NWA Hawaii Tag Team Championship (1 time) – with Steve Strong[33] Pacific Northwest Wrestling NWA Pacific Northwest Heavyweight Championship (2 times)[34] NWA Pacific Northwest Tag Team Championship (5 times) – with Bull Ramos (2), Buddy Rose (2) and Jerry Oates (1)[35] Pro Wrestling Illustrated PWI ranked him #239 of the 500 best singles wrestlers during the "PWI Years" in 2003 PWI ranked him #67 of the 100 best tag teams of the "PWI Years" with Adrian Adonis World Wrestling Entertainment WWE Hall of Fame (Class of 2004)[4] Acting career[edit] Nearing the end of his wrestling career, Ventura began an acting career. He acted in the 1987 movie Predator, whose cast included future California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and future Kentucky Gubernatorial candidate Sonny Landham.[4] Ventura became close friends with Schwarzenegger during the production of Predator. He appeared in two episodes of Zorro filmed in Madrid, Spain, in 1991. He had a starring role in the 1990 sci-fi movie Abraxas, Guardian of the Universe, and supporting roles in The Running Man, Thunderground, Demolition Man, Repossessed, Ricochet, The Master of Disguise (in which he steals the Liberty Bell), and Batman & Robin – the first two and last of these also starring Schwarzenegger. Ventura also made a cameo appearance in Major League II, as "White Lightning". He also appeared as a self help guru (voice only) in The Ringer trying to turn Johnny Knoxville into a more confident worker. Ventura also had a cameo in The X-Files episode "Jose Chung's From Outer Space" as a Man in Black alongside fellow 'MiB' Alex Trebek. In 2008, Ventura was in the independent comedy Woodshop, starring as a high school shop teacher named Mr. Madson. The film was released September 7, 2010.[36] Actor[edit] Year Title Role 1987 Predator Blain The Running Man Captain Freedom 1989 Thunderground The Man 1990 Abraxas, Guardian of the Universe Abraxas Repossessed Commentator 1991 Tagteam Bobby Youngblood Ricochet Chewalski 1993 Living and Working in Space: The Countdown Has Begun DMV Testee Demolition Man CryoCon 1997 Batman & Robin Arkham Asylum Guard 2002 The Master of Disguise Himself 2005 The Ringer Motivational Speaker 2008 Borders Conrad 2010 Woodshop Mr. Madson 2012 The Drunk Governor Littleton Other media[edit] In 1989 Ventura co-hosted the four episodes of the DiC Entertainment children's program Record Breakers along with Gary Apple.[37][38] In 1991, the pilot episode for "Tag Team", a television program about two ex-professional wrestlers turned police officers, starred Ventura and "Rowdy" Roddy Piper.[39] Ventura also co-hosted the short-lived syndicated game show The Grudge Match alongside sportscaster Steve Albert. Between 1995 and his run for governor in 1998, Ventura had radio call-in shows on (KFAN 1130) and (KSTP 1500) in Minneapolis – Saint Paul. Jesse had a brief role on the television soap opera The Young and the Restless in 1999. Ventura has been criticized by the press for privately profiting from his heightened popularity. He was hired as a television analyst for the failed XFL football enterprise, served as a referee at a World Wrestling Federation match, and published several books during his tenure as governor. On his weekly radio show, he often criticized the media for focusing on these deals rather than on his policy proposals.[40] Since 2009, comedian James Adomian has done an impression of Jesse Ventura on the Comedy Bang Bang and Sklarbro Country podcasts, and at live shows. Adomian mocks Ventura's bombastic Minnesota accent, eccentric style and contrarian take on current events. James Adomian has also performed as Jesse "The Mind" Ventura at live comedy shows, often styled "Conspiracy Theory LIVE" in a direct parody of Ventura's TruTV show. In 2013 Ventura announced a new show with Ora TV, "Jesse Ventura: Uncensored" which launched on January 27, 2014 and is now called "Jesse Ventura: Off the Grid" Political career[edit] Mayor of Brooklyn Park[edit] Following his departure from the WWF, Ventura took advice from a former high school teacher and ran for mayor of Brooklyn Park, Minnesota in 1990.[41] Ventura defeated the city's 25-year incumbent mayor and served from 1991 to 1995.[42] Governor of Minnesota[edit] See also: Minnesota gubernatorial election, 1998 Governor of Minnesota Jesse Ventura (center) testifies on China's participation in the WTO in March 2000. Ventura ran for Governor of Minnesota in 1998 as the nominee for the Reform Party of Minnesota (he later joined the Independence Party of Minnesota when the Reform Party broke from its association with the Reform Party of the United States of America). His campaign consisted of a combination of aggressive grassroots events and original television spots, designed by quirky adman Bill Hillsman, using the phrase "Don't vote for politics as usual." He spent considerably less than his opponents (about $300,000) and was a pioneer in his using the Internet as a medium of reaching out to voters in a political campaign.[43] He won the election in November 1998, narrowly (and unexpectedly) defeating the major-party candidates, St. Paul mayor Norm Coleman (Republican) and Minnesota Attorney General Hubert H. "Skip" Humphrey III (Democratic-Farmer-Labor). After his victory, bumper stickers and T-shirts bearing the slogan "My governor can beat up your governor" appeared in Minnesota. The nickname "Jesse 'The Mind'" (from a last-minute Hillsman ad featuring Ventura posing as Rodin's Thinker) began to resurface sarcastically in reference to his frequently controversial remarks. Ventura's old stage name "Jesse 'The Body'" (sometimes adapted to "Jesse 'The Governing Body'") also continued to appear with some regularity. After a trade mission to China in 2002, Ventura announced that he would not run for a second term, stating that he no longer felt dedicated enough to his job to run again as well as what he viewed were constant attacks on his family by the media.[44] Ventura accused the media of hounding him and his family for personal behavior and belief while neglecting coverage of important policy issues. He later told a reporter for The Boston Globe that he would have run for a second term if he had been single, citing the media's effect on his family life.[45] Governor Ventura sparked media criticism when, nearing the end of his term, he suggested that he might resign from office early to allow his lieutenant governor, Mae Schunk, an opportunity to serve as governor. He further stated that he wanted her to be the state's first female governor and have her portrait painted and hung in the Capitol along with the other governors. Ventura quickly retreated from the comments, saying he was just floating an idea.[46] Political positions[edit] In political debates, Ventura often admitted that he had not formed an opinion on certain policy questions. Ventura frequently described himself as "fiscally conservative and socially liberal."[47] He selected teacher Mae Schunk as his running mate. Lacking a party base in the Minnesota House of Representatives and Senate, Ventura's policy ambitions had little chance of being introduced as bills. Initially, the residents of Minnesota feared Ventura's vetoes would be overturned. He vetoed 45 bills in his first year, only three of which were overridden. The reputation for having his vetoes overridden comes from his fourth and final year, where six of his nine vetoes were overturned.[48] He vetoed a bill to require recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance in public schools.[49] Nevertheless, Ventura was still successful in several initiatives. One of the most notable was the rebate on sales tax. In each year of his administration, Minnesotans received a tax-free check in the late summer.[50] The state was running a budget surplus at the time, and Ventura believed that the money should be returned to the public. Later, he came to support a unicameral (one-house) legislature, property tax reform, gay rights, and abortion rights. While funding public school education generously, he opposed the teachers' union, and did not have a high regard for the public funding of higher education institutions. Additionally, Ventura supported the use of medicinal marijuana,[51] advocated a higher role for third parties in national politics, and favored the concept of instant-runoff voting. He also opposed the death penalty. In an interview on The Howard Stern Show, he reaffirmed his support of gay rights, including gay marriage and gays in the military, humorously stating he would've gladly served alongside homosexuals when he was in the Navy as they would've provided less competition for women.[52] (Later, on the subject of a 2012 referendum on amending the Minnesota constitution to limit marriage to male-female couples, Ventura elaborated "I certainly hope that people don't amend our constitution to stop gay marriage because, number one, the constitution is there to protect people – not oppress them", and went on to relate a story from his pro wrestling days of a friend who was denied hospital visitation to his same-sex partner.[53]) Ventura was elected on a Reform party ticket, but he never received support from Ross Perot's Texas faction. When the Reform party was taken over by Pat Buchanan supporters before the presidential elections of 2000, Ventura left the party in February 2000, referring to it as "hopelessly dysfunctional". However, he maintained close ties to the Independence Party of Minnesota, which also broke from the Reform party around the same time. During the first part of his administration, Ventura strongly advocated for land-use reform and substantial mass transit improvements, such as light rail.[54] He made the light rail project a priority, obtaining additional funding from the Minnesota state legislature to keep the project moving. The METRO Blue Line was completed in 2004. During another trade mission to Cuba in the summer of 2002, he denounced the American economic sanctions against Cuba, stating that the sanctions affected the Cuban public more than it did its government.[55] In his book Independent Nation, political analyst John Avlon describes Ventura as a radical centrist thinker and activist.[56] Views on political parties[edit] Ventura, who ran on a Reform Party ticket and advocated for a greater role for third parties in American politics, is highly critical of both Democrats and Republicans. Ventura described both parties as "monsters that are out of control" who are concerned only with "their own agendas and their pork."[57] Despite having been a supporter of third parties as governor and having voted for Ralph Nader in 2008 as a protest vote, although he did vote for John Kerry in the 2004 Presidential election, Ventura has since declared he no longer supports the third party movement and advocates that all political parties, including third parties, be abolished. Feeling that the two-party system has corrupted the government, Ventura has expressed concern that if a third party became as successful as the Republicans and Democrats, it "will likewise have to corrupt itself. If you already have a two-headed monster, why would you need three?"[58] Ventura still remains an independent and has indicated in the event he runs for political office in the future, he would not run with any political party. Wellstone memorial[edit] Ventura greatly disapproved of some of the actions that took place at the 2002 memorial for Senator Paul Wellstone, his family, and others who died in a plane crash on October 25, 2002. Ventura said, "I feel used. I feel violated and duped over the fact that the memorial ceremony turned into a political rally".[59][60] He left halfway through the controversial speech made by Wellstone's best friend, Rick Kahn. Ventura had initially planned to appoint a Democrat to Wellstone's seat,[61] but he instead appointed Dean Barkley to represent Minnesota in the Senate until Wellstone's term expired in January 2003. Barkley was succeeded by Norm Coleman, who won the seat against Walter Mondale, who became the Democratic candidate replacement a few days before the election. Political criticisms[edit] After the legislature refused to increase spending for security, Ventura attracted criticism when he decided not to live in the governor's mansion during his tenure, choosing instead to shut it down and stay at his home in Maple Grove. Critics pointed to the loss of jobs for several working-class people at the mansion and the extra cost of reopening the mansion later.[62] In 1999, a group of disgruntled citizens petitioned to recall Governor Ventura, alleging, among other things, that "the use of state security personnel to protect the governor on a book promotion tour constituted illegal use of state property for personal gain." The petition was denied.[63] During his tenure as Governor, Ventura drew frequent fire from the press in the Twin Cities. He referred to reporters as "media jackals," a term that even appeared on the press passes required to enter the governor's press area.[64] Shortly after Ventura's election as governor, author and humorist Garrison Keillor wrote a satirical book about the event, spoofing Ventura as "Jimmy (Big Boy) Valente," a self-aggrandizing former "Navy W.A.L.R.U.S. (Water Air Land Rising Up Suddenly)" turned professional wrestler turned politician. Initially, Ventura responded angrily to the satire, but later, in a conciliatory vein, said that Keillor "makes Minnesota proud".[65] During his term, Ventura appeared on the Late Show with David Letterman, in which he responded controversially to the following question: "So which is the better city of the Twin Cities, Minneapolis or St. Paul?". Ventura responded, "Minneapolis. Those streets in St. Paul must have been designed by drunken Irishmen". He later apologized for the remark, adding that it was not intended to be taken seriously.[66] Consideration of bids for other political offices[edit] While Ventura has not held public office since the end of his term as governor in 2003, he has remained politically active and has occasionally hinted at intentions of possibly running again for political office. In an interview on CNN's The Situation Room on April 7, 2008, Ventura said that he was considering entering the race for the United States Senate seat then held by Norm Coleman, his Republican opponent in the 1998 Gubernatorial race.[67] A poll commissioned by Twin Cities station Fox 9 put him at 24 percent, behind Democratic candidate Al Franken at 32 percent and Norm Coleman at 39 percent in a hypothetical three-way race. However, Ventura announced on Larry King Live on July 14, 2008, that he would not run; Ventura's decision not to join the race was partly rooted from a fear of a potential lack of privacy for his family, a concern that contributed to his refusal to seek a second term as governor.[68] Al Franken ended up winning the election. In his 1999 autobiography I Ain't Got Time to Bleed, Ventura suggested he did not plan on running for President of the United States but did not rule out such an idea.[69] He spoke at Republican presidential candidate Ron Paul's "Rally for the Republic", organized by the Campaign for Liberty, on September 2, 2008. At the event, Ventura implied a possible future run at the U.S. Presidency. At the end of his speech, Ventura announced before a live audience that if he saw that the public was willing to see a change in the direction of the country, then "in 2012 we'll give them a race they'll never forget!" In 2011, Ventura expressed interest in running with Ron Paul for the 2012 presidential elections if the latter decided to run as an independent.[70] On November 4, 2011, Ventura said at a press conference about the dismissal of his court case against the Transportation Security Administration for what he claims are illegal searches of air travelers, that he is "thinking about" running for President.[71][72] There had been reports that officials from the Libertarian Party have tried to persuade Ventura to run for the presidency on a Libertarian ticket although the party chairman Mark Hinkle said, "Jesse is more interested in 2016 than he is in 2012. But I think he's serious. If Ron Paul ran as a Libertarian, I think he definitely would be interested in running as a vice presidential candidate. He's thinking, ‘If I run as the vice presidential candidate under Ron Paul in 2012, I could run as a presidential candidate in 2016."[73] David Gewirtz of ZDNet wrote in a November 2011 article that he thinks Ventura would have a chance at winning, if he declared his intention to run at that point and ran a serious campaign, but that it would be a long shot.[74] In September 2012, Ventura announced on several shows, including Piers Morgan Tonight,[75] The View,[76] The Alex Jones Show, and The Howard Stern Show that if a grassroots movement gets him national ballot access in all fifty states and Puerto Rico, as well as access to participate in the presidential candidate debates, he will "seriously consider" running for president in 2016, as an Independent.[77] Ventura reiterated in 2013 that he is still considering a run for president and has suggested that Howard Stern may be his running mate should he wage a bid.[78] Electoral history[edit] 1998 election for Governor Jesse Ventura (Ref.), 37% Norm Coleman (R), 34% Hubert H. Humphrey III (DFL), 28% Post-gubernatorial life[edit] Jesse Ventura's America Starring Jesse Ventura Production Location(s) Saint Paul, Minnesota, U.S. Broadcast Original channel MSNBC Original run October 4, 2003 – December 26, 2003 Ventura was succeeded in his office on January 6, 2003, by Republican Tim Pawlenty. He began a cable television show in October 2003, on MSNBC called Jesse Ventura's America. The show was broadcast once a week, on Saturdays, unlike many MSNBC shows which are on five nights a week (this show was originally planned for five nights a week as well, but MSNBC executives changed their minds). At the time of its airing, Jesse Ventura's America was the only national television show filmed in Minnesota. Among his guests were Charles Barkley, Gray Davis, Arianna Huffington, Rob Kampia, and Kathy McKee. However, the show was short-lived and ended on December 26, 2003, only a couple of months after it began. Although MSNBC executives said the show was cancelled because the show was too expensive to make, Ventura argued that the show was shelved because of his opposition to the Iraq War, saying that MSNBC did not want him becoming a prominent opponent to the war.[79] In 2004, Harvard graduate student and fellow Navy veteran Christopher Mora promoted the idea that the academic establishment had failed to reach out to citizens experienced in public service, but who did not fit the traditional idea of a politician. He successfully lobbied for the selection of Ventura, who started teaching a study group at Harvard University for the Spring 2004 semester as a visiting fellow at the Kennedy School of Government's Institute of Politics (IOP). His 90-minute study group focused on third party politics, campaign finance, the war on drugs, and other relevant political issues. Ventura scheduled multiple famous friends to appear for his seminars including Dean Barkley and Richard Marcinko. On October 22, 2004, with Ventura by his side, former Governor of Maine Angus King endorsed John Kerry for President at the Minnesota state capitol building. Ventura did not speak at the press conference. When prodded for a statement, King responded, "He plans to vote for John Kerry, but he doesn't want to make a statement and subject himself to the tender mercies of the Minnesota press".[80] In the 2012 Senate elections, Ventura endorsed King in his campaign for the open Senate seat in Maine, in which King won.[81] In November 2004, an advertisement began airing in California featuring Ventura. In it, Ventura voiced his opposition to then-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's policies regarding Native American casinos.[82] Ventura served as an advisory board member for a group called Operation Truth, a non-profit organization set up "to give voice to troops who served in Iraq." “The current use of the National Guard is wrong....These are men who did not sign up to go occupy foreign nations”.[83] In August 2005, Ventura became the spokesperson for BetUS, an online Sportsbook.[84] In 2005, Ventura repeatedly discussed leaving the United States. In September 2005, Ventura announced on The Mike Malloy Show that he was leaving the U.S. and planned to "have an adventure". In late October 2005, he went on The Big Idea with Donny Deutsch and reiterated that he was leaving the U.S. and moving to Mexico due to, among other things, censorship. In September 2006, Ventura endorsed and campaigned with independent Texas gubernatorial candidate Kinky Friedman, and Independence Party of Minnesota's gubernatorial candidate Peter Hutchinson and Team Minnesota. On December 29, 2011, Ventura announced his support for Ron Paul on the Alex Jones Show for the 2012 Presidential Election as "the only anti-war candidate."[85] However, after Mitt Romney became the presumptive nominee for the Republican party presidential candidate in May 2012, Ventura gave his support to Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson on June 12, 2012, whom Ventura argued was the choice for voters who “really want to rebel.”[86] In September 2012, Ventura and his wife appeared in an advertisement calling for voters to reject a referendum to be held in Minnesota during the November elections that would ban same-sex marriages in the state. The referendum was defeated.[87][88] Bush/Cheney administration and torture[edit] In a May 11, 2009, interview with Larry King, Ventura twice stated that George W. Bush was the worst president of his lifetime, adding "President Obama inherited something I wouldn't wish on my worst enemy. You know? Two wars, an economy that's borderline depression."[89] On the issue of waterboarding, Ventura added: I will criticize President Obama on this level: it's a good thing I'm not president because I would prosecute every person that was involved in that torture. I would prosecute the people that did it. I would prosecute the people that ordered it. Because torture is against the law. [King: And you were a Navy Seal] That's right and I was waterboarded...at SERE school, Survival Escape Resistance Evasion [sic]. It was a required school you had to go to prior to going into the combat zone, which in my era was Vietnam. All of us had to go there. We were all in essence, every one of us was waterboarded. It is torture. [King: What was it like?] It's drowning. It gives you the complete sensation that you are drowning. It's no good, because you—I'll put it to you this way, you give me a water board, Dick Cheney and one hour, and I'll have him confess to the Sharon Tate murders. ... If it's done wrong, you certainly could drown. You could swallow your tongue. [It] could do a whole bunch of stuff to you. If it's done wrong or—it's torture, Larry. It's torture.[90][91] Ventura then stated that he had no respect for Dick Cheney because he is "a guy who got five deferments from the Vietnam War. Clearly, he's a coward. He wouldn't go when it was his time to go. And now he is a chickenhawk. Now he is this big tough guy who wants this hardcore policy. And he's the guy that sanctioned all this torture by calling it 'enhanced interrogation'."[90] Ventura also expressed interest in being appointed ambassador to Cuba should U.S. relations with Cuba continue to improve.[92] On a May 18, 2009, appearance on The View, Ventura asked Elisabeth Hasselbeck if waterboarding is acceptable, why were the Oklahoma City bombers, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, not waterboarded. "We only seem to waterboard Muslims."[93] Comparing the waterboarding of detainees to the North Vietnamese torture of American P.O.W.s, Ventura asserted, "We created our own Hanoi Hilton in Guantánamo. That's our Hanoi Hilton."[93] "'Enhanced interrogation' is Dick Cheney changing a word. Dick Cheney comes up with a new word to cover his ass."[93] On May 20, 2009, Ventura appeared on Fox & Friends. When Brian Kilmeade told Ventura that he would stop supporting waterboarding when "they're dead", Ventura responded, "Really? Have you enlisted? Have you enlisted or are you just talking?... Go walk the walk, don't talk the talk."[94] Questions regarding 9/11[edit] In a brief interview with Alex Jones in September 2006, Ventura began expressing doubts regarding the events behind the September 11 attacks. Ventura expressed concern over NORAD's response to the four commercial airliners that were hijacked and compared it to the response to the plane crash that killed professional golfer Payne Stewart in 1999, in which fighter jets were scrambled to intercept Stewart's jet. However, Ventura did not state that he believed the government orchestrated the attacks, but did argue that the government has contemplated false flag attacks in the past, citing Operation Northwoods as an example.[95] In April and May 2008, Jesse Ventura, in several radio interviews for his new book, Don't Start the Revolution Without Me, reiterated his concerns about what he described as some of the unanswered questions about 9/11.[96] His remarks about the possibility that the World Trade Center was demolished with explosives were also repeated in newspaper and television stories following some of the interviews.[97] On May 18, 2009, when asked by Sean Hannity of Fox News, how George W. Bush could have avoided the attacks of September 11, 2001, Ventura answered, "Well, you pay attention to memos on August 6th that tell you exactly what bin Laden's gonna do."[98] On April 9, 2011, when Piers Morgan from CNN asked Ventura what his official view on the events of 9/11 was, Ventura said, "My theory of 9/11 is that we certainly – at the best we knew it was going to happen. They allowed it to happen to further their agenda in the Middle East and go to these wars."[99] Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura[edit] Main article: Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura In August 2009, it was announced that Ventura would host TruTV's new show Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura.[100] "Ventura will hunt down answers, plunging viewers into a world of secret meetings, midnight surveillance, shifty characters and dark forces," truTV said in a statement. On the program, which debuted on December 2, 2009, Ventura travels the country, investigating cases and getting input from believers and skeptics before passing judgment on a theory's validity.[101] According to TruTV, the first episode drew 1.6 million viewers, a record for a new series on the network.[102] The first season was followed by a second season that aired in 2010, and a third season that aired in 2012.[103] After the third season, the show was discontinued and a fourth season will not be made.[104] Books written by Ventura[edit] Main article: American Conspiracies During his time as governor, Ventura wrote a number of politically themed books. He continued to write several other books after leaving office. In April 2008, a book authored by Ventura, titled Don't Start the Revolution Without Me, was released. In it, Ventura describes a hypothetical campaign in which he is a candidate for President of the United States in 2008, running as an independent. In an interview with the Associated Press at the time of the book's release, however, Ventura denied any plans for a presidential bid, stating that the scenario is only imaginary and not indicative of a "secret plan to run".[105] On MinnPost.com, Ventura's agent, Steve Schwartz, describes the book thus: "[Ventura is revealing] why he left politics and discussing the disastrous war in Iraq, why he sees our two-party system as corrupt, and what Fidel Castro told him about who was really behind the assassination of President Kennedy."[106] American Conspiracies is a book Ventura wrote with Dick Russell, published by Skyhorse Publishing in 2010 which discusses conspiracy theories related to several notable events in United States history. 63 Documents the Government Doesn't Want You to Read was written by Ventura with Dick Russell and published in 2011. The book describes documents that Ventura claims the government does not want the public to be informed of, although he stated the documents were not stolen and were only on the public domain. Ventura also wrote DemoCRIPS and ReBLOODlicans: No More Gangs in Government, which was released in 2012. The book expresses Ventura's opposition to the two-party system and calls for political parties to be abolished.[107] He has finished his latest book They Killed Our President: 63 Reasons to Believe There Was a Conspiracy to Assassinate JFK which was printed and released in October, coinciding with the upcoming 50th anniversary on November 22, of President Kennedy's assassination. Lawsuit against the TSA[edit] In January 2011, Jesse Ventura filed a lawsuit against the Transportation Security Administration for being subject to controversial pat-downs. Ventura, who received a titanium hip replacement in 2008 that sets off metal detectors at airport security checkpoints, has asserted that these pat-downs violate citizens' Fourth Amendment rights. Ventura's attorney has claimed that while he is not seeking any monetary compensation, Ventura wants an acknowledgment from the court that his rights were violated and that the TSA halt future pat-downs on him.[108] Ventura stated that as a former politician and a military veteran and posing no threat, it is inappropriate for him to be subject to pat-downs. The lawsuit was dismissed in November 2011 under the ruling that Ventura should have filed the lawsuit in the Court of Appeals.[109] In related comments to the media following the lawsuit's dismissal, Ventura stated he believed America had become "fascist" for the secret ruling and subsequent mainstream media blackout. The former Governor said he would seek dual citizenship in both the United States and Mexico, having lived in Baja California Sur for a number of years. He also said he no longer felt patriotic and would raise a fist during the playing of the national anthem at public events. Ventura has declared he would no longer fly commercially and has repeatedly stated, "I love my country, not my government" in post-press-release interviews. After his press conference on the issue, upon being asked if he would next go to the Court of Appeals, Ventura responded: "What for? I want a trial by jury. They tell me I can't have a jury decide my fate. They want three government paid judges to decide it. Well it'll never see the light of day then. They claim it's because of security reasons: We can't even know what the rules are at the TSA. How do we know if we're being abused [of our rights] if they won't even tell us what the rules are?"[110] The ultimate outcome of the TSA constitutional matter remains undetermined, and Ventura has not stated whether he would continue his lawsuit.[111] Controversies[edit] Navy SEAL background controversies[edit] Bill Salisbury, an attorney in San Diego and a former Navy SEAL officer, accused Ventura of "pretending" to be a SEAL and wrote that Ventura would be blurring an important distinction by claiming to be a SEAL when he was actually a frogman with the UDT. Compared to SEAL Teams, UDTs saw less combat and took fewer casualties. Although Ventura underwent UDT training, he never attempted the additional 26 week SEAL Qualification Training. In 1983, eight years after Ventura left the Navy, the UDT's were disbanded and those operators were retrained and retasked as SEALs.[14][112][113] Responding to the controversy, Governor Ventura's office confirmed that Ventura was a member of the UDTs. His spokesman stated that Ventura has never tried to convince people otherwise.[14] Ventura stated: "Today we refer to all of us as SEALs; that's all it is," and dismissed the accusations of lying about being a SEAL as "much ado about nothing."[113] Opie and Anthony incident[edit] The Opie and Anthony Show hosted Ventura on December 2, 2009. The theme was Ventura's show, Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura. A debate arose with Ventura opposing the hosts on torture and suspension of due process after the September 11 attacks, as well as the wars in Afghanistan and in Iraq. The debate shifted from terrorist profiling to racial profiling of Mexicans, in which Ventura said when returning to the United States from his home in Mexico, two hours after crossing the border into Arizona, he witnessed Border Patrol agents demanding proof of citizenship on a highway in an effort to combat illegal immigration, actions that Ventura argued were violating the Constitution. When co-host Jim Norton, who defended these actions by the Border Patrol, said he also believed in the Constitution, Ventura said, "No, you don't, 'cause you're saying this is OK." Both Ventura and Norton continued to argue over the government's handling of illegal immigration. During the debate, Ventura told Norton to not "put words in my mouth". Norton defended doing so by saying Ventura was doing the same, to which Ventura said "Bye, guys" and prepared to exit the studio. When Norton asked Ventura why he was leaving, Ventura said, "No, I'm not. There's a fucking guy here telling me I've got a schedule, asshole," Norton replied, "You're using dirty language, asshole." Further tension ensued, with Norton making various insults and accusations of physical intimidation. Norton continued to vent after Ventura left the studio, calling Ventura a "fucking baby" and a "big fucking guy who doesn't like the little guy yelling." The incident was recorded on camera and gained over a million views since the video was posted in December 2009 on YouTube.[114] Ventura, who was hosted on the Opie and Anthony show a few times prior to the incident, has not returned to the show since. Tailgating allegations[edit] In December 2011 TMZ reported that Jesse Ventura was pulled over for tailgating another vehicle in the San Fernando Valley while on his way to the airport and that the police officers who pulled him over let him go with a warning.[115] However, Ventura dismissed the rumors and one of his attorneys stated he had not been in California since July 15, 2011.[116] Ventura himself said that he had not left Minnesota for over a month at the time the story was published and that he has refused to fly commercially since filing an unsuccessful lawsuit against the TSA earlier that year.[117] Ventura warned that he was considering a lawsuit against TMZ over the article, which has since been taken off their website and he also denounced the rumors as part of a smear campaign against him.[118] Chris Kyle controversy[edit] On January 4, 2012, Chris Kyle, a former U.S. Navy SEAL who had served in Iraq who had 160 confirmed kills and was thus the deadliest marksman in American military history,[119] promoted his recently released book American Sniper on the Opie and Anthony Show, the same radio show where Ventura got into a verbal altercation with a host two years prior. When Kyle was on the air, a listener called in and asked about how Kyle allegedly punched Ventura in a bar fight. After receiving the call, show host Gregg 'Opie' Hughes asked Kyle about the rumor. Kyle claimed that he punched Ventura in the face at a bar popular with Navy SEAL personnel in Coronado, California, for loudly expressing criticism of the Iraq War back in 2006 during a wake for Michael A. Monsoor, a Medal of Honor recipient and Navy SEAL who had been killed in action in Iraq the same year. According to Kyle, Ventura, who was present in San Diego to give a speech to a graduating BUD/S class, was "letting it known he did not agree" with the war in Iraq and was "bad-mouthing the war, bad-mouthing (former President) Bush, bad-mouthing America." Although Kyle, who wrote about the alleged incident in his book but did not mention Ventura by name, said he approached Ventura and asked him to tone down his voice because the families of SEAL personnel were present, Ventura allegedly said to Kyle that the SEALs "deserved to lose a few guys." Kyle said he responded by punching Ventura.[120][121] Kyle repeated his claims in a later interview with Bill O'Reilly on his show. Following this interview, radio host Alex Jones interviewed Ventura on January 8 regarding what happened. During the interview, Ventura denied the rumors, saying he never met Kyle nor has he heard of him before. Ventura argued that had the confrontation occurred, Kyle would be admitting to assault and that the incident would have become known across the Navy SEAL community, as Ventura had been a member of the UDT/SEALs community. Ventura also stated that the bar, known as McP's, was owned by a former Navy SEAL who was his cadre instructor when in the military and that he would not misbehave at the bar. Because the rumors emerged as Ventura was travelling down to his second home in Mexico, Ventura felt that the story was released at that point so he would be unable to properly fight the allegations.[122] After the Opie and Anthony hosts learned of Jones' interview with Ventura, they interviewed Kyle, who clarified his view of what happened and urged witnesses who were present at the bar to come forward to back his claims. Alex Jones, who is a friend of Ventura and was highly skeptical of Kyle's claims before his interview with Ventura, was also invited by the Opie and Anthony hosts to discuss the controversy. After Jones called in, an argument erupted over whether the incident happened, with the Opie and Anthony hosts siding with Kyle's version of events, and Jones siding with Ventura's. During the argument, Kyle denied claims by Jones that he was part of a bigger plot of discrediting Ventura and also suggested frustration over the attention on Kyle being focused on the alleged incident rather than on his book in general. Kyle also offered to meet with Ventura privately to end the dispute.[123] While Jones and the Opie and Anthony hosts were receptive to Kyle's proposal, no meeting between him and Ventura occurred. Ventura, reiterating that the incident did not happen, posted a comment on his official Facebook page saying the following: The event this man spoke of never happened. I have been to McP's many times since leaving the Navy. I was never there alone. I was always accompanied by other people. If this happened 6 years ago, someone would have known of it before now. Certainly in the UDT/SEAL community it would have been known. This has to be news to all of us. I have always opposed the war in Iraq but I have never spoken or wished any ill will towards the soldiers. My heart aches that soldiers have died or been wounded because this war should never have taken place. I am perplexed over the agenda this man has and why a fellow Navy Seal [sic] would tell a lie about an event that never happened. Clearly between this story and the previous week's story about supposedly getting pulled over for tailgaiting [sic] in CA that was also a lie, someone is out to destroy my credibility. I find it very interesting that both these stories are being spread by Fox news [sic] and it's [sic] affiliates. As a Navy veteran you realize you can’t believe every sea story you hear. Let me finish by stating both of the recent two national stories about me are completely untrue lies, neither event ever happened. Sincerely, Jesse Ventura.[124] Lawsuit against Kyle[edit] Ventura filed a defamation suit against Kyle in January 2012.[121] Ventura initially considered dropping the lawsuit, but several retired Navy SEALs including the owner of McP's demanded that Ventura continue his lawsuit, which Ventura did after Kyle failed to agree on a settlement in which he would state the incident never happened.[125] In a motion filed by Kyle's attorney in August 2012 to dismiss two of the suit's three counts, declarations by five former SEALs and the mothers of two others supported Kyle's account.[126] However, in a motion filed by Ventura, Bill DeWitt, a close friend of Ventura and former SEAL who was present with him at the bar, suggested that Ventura interacted with a few SEALs but was involved in no confrontation with Kyle, and said that Kyle's claims were false. DeWitt's wife also said she never witnessed any fight between Kyle and Ventura.[127] Although the lawsuit was ongoing as of 2013, Kyle was murdered in an unrelated incident on February 2, 2013.[128] In May 2013, Ventura substituted Kyle's widow, Taya Kyle, as the defendent, with his lawyers arguing that “it would be unjust to permit the estate to continue to profit from Kyle’s wrongful conduct and to leave Governor Ventura without redress for ongoing damage to his reputation.”[129] Personal life[edit] Family[edit] On July 18, 1975, three days after his twenty-fourth birthday, Ventura married his wife Terry.[9] The couple have two children: a son, Tyrel,[130] who is a film and television director and producer,[131] and a daughter, Jade.[130] With the exception of the first two Wrestlemania's, Ventura would always say hello to "Terry, Tyrel and Jade back in Minneapolis" during his commentary of the annual event. Tyrel also had the honor of inducting his father into the WWE Hall of Fame in 2004. Tyrel also worked on Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura and was an investigator in the show's third season. Ventura and his wife split their time living in both Minnesota and Cabo San Lucas, Mexico.[132] Regarding his life in Mexico, Ventura said, "I live one hour from pavement and one hour from electricity,..." "I drive down and back every year and it's truly an adventure to live down there where I do, because I'm off the grid,..." "I have electricity but it's all solar. I'm completely solar-powered down there. And it makes you pay more attention. It makes you turn the lights off when you're not using them."[133] Steroid use[edit] During his wrestling days, Ventura used anabolic steroids. He admitted this after retiring from competition, and went on to make public service announcements and appear in printed ads and on posters warning young people about the potential dangers and potential health risks of abusing steroids.[134] Health problems[edit] In 2002, Ventura was hospitalized for a severe blood clot in his lungs, the same kind of injury that ended his wrestling career.[135] Religion[edit] In 1999, Ventura said in an interview on NBC that he considered himself to be a Christian but did not believe he needs a church to attend.[136] Although a staunch critic of religion, Ventura is a supporter of religious freedom. He endorsed equal rights for religious minorities, as well as people who do not believe in God, by declaring July 4, 2002, "Indivisible Day". Ventura proclaimed October 13–19, 2002 as "Christian Heritage Week" in Minnesota.[137][138] In a Playboy interview, Ventura said, "Organized religion is a sham and a crutch for weak-minded people who need strength in numbers. It tells people to go out and stick their noses in other people's business. I live by the golden rule: Treat others as you'd want them to treat you. The religious right wants to tell people how to live." In his 1999 best-selling memoir I Ain't Got Time to Bleed, Ventura responded to the controversy sparked by these remarks by elaborating on his views concerning religion: I'd like to clarify [my comments published in Playboy] about religious people being weak-minded. I didn't mean all religious people. I don't have any problem with the vast majority of religious folks. I count myself among them, more or less. But I believe because it makes sense to me, not because I think it can be proven. There are lots of people out there who think they know the truth about God and religion, but does anybody really know for sure? That's why the Founding Fathers built freedom of religious belief into the structure of this nation, so that everybody could make up their minds for themselves. But I do have a problem with the people who think they have some right to try to impose their beliefs on others. I hate what the fundamentalist fanatics are doing to our country. It seems as though, if everybody doesn't accept their version of reality, that somehow invalidates it for them. Everybody must believe the same things they do. That's what I find weak and destructive.[139] In April 2011, Ventura said on Piers Morgan Tonight and the The Howard Stern Show, that he is an atheist and believes that his beliefs could disqualify him for office in the future, arguing that, "I don't believe you can be an atheist and admit it and get elected in our country."[1] In an earlier interview with CNN in October 2010, Ventura denounced religion as the "root of all evil. You notice every war is fought over religion."[140] Ventura also said in 2012 that he was baptized a Lutheran.[141] Books[edit] I Ain't Got Time to Bleed: Reworking the Body Politic from the Bottom Up (May 1999) ISBN 978-0-375-50332-0 Do I Stand Alone? Going to the Mat Against Political Pawns and Media Jackals (September 2000) ISBN 978-0-7434-0586-7 Jesse Ventura Tells it Like it Is: America's Most Outspoken Governor Speaks Out About Government (September 2002, co-authored with Heron Marquez) ISBN 978-0-8225-0385-9 Don't Start the Revolution Without Me! (March 2008, co-authored with Dick Russell) ISBN 978-1-60239-273-1 American Conspiracies (March 2010, co-authored with Dick Russell) ISBN 978-1-60239-802-3 63 Documents the Government Doesn't Want You to Read (April 2011, co-authored with Dick Russell) ISBN 978-1-61608-226-0 DemoCRIPS and ReBLOODlicans: No More Gangs in Government (June 2012, co-authored with Dick Russell) ISBN 978-1616084486 They Killed Our President: 63 Reasons to Believe There Was a Conspiracy to Assassinate JFK (October 2013, with Dick Russell & David Wayne) Notes[edit] 1.^ Jump up to: a b "The Howard Stern Show". April 5, 2011. 143 minutes in. Sirius XM Radio. "Actually Howard, I can't even run for office anymore. [...] Like George [Takei] I've come out of the closet. ... I'm an atheist. ... I don't believe you can be an atheist and admit it and get elected in our country." 2.Jump up ^ "James Janos Discharge Document". militaryhub.com. Retrieved 2012-01-16. 3.^ Jump up to: a b c "Military People: Jesse Ventura". militaryhub.com. Retrieved 2011-07-15. 4.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "OWOW profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 5.Jump up ^ "Ventura Will Quit Reform Party Today, Minn. Official Reports". 6.Jump up ^ McCallum, Laura. "The political legacy of Jesse Ventura". http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 7.Jump up ^ Khoo, Michael. "The days of Jesse". http://news.minnesota.publicradio.org. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 8.Jump up ^ http://www.ora.tv/offthegrid 9.^ Jump up to: a b Cohen, Daniel. Jesse Ventura. 2001. Brookfield, CT: Twenty-first Century Books. p. 26. Retrieved December 21, 2011. ISBN 978-0-7613-1905-4 10.Jump up ^ "Ancestry of Jesse Ventura". Wargs.com. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 11.Jump up ^ April 1, 2008, in Larry King interview with Ventura on NBC 12.Jump up ^ "Jesse "The Great Pretender" Ventura". San Diego Reader. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 13.Jump up ^ "Ventura discloses he didn't see combat in Vietnam War". Star tribune (Minneapolis). Associated Press. January 29, 2002. Archived from the original on February 3, 2002. 14.^ Jump up to: a b c "MPR: Battling Seals". News.minnesota.publicradio.org. December 14, 1999. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 15.Jump up ^ Belluck, Pam (October 31, 1998). "THE 1998 CAMPAIGN: MINNESOTA; Candidates Are Neck, Neck and Neck in Governor's Race". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2010. 16.^ Jump up to: a b "Ventura-Anderson transcript". Star Tribune (Minneapolis). April 5, 2001. Archived from the original on February 10, 2002. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 17.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura Hunting Remarks Draw Fire". ABC News. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 18.^ Jump up to: a b c Cohen, Daniel (2001). Jesse Ventura. Lerner Publishing Group. pp. 30–32. ISBN 978-0-7613-1905-4. Retrieved 2010-12-12. 19.Jump up ^ "Outlaw Gangs: Northern Nevada eyes biker enmity". Reviewjournal.com. May 12, 2002. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 20.Jump up ^ Labar, Justin (May 14, 2010). "Complete Interview Transcript With Jesse Ventura". Wrestlezone.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 21.Jump up ^ Jesse Ventura PBS 22.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f "Cagematch profile". 23.^ Jump up to: a b "WWE profile". 24.^ Jump up to: a b c John Molinaro, The Top 100 Pro Wrestlers of All Time, (Winding Stair Press: 2002), page 199 25.Jump up ^ Milner, John M. (January 21, 2006). "Jesse Ventura's bio". SLAM! Wrestling. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 26.Jump up ^ Jake Tapper, "Body Slam: The Jesse Ventura Story," pg. 104–105 27.^ Jump up to: a b Jesse Ventura, "I Ain't Got Time To Bleed pg. 108 28.Jump up ^ "Ventura v. Titan Sports, Inc". Jollylager.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 29.^ Jump up to: a b "Finishing Moves List". Other Arena. Retrieved 2009-11-03. 30.Jump up ^ "AWA World Tag Team Championship history". 31.Jump up ^ "NWA World Tag Team Championship ''(Central States version)'' history". Solie.org. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 32.Jump up ^ "AWA Southern Heavyweight Championship history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 33.Jump up ^ "NWA Hawaii Tag Team Championship history". Wrestling-titles.com. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 34.Jump up ^ "NWA Pacific Northwest Heavyweight Championship history". Solie.org. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 35.Jump up ^ "NWA Pacific Northwest Tag Team Championship history". 36.Jump up ^ Woodshop (2010) – Release dates 37.Jump up ^ "DiC Shows". Web.archive.org. April 1, 2004. Archived from the original on April 1, 2004. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 38.Jump up ^ The WrestleCrap Book of Lists! By R. D. Reynolds, Blade Braxton, page 310 39.Jump up ^ "Tag Team – the lost pilot episode starring Roddy Piper and Jesse Ventura!". I-Mockery.com. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 40.Jump up ^ "MPR: Ventura – the year in review". News.minnesota.publicradio.org. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 41.Jump up ^ Jake Tapper, "Body Slam: The Jesse Ventura Story," pg. 105–108 42.Jump up ^ Carly Skorczewski (October 29, 1998 – Volume 11, Issue 5). "Mayor of Brooklyn Park, Jesse Ventura: Reform endorsed candidate". Morris.umn.edu. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 43.Jump up ^ Howey, Brian (June 18, 2009). "Time to Take Over the Indiana Libertarian Party". Retrieved 2009-06-26. Retrieved from Internet Archive January 17 2014. 44.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura announces he will not seek second term in November". http://seattletimes.nwsource.com. June 18, 2002. Retrieved June 22, 2012. 45.Jump up ^ Joseph P. Kahn (February 25, 2004). "The Body politic – The Boston Globe". Boston.com. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 46.Jump up ^ "Ventura May Leave Office Early – Political Wire". Politicalwire.com. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 47.Jump up ^ Ventura, Jesse (2000). Ain't Got Time to Bleed. Signet. pp. 13–14. ISBN 0-451-20086-1. 48.Jump up ^ "Minnesota Legislative Reference Library: Bills Vetoed by Governors and Override Attempts, 1939–present". Minnesota Legislative Reference Library www.leg.state.mn.us/LRL. Retrieved 2009-05-09.[dead link] 49.Jump up ^ "freedomforum.org: Minnesota governor vetoes Pledge of Allegiance requirement". Freedomforum.org. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 50.Jump up ^ "National Governors Association". http://www.nga.org. 01-nov-08. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved 2010-09-03. 51.Jump up ^ Jesse Ventura: Legalize Marijuana Fox Business News. Retrieved January 17 2014. 52.Jump up ^ "The body on the hulk – The Howard Stern Show". Howardstern.com. May 19, 2009. Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 53.Jump up ^ Carlson, Heather J. (June 18, 2012). "Political Notebook: Ventura offers to campaign against marriage amendment". Post-Bulletin. 54.Jump up ^ Ventura, Jesse (2008). Don't start the revolution without me!. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. pp. 143–160. ISBN 1-60239-273-0. 55.Jump up ^ "MPR: Ventura begins final foreign journey as governor". News.minnesota.publicradio.org. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 56.Jump up ^ Avlon, John (2004). Independent Nation: How the Vital Center Is Changing American Politics. Harmony Books / Random House, pp. 177–93 ("Radical Centrists"). ISBN 978-1-4000-5023-9. 57.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura on Principles & Values". http://www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved May 19, 2012. 58.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura: US should abolish inherently corrupt political parties". rawstory.com. Retrieved 2011-07-27. 59.Jump up ^ "Ventura May Tap Independent to Wellstone's Seat; Mondale Officially in for Dems". Foxnews.com. October 31, 2002. Archived from the original on February 5, 2011. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 60.Jump up ^ "Honor & Civility, RIP". Weeklystandard.com. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 61.Jump up ^ "VENTURA: I WON'T APPOINT DEMOCRAT – United Press International | HighBeam Research – FREE trial". Highbeam.com. November 1, 2002. Retrieved 2010-06-13.[dead link] 62.Jump up ^ "National Briefing | Midwest: Minnesota: Governor Shuts Mansion – New York Times". Query.nytimes.com. May 1, 2002. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 63.Jump up ^ In Re Proposed Petition to Recall Governor Jesse Ventura http://wrestlingperspective.com/legal/ventura.html 64.Jump up ^ Lynda McConnell, Special to Stateline.org. "Provocative Press Pass Miffs Minnesota Media". Stateline.org. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 65.Jump up ^ "Current.org | Keillor v. Ventura". Current.org. Archived from the original on July 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 66.Jump up ^ "Gov. Ventura Stumbles – New York Times". Query.nytimes.com. Published: February 26, 1999. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 67.Jump up ^ Jesse Ventura Running For The Senate?![dead link], YouTube 68.Jump up ^ Falcone, Michael (July 14, 2008). "Ventura Decides Against Senate Run". The Caucus (New York Times). Retrieved 2008-07-14. 69.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura on Principles & Values". http://www.ontheissues.org. Retrieved February 23, 2012. 70.Jump up ^ Barr, Andy. "Jesse Ventura wants to be Ron Paul's 2012 running mate". Politico. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 71.Jump up ^ Emily Gurnon (November 4, 2011). "Angry Jesse Ventura thinking about presidential run". TwinCities.com. 72.Jump up ^ "Former Minn. Gov. Ventura, miffed by court setback, says he’ll seek Mexican citizenship". The Washington Post. November 5, 2011.[dead link] 73.Jump up ^ Epstein, Reid J. "Gary Johnson eyes Libertarians, who eye Ventura". http://www.politico.com. Retrieved February 26, 2012. 74.Jump up ^ David Gewirtz (November 8, 2011). "Is there any possible way Jesse Ventura could win the Presidency?". ZDNet. 75.Jump up ^ "Piers Live with Jesse Ventura". September 17, 2012. 76.Jump up ^ "The View". September 17, 2012. 77.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura Looking to Run in 2016!!". http://www.infowars.com. Retrieved September 22, 2012. 78.Jump up ^ "Game Over: Jesse Ventura wants Howard Stern as running mate for 2016 presidential run". http://dailycaller.com/. 79.Jump up ^ Sheppard, Noel. "Jesse Ventura: MSNBC Canceled My Show For Opposing Iraq War". http://newsbusters.org. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 80.Jump up ^ "MPR: Speechless no more, Ventura stumps for Kerry at colleges". News.minnesota.publicradio.org. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 81.Jump up ^ Gavin, Patrick. "Jesse Ventura goes gangsta in political tome". Politico. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 82.Jump up ^ Jesse Ventura (May 15, 2009). Don't Start the Revolution Without Me!. p. 137. ISBN 1-60239-716-3. 83.Jump up ^ "Army News, benefits, careers, entertainment, photos, promotions – Army Times HOME". Armytimes.com. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 84.Jump up ^ "BetUs Events". Web.archive.org. October 15, 2007. Archived from the original on October 15, 2007. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 85.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura Endorsement of Ron Paul". Infowars.com. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 86.Jump up ^ Martel, Frances. "Jesse Ventura Tells CNN Morning Crew Why Politicians Should Wear NASCAR Outfits". http://www.mediaite.com. Retrieved June 13, 2012. 87.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura campaigns against anti-gay marriage amendment". http://www.wisconsingazette.com. Retrieved January 12, 2013. 88.Jump up ^ "Minnesota Amendment 1 Same-Sex Marriage Ballot Measure Fails". Retrieved January 12, 2013. 89.Jump up ^ Jesse Ventura: You Give Me a Water Board, Dick Cheney and One Hour, and I'll Have Him Confess to the Sharon Tate Murders, CrooksAndLiars.com 90.^ Jump up to: a b Jesse Ventura: You Give Me a Water Board, Dick Cheney and One Hour, and I'll Have Him Confess to the Sharon Tate Murders, CrooksAndLiars.com 91.Jump up ^ heathr456. "Jesse Ventura: You Give Me a Water Board, Dick Cheney and One Hour". YouTube. Retrieved 2011-12-02. 92.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura on Larry King 5–11–09, Part 1". YouTube. Retrieved 2010-06-13.[dead link] 93.^ Jump up to: a b c Stein, Sam (May 18, 2009). "Ventura And Hasselbeck Rumble Over Waterboarding on the View". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 94.Jump up ^ Linkins, Jason (May 20, 2009). "Jesse Ventura Lays Waste To Fox And Friends". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 95.Jump up ^ Watson, Paul Joseph. "Former Governor Jesse Ventura Questions Official 9/11 Story". http://www.prisonplanet.com. Retrieved September 8, 2012. 96.Jump up ^ "Jesse The Body Sounds Off". howardstern.com. May 21, 2008. Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. 97.Jump up ^ Ventura says he regrets initial acceptance of 9/11 explanations[dead link], Associated Press, April 3, 2008 98.Jump up ^ Linkins, Jason (May 19, 2009). "Jesse Ventura, Hannity Go Head-To-Head". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 99.Jump up ^ "PIERS MORGAN TONIGHT Interview With Jesse Ventura". http://www.cnn.com. Retrieved October 20, 2012. 100.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura Working on Conspiracy Theory Series For truTV". Huffingtonpost.com. September 30, 2008. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 101.Jump up ^ "TruTv:Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura". News.turner.com. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 102.Jump up ^ "Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura Delivers 1.6 Million Viewers, truTV's Biggest Audience Ever for a New Series Launch". TVbytheNumbers.com. December 3, 2009. Retrieved 2011-04-01. 103.Jump up ^ Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura Second Season episode list, TruTv.com 104.Jump up ^ Ragsdale, Jim. "Jesse Ventura says 2016 offers best shot for independent presidential candidate". StarTribune. Retrieved 31 August 2013. 105.Jump up ^ Freed, Joshua."Ventura:No Plans to Run Again, but...", Associated Press. Retrieved April 1, 2008. 106.Jump up ^ Jesse's back! New Ventura book 'Revolution' will cover political waterfront, MinnPost.com 107.Jump up ^ Harper, Jennifer. "Inside the Beltway: Bipartisan gangland". http://www.washingtontimes.com. Retrieved May 24, 2012. 108.Jump up ^ Hunter, Marnie (September 27, 2000). "Jesse Ventura slams TSA with lawsuit". CNN. Retrieved September 17, 2011. 109.Jump up ^ "'I've had enough of the Fascist States of America': Former Governor's fury at TSA as he says he's leaving for Mexico... but may still run for President". http://www.dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved February 21, 2012. 110.Jump up ^ Video of Press Conference Response starts at 3:03 minutes 111.Jump up ^ "Former Minn. Gov. Ventura, miffed by court setback, says he’ll seek Mexican citizenship". http://www.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved November 6, 2011.[dead link] 112.Jump up ^ "Jesse "The Great Pretender" Ventura". San Diego Reader. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 113.^ Jump up to: a b "Ventura brushes off criticism of SEAL training". Retrieved 2011-12-02. 114.Jump up ^ Huff, Richard. "Jesse Ventura walks off 'Opie & Anthony' show after verbal mud fest with Jim Norton". Daily News (New York). Retrieved September 16, 2011. 115.Jump up ^ Gerweck, Steve. "Jesse Ventura pulled over for tailgating". http://www.gerweck.net. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 116.Jump up ^ "Ventura Says Story About Being Pulled Over in California is Not True". http://kstp.com. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 117.Jump up ^ Giri, Raj. "Correction on Jesse Ventura Tailgating Story". http://www.wrestlinginc.com. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 118.Jump up ^ Webb, Chad. "Jesse Ventura Has Lawyers Threatening Lawsuit Against TMZ Over Recent News Article". http://www.411mania.com. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 119.Jump up ^ Buiso, Gary (January 3, 2012). "Meet the big shot SEAL is America's deadliest sniper". http://www.nypost.com. Retrieved January 13, 2012. 120.Jump up ^ Zennie, Michael (January 6, 2012). "America's deadliest sniper killed 255 Iraqi 'savages' to protect his friends... but he punched out Jesse Ventura because he 'bad-mouthed the troops'". London: http://www.dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved January 13, 2012. 121.^ Jump up to: a b Associated Press, "Ex-SEAL’s attorney: Ventura’s claims deficient", Military Times, August 29, 2012 122.Jump up ^ Watson, Paul Joseph. "Ventura: Navy SEAL ‘Punch’ Hoax May be Retribution For Supporting Ron Paul". www.infowars.com. Retrieved February 25, 2012. 123.Jump up ^ Mike, Opelka. "RADIO HOST CONFRONTS SEAL SNIPER OVER VENTURA BAR BRAWL STORY...AND REVEALS ‘PSY-OPS’ THEORY". http://www.theblaze.com. Retrieved January 13, 2012. 124.Jump up ^ Opelka, Mike. "Navy SEAL Smackdown? Jesse Ventura Denies Sniper's Story". Retrieved February 25, 2012. 125.Jump up ^ Watson, Paul Joseph. "Jesse Ventura Gets Backing of Former SEALs in Lawsuit Over "Punch" Hoax". http://www.infowars.com. Retrieved September 6, 2012. 126.Jump up ^ Browing, Dan, Star Tribune, "Ex-SEAL: Jesse Ventura got popped after popping off", Stars and Stripes, August 29, 2012 127.Jump up ^ Hanners, David. "Ventura says fellow author just after notoriety". http://www.twincities.com. Retrieved October 14, 2012. 128.Jump up ^ Stanton, Jessica. "Renowned Navy SEAL sniper shot dead at Texas gun range". http://dailycaller.com. Retrieved February 3, 2013. 129.Jump up ^ Hopfensperger, Jean. "Former MN Gov. Ventura wants to add widow to suit against Navy SEAL Chris Kyle". http://www.startribune.com/. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 130.^ Jump up to: a b "Last CallFor Gov. Jesse Ventura—and His Fun-Loving Son Tyrel—the Party Is Over". People. Vol. 58 No. 2 July 8, 2002 131.Jump up ^ Justin, Neal. "Jesse Ventura hires a familiar face". Star Tribune. September 19, 2011 132.Jump up ^ "Meet the Team". Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura. TruTV. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 133.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura Calls for Revolution of Political Parties". Transcript of Larry King Live. April 1, 2008. CNN. Retrieved December 21, 2011. 134.Jump up ^ "This Week in FDA History". Fda.gov. Retrieved 2009-07-06. 135.Jump up ^ "Ventura hospitalized with blood clot in lung". CNN. July 9, 2002. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 136.Jump up ^ "The Religious Affiliation of Jesse Ventura Professional Wrestler and Governor of Minnesota". Retrieved March 22, 2012. 137.Jump up ^ "Religion News". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 2008-10-20.[dead link] 138.Jump up ^ Jo Napolitano (Nyt) (Published: August 2, 2002). "National Briefing | Midwest: Minnesota: Christians One Up On Ventura – New York Times". Query.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 139.Jump up ^ "Jesse Ventura on Principles & Values". Ontheissues.org. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 140.Jump up ^ "Transcripts". CNN. Retrieved 2012-12-15. 141.Jump up ^ Karr, Christopher. "Jesse Ventura on Politics, Keith Richards, and Why He's an Atheist". http://www.highbrowmagazine.com. Retrieved December 13, 2012. References[edit] deFiebre, Conrad. "Record-high job approval for Ventura; Many Minnesotans like his style, don't mind moonlighting." Star Tribune July 22, 1999: 1A+. deFiebre, Conrad. "Using body language, Ventura backs Kerry." Star Tribune October 23, 2004: 1A+. Kahn, Joseph P. "The Body Politic." The Boston Globe February 25, 2004. Accessed April 28, 2004. Olson, Rochelle and Bob von Sternberg. "GOP demands equal time; Wellstone aide apologizes; Ventura upset." Minneapolis Star-Tribune October 31, 2002: 1A+. External links[edit] Portal icon Biography portal Portal icon Minnesota portal Portal icon Professional wrestling portal Portal icon United States Navy portal Portal icon Politics portal Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Jesse Ventura WWE Hall of Fame Profile Jesse Ventura at the Internet Movie Database Jesse Ventura's America at the Internet Movie Database Ventura "on the issues" Analysis of Jesse Ventura's Playboy interview by Aubrey Immelman Jesse Ventura – Media Man Australia profile Radiotapes.com Recordings of Jesse Ventura for Governor commercials from 1998 (scroll down to Misc Recordings). 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KDKA-TV From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2010) KDKA-TV KDKA.png Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania United States Branding KDKA (general) KDKA-TV News (newscasts) Slogan Expect more (general/news) Your Steeler station (during NFL season) Channels Digital: 25 (UHF) Virtual: 2 (PSIP) Subchannels 2.1 CBS Affiliations CBS (O&O) Owner CBS Corporation (CBS Broadcasting, Inc.) First air date January 11, 1949; 65 years ago Call letters' meaning derived from sister station KDKA radio Sister station(s) KDKA, KDKA-FM, WBZZ, WDSY-FM, WPCW Former callsigns WDTV (1949–1955) Former channel number(s) Analog: 3 (VHF, 1949–1952) 2 (VHF, 1952–2009) Former affiliations DuMont (1949–1955) NBC (secondary, 1949–1957) ABC (secondary, 1949–1958) Transmitter power 1000 kW Height 311 m (1,020 ft) Facility ID 25454 Transmitter coordinates 40°29′38″N 80°1′9″W Licensing authority FCC Public license information: Profile CDBS Website pittsburgh.cbslocal.com KDKA-TV, channel 2, is a CBS owned-and-operated television station located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. The station is owned by the CBS Television Stations subsidiary of CBS Corporation, as part of a duopoly with CW station WPCW (channel 19). The two stations share studios located at the Gateway Center in downtown Pittsburgh, KDKA-TV's transmitter located in the Perry North neighborhood of Pittsburgh. KDKA-TV is available on cable television in the Johnstown, Altoona, and Wheeling areas, as well as several other out-of-market cable systems in northwestern Pennsylvania, northwestern Maryland, northeastern Ohio, and North-Central West Virginia. The furthest south KDKA is carried on cable is in Beverly, West Virginia.[1] Contents [hide] 1 Early history 1.1 DuMont origins 1.2 Dealing with competition 1.3 Westinghouse enters 2 Digital television 2.1 Digital channels 2.2 Analog-to-digital conversion 3 Programming 3.1 Syndicated talk shows 3.2 Local shows 3.3 Seasonal 3.4 Former 3.5 Pittsburgh Steelers 4 News operation 4.1 Ratings 4.2 News/Station Presentation 4.3 Newscast Titles 4.4 Station Slogans 4.5 News Music Packages 4.6 On-air staff 4.6.1 Current on-air staff[20] 4.6.2 Notable former on-air staff 5 References 6 External links Early history[edit] DuMont origins[edit] WDTV broadcast of We, the People on April 18, 1952. The guest is New York Yankees player Bill Bevens. The station went on the air on January 11, 1949, as WDTV ("W DuMont TeleVision") on channel 3, it was owned and operated by the DuMont Television Network.[2] It was the 51st television station in the U.S. and the third and last DuMont-owned station to sign on the air, behind WABD (now WNYW) in New York City and WTTG in Washington, D.C. To mark the occasion, a live television special aired that day from 8:30 to 11 p.m. ET on WDTV, which began with a one-hour local program broadcast from Syria Mosque in Pittsburgh. The remainder of the show featured live segments from DuMont, CBS, NBC, and ABC with Arthur Godfrey, Milton Berle, DuMont host Ted Steele, and many other celebrities.[3] The station also represented a milestone in the television industry, providing the first "network" that included Pittsburgh and 13 other cities from Boston to St. Louis.[4] WDTV was one of the last stations to receive a construction permit before the Federal Communications Commission-imposed four-year freeze on new television station licenses. When the release of the FCC's Sixth Report and Order ended the license freeze in 1952, DuMont was forced to give up its channel 3 allocation to alleviate interference with nearby stations broadcasting on the frequency. WDTV moved its facilities to channel 2 on November 23, 1952.[5] Shortly after moving, it was the first station in the country to broadcast 24 hours a day, seven days a week, advertising that its 1:00-7:00 a.m. "Swing Shift Theatre" served the "200,000 workers [in their viewing area] who finish shift work at midnight."[6] DuMont's network of stations on coaxial cable stretched from Boston to St. Louis. These stations were linked together via AT&T's coaxial cable feed with the sign-on of WDTV allowing the network to broadcast live programming to all the stations at the same time. Stations not yet connected to the coaxial cable received kinescope recordings via physical delivery.[citation needed] The DuMont Television Network in 1949. Dealing with competition[edit] Until the end of the freeze, WDTV's only competition came in the form of distant signals from stations in Johnstown, Altoona, Wheeling, West Virginia and Youngstown, Ohio. However, Pittsburgh saw two UHF stations launch during 1953 – ABC affiliate WENS-TV (channel 16, later to become WINP-TV), and WKJF-TV (channel 53, later to become WPGH-TV), an independent station. At the time, UHF stations could not be viewed without the aid of an expensive, set-top converter, and the picture quality was marginal at best with one. UHF stations in the area faced an additional problem because Pittsburgh is located in a somewhat rugged dissected plateau, and the reception of UHF stations is usually poor in such terrain. These factors played a role in the short-lived existences of both WKJF and WENS.[citation needed] Although Pittsburgh was the sixth largest market in the country (behind New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Washington-Baltimore), the other VHF stations in town were slow to develop. This was because the major cities in the Upper Ohio Valley are so close together that they must share the VHF band. After the FCC lifted the license freeze in 1952, it refused to grant any new commercial VHF construction permits to Pittsburgh in order to give the smaller cities in the area a chance to get on the air. WDTV had a de facto monopoly on Pittsburgh television. Like its sister stations WABD and WTTG, it was far stronger than the DuMont network as a whole. According to network general manager Ted Bergmann, WDTV brought in $4 million a year, which was more than enough to keep the network afloat. Owning the only readily viewable station in such a large market gave DuMont considerable leverage in getting its programs cleared in large markets where it did not have an affiliate. As CBS, NBC and ABC had secondary affiliations with WDTV, this was a strong incentive to stations in large markets to clear DuMont's programs or risk losing valuable advertising in the sixth-largest market. Also, NBC affiliates from Johnstown (WJAC-TV) and Wheeling (WTRF-TV, itself now affiliated with CBS) were able to be received in Pittsburgh and a CBS affiliate from Steubenville, Ohio (WSTV-TV, now NBC affiliate WTOV-TV) was also able to be received there as well. CBS, in fact, actually attempted to purchase WSTV-TV's license before it went on the air and move its license to Pittsburgh due to the close proximity between Pittsburgh and Steubenville (At the time less than an hour apart by car; the completion of the Penn-Lincoln Parkway in 1964 reduced that time to about a half hour driving time today.), but the FCC turned CBS down. The Wheeling/Steubenville TV market, despite its very close proximity to Pittsburgh and overlapping signals, remains a separate market by FCC standards today. WDTV aired all DuMont network shows live and "cherry-picked" the best shows from the other networks, airing them on kinescope on an every-other-week basis. WDTV's sign-on was also significant because it was now possible to feed live programs from the East to the Midwest and vice versa. In fact, its second broadcast was the activation of the coaxial cable linking New York City and Chicago. It would be another two years before the West Coast received live programming, but this was the beginning of the modern era of network television.[citation needed] Westinghouse enters[edit] KDKA-TV's studio building at One Gateway Center in Pittsburgh. The station has been housed in this facility since 1956.[7] By 1954, DuMont was in serious financial trouble. Paramount Pictures, which owned a stake in DuMont, vetoed a merger with ABC, who had merged with Paramount's former theater division United Paramount Theaters a year before. A few years earlier, the FCC had ruled that Paramount controlled DuMont and there were still lingering questions about whether UPT had actually broken off from Paramount. Paramount did not want to risk the FCC's wrath. Meanwhile, Pittsburgh-based Westinghouse Electric Corporation had been competing with local politicians to acquire the non-commercial channel 13 license from the FCC, as no other Pittsburgh-allocated VHF station would be signing on for the foreseeable future. After launching WBZ-TV in Boston in 1948 and purchasing two other television stations, Westinghouse was growing impatient with not having a station in its own home market. Westinghouse later offered a compromise plan to the FCC, in which the Commission would grant Westinghouse the channel 13 license; Westinghouse would then "share" the facility with the educational licensee. Finding the terms unacceptable, Pittsburgh attorney Leland Hazard called Westinghouse CEO Gwilym Price to ask him if he should give up on his fight for public television. Price said that Hazard should keep fighting for it, giving Westinghouse backing for the station that would eventually become WQED.[8] Westinghouse then turned its attention to WDTV, offering DuMont a then-record $9.75 million for the station in late 1954. Desperate for cash, DuMont promptly accepted Westinghouse's offer.[9] While the sale gave DuMont a short-term cash infusion, it eliminated DuMont's leverage in getting clearances in other major markets. Within two years, the DuMont network was no more. After the sale closed in January 1955, Westinghouse changed WDTV's call letters to KDKA-TV, after Westinghouse's pioneering radio station KDKA (1020 AM).[10] As such, it became one of the few stations east of the Mississippi River with a "K" call sign. The WDTV calls now reside on a CBS affiliate located 130 miles south of Pittsburgh in Weston, West Virginia, which is unrelated to the current KDKA-TV. That station, which signed on after KDKA-TV adopted its current callsign, adopted those calls "in honor" of KDKA-TV. As KDKA radio had long been an affiliate of the NBC Blue Network (Westinghouse was a co-founder of RCA, NBC's then-parent company), it was expected that KDKA-TV would eventually become a primary affiliate of the NBC television network. But the network was seeking to purchase Westinghouse's Philadelphia stations, KYW radio and WPTZ (now KYW-TV). When Westinghouse balked, NBC threatened to pull its programming from WPTZ and Boston's WBZ-TV unless Westinghouse agreed to trade its Philadelphia properties for NBC's WTAM-AM-FM and WNBK in Cleveland. The decision would lead to an acrimonious relationship between Westinghouse and NBC in later years.[11][12] Two years after the ownership change, channel 2 became a primary affiliate of the higher-rated CBS network instead.[13] KDKA-TV retained secondary affiliations with NBC until WIIC-TV (channel 11, now WPXI) signed on in 1957, and ABC until WTAE-TV (channel 4) signed on in 1958. KDKA-TV became the flagship station of Westinghouse's broadcasting arm, Group W. On November 22, 1963, newscaster Bill Burns provided almost three hours of live coverage after the shooting of President John F. Kennedy.[14] Over the years, channel 2 pre-empted moderate amounts of CBS programming. At one point, from the early 1960s to July 1990, the station did not clear As The World Turns. At the same time, WTAJ-TV in Altoona had run the program and was viewable in the eastern part of the Pittsburgh market. Also, CBS affiliate WTRF-TV in Wheeling, West Virginia was viewable in Pittsburgh and to the west. Until 1978, the show ran on WPGH and for a few years after that, it ran on WPTT (channel 22). KDKA-TV also preempted the daytime game shows and reruns from CBS at various points during the 1970s. KDKA also produced plenty of local programs such as Evening Magazine, Pittsburgh Talks, and local newscasts. The station also occasionally preempted CBS primetime programs for a syndicated movie, local news special, or sports during the years the station had broadcast rights to Pittsburgh Pirates baseball and Pittsburgh Penguins hockey. Weekend pre-emptions included a small portion of Saturday and Sunday morning cartoons, and Sunday morning religious programs. In 1993, KDKA stopped running CBS This Morning and instead ran Disney's syndicated cartoon block. Less than a year later, Westinghouse made a long-term deal with CBS to convert the entire five-station Group W television unit to a group-wide CBS affiliation. Part of this agreement included a deal to stop preempting any CBS shows, except for extended breaking news coverage or local news events beginning in 1995. KDKA-TV continued preempting moderate amounts of programming into 1995. In the fall of 1995, channel 2 began running the entire CBS lineup in pattern, as it, and sister station KPIX-TV in San Francisco, were already affiliated with the network. In early 1996, Westinghouse acquired CBS, making KDKA-TV a CBS owned-and-operated station, after four decades as being simply a CBS affiliate. In 1997, Westinghouse became CBS Corporation, which would then merge with Viacom (which, ironically, has been Paramount's parent since 1994) in 2000, making KDKA a sister station with Pittsburgh UPN affiliate WNPA-TV (channel 19, now CW station WPCW). Five years later, Viacom became CBS Corporation and spun off a new Viacom. In August 2007, KDKA-TV unveiled a new image campaign, entitled Your Home, with music and lyrics performed by singer-songwriter Bill Deasy. The promo features scenes of Pittsburgh and its surrounding areas, as well as three of the station's personalites. In September 2007, the station unveiled another promo featuring the Joe Grushecky song "Coming Home". Later, a third spot, "Long Way Home", was introduced, featuring the voice of Kelsey Friday.[15] Digital television[edit] Digital channels[edit] Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short Name Programming[16] 2.1 1080i 16:9 KDKA 2. Main KDKA-TV programming / CBS Analog-to-digital conversion[edit] KDKA-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 2, on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate, during that night's broadcast of the Late Show with David Letterman. The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 25.[17] Before they turned off their analog signal and go to nightlight, they show a clip of what they were om the present to the time WDTV aired. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former VHF analog channel 2. In July 2009, the station applied to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to operate two repeater signals: channel 31 in Morgantown, West Virginia and channel 40 in Johnstown.[18] Programming[edit] Syndicated talk shows[edit] As a Westinghouse-owned station, KDKA carried the numerous syndicated talk shows produced by its parent company, including The Merv Griffin Show, The Mike Douglas Show, and Hour Magazine. Later, KDKA carried The Oprah Winfrey Show during its first 9 nationally syndicated seasons (1986-1995), airing the show weekdays at 5 PM. In 1989, KDKA acquired the rights to The Sally Jessy Raphael Show, airing it weekdays at 9 AM and Phil Donahue weekdays at 4 PM, respectively. However, due to the poor ratings of Donahue in the Pittsburgh market, KDKA showed strong interest in new talk shows such as The Ricki Lake Show and The Gordon Elliott Show. Due to KDKA being owned by CBS, the station airs the entire network lineup in order. Sally & Donahue moved to WTAE in 1993, and two years later, KDKA debuted a 5:00 PM newscast, at which point Oprah Winfrey also moved to WTAE, airing at 4:00 PM. In 1997, The Sally Jessy Raphael Show returned to KDKA, and once again was given the 9 AM time slot, where it remained until its cancellation in 2002. Sally was a success in the Pittsburgh area, even beating Montel Williams on WPXI in the 1990s. Local shows[edit] The KDKA-TV newscast logo as seen during its opening.Hometown High-Q (2000–present): airs Saturdays at 11 a.m. - "quiz bowl" format show with three teams composed of local high school students #1 Cochran Sports Showdown (1998–present): airs Sundays at 11:35 p.m. – sports talk show KD/PG Sunday Edition: airs Sundays at 8:30 a.m. - public affairs program The Lynne Hayes-Freeland Show: airs Sundays at 6 a.m. - public affairs program Pittsburgh Today Live: airs weekdays 9:00-10:00 a.m. - Kristine Sorensen and Jon Burnett are the hosts, with Dennis Bowman for weather; local general interest program The Sunday Business Page: airs Sundays at 6:30 a.m. - public affairs program Your Pittsburgh: airs weeknights 7:30-8:00 p.m. - hosted by Kimberly Gill and David Highfield; entertainment program Seasonal[edit] The Children's Hospital Free-Care Fund (1954–present; airs during the holiday season) - yearly pledge drive Hometown Holiday Lights - Series aired during KDKA's newscasts; contest between local families with Christmas displays at their residence. McDonald's Steeler Kickoff (during the NFL season) - Sundays at 11:30 a.m. - Pittsburgh Steelers pre-game show hosted by Bob Pompeani and Edmund Nelson. Steelers Huddle (September 19, 2009–present; airs during the NFL season) - Saturdays at 11:35 p.m. - Bob Pompeani and a rotating member of the Pittsburgh Steelers. Steelers Trivia Challenge (July 16, 2005–present) - Saturdays at 11:35 p.m. - Bob Pompeani hosts a "quiz bowl" format, modeled after Hometown High-Q, with three teams composed of three Pittsburgh Steelers fans who answer team-related trivia questions. The show runs for nine weeks (mid-July to mid-September). Verizon Extra Point (airs during the NFL season) - Pittsburgh Steelers post-game show after CBS broadcasts, hosted by Bob Pompeani and Edmund Nelson. Former[edit] Evening Magazine (August 1, 1977 – October 12, 1990) Giant Eagle High School Sports Advantage The Jerome Bettis Show (September 12, 1998 – February 4, 2006) The Hines Ward Show (September 2, 2006 – January 31, 2009) Mario Lemieux Celebrity Golf Invitational Pittsburgh 2Day (1978–January 19, 1990) Pittsburgh Pirates baseball (1957–1994) Pittsburgh Penguins hockey (1989–1997) Wake Up With Larry Richert (1988–1990) Pittsburgh Steelers[edit] As CBS holds the broadcast contract with the NFL to show games involving AFC teams, KDKA-TV has been the official broadcaster of most Pittsburgh Steelers games since 1998, and serves as the team's flagship station. The team's preseason games that are not nationally televised are also shown on KDKA. KDKA began its relationship with the Steelers in 1962, when CBS first started the leaguewide television package. The Steelers are one of three AFC teams that predate the AFC's basis league, the American Football League, and so KDKA, and not WTAE-TV or WIIC-TV (now WPXI), carried Steelers road games (home games were blacked out locally under all circumstances until 1973, when sold-out home games began to be allowed on local television) – the AFL had television contracts with ABC, and later, NBC. Due to the NFL rules of the time, after the AFL-NFL merger, KDKA did not broadcast any Steelers games from 1970 to 1972. Beginning in 1973, KDKA was allowed to air any Steelers games in which they hosted a team from the National Football Conference, which contained most of the old-line National Football League teams. KDKA also broadcast two Steeler championship wins, Super Bowl X in 1976 and Super Bowl XIV in 1980. Since the Steelers have sold out every home game starting in 1972, no blackouts have been required. In the meantime, from 1970 to 1997, channel 11 aired most Steelers games. When the NFC package moved from CBS to Fox in 1994, WPGH-TV aired the Steelers games that had before aired on KDKA, leaving the senior station without Steelers games for four years. Today, and in general since 1970, the only exceptions to all the above are when the Steelers play at night. Their Monday Night Football games have always aired locally on WTAE, first when ABC had the rights, and since 2006, on ESPN. WTAE also aired simulcasts of their games aired as part of ESPN Sunday Night Football from 1987 to 2005. The NFL requires games on cable channels to be simulcast over-the-air in the markets of the participating teams (again with the home team's broadcast subject to blackout). WTAE has simulcast ESPN-aired games because ESPN is 20% owned by WTAE's owners, Hearst Corporation – their ABC stations have right of first refusal for these simulcasts. Games on TNT and NFL Network have aired on various stations in the area.[citation needed] News operation[edit] [icon] This section requires expansion with: further information on the history of KDKA-TV's news department. (August 2013) KDKA-TV presently broadcasts 34½ hours of locally produced newscasts each week (with six hours on weekdays, three hours on Saturdays and 1½ hours on Sundays); KDKA also produces 27 hours of local newscasts each week for CW owned-and-operated sister station WPCW, in the form of an hour-long extension of KDKA's weekday morning newscast at 7 a.m. and a nightly 35-minute newscast at 10 p.m. In 2001, KDKA-TV began producing a 10 p.m. newscast on WNPA (now WPCW); in 2005, it added a two-hour weekday morning newscast from 7-9 a.m. on that station (which was later reduced to one hour from 7-8 a.m.). On June 16, 2009, KDKA-TV began broadcasting its local newscasts in high definition during its noon broadcast, with the introduction of a new set and weather center. Like rival WTAE, only video from in-studio cameras is broadcast in HD while most of the content, including field reports and video footage, are in pillarboxed 4:3 standard definition. On September 1, 2010, KDKA-TV debuted the standardized CBS O&O graphics and music package ("The CBS Enforcer Music Collection" by Gari Media Group). Ratings[edit] As of February 2013, KDKA-TV is the most watched news station in the hours of noon, 4, 5, 6 and 11 p.m. However, WTAE is the most watched news program in the Pittsburgh area in the hours of 5, 6 a.m. WPXI is most watched at the 10 p.m. time slot on WPGH-TV.[19] News/Station Presentation[edit] Newscast Titles[edit] The Esso Reporter (1949-1960s) TV-2 Eyewitness News (1960s-1996) KDKA-TV News (1996–present) Station Slogans[edit] Here's 2 Pittsburgh Renaissance Two (1983) KD and You (1986-1990) The Tri-State News Leader Always Taking the Lead (early 1990s-1996) The Hometown Advantage (1996-2005) Local News First (2005-2007) Your Home (2007-) Expect More (2013-) News Music Packages[edit] From Russia With Love: 007 (John Barry) (19??-19??) Barbarella: The Pill (Bob Crewe, Charles Fox) (19??-19??) WBZ 1970s Telesound Theme (Telesound) (19??-19??) Look For Us (Telesound) (19??-19??) We're 4 (Klein &) (1979-1984) The News Image & The News Image Plus (Tuesday Productions) (1984-1992) Advantage (Gari Media Group) (1992-1997) Signature Theme Package (Jon Gorr Music) (1997-1998) KDKA-TV Prime (SoundByte, Inc.) (1998-2010) The CBS Enforcer Music Collection (Gari Media Group) (2010–present) On-air staff[edit] Current on-air staff[20][edit] AnchorsJennifer Antkowiak - weekday mornings (4:30-7:00 on KDKA and 7:00-8:00 a.m. on WPCW) Rick Dayton - weekday mornings (4:30-7:00 and 7:00-8:00 a.m. on WPCW) Kimberly Gill - weekdays at noon and 4:00 p.m.; also co-host of Your Pittsburgh Susan Koeppen - weeknights at 6:00 and 11:00 p.m.; also consumer reporter Paul Martino - Saturdays at 6:00, Sundays at 6:30 and weekends at 10:00 (WPCW) and 11:00 p.m.; also weekday reporter Trina Orlando - Saturday mornings (6:00-8:00 a.m.); fill-in anchor Ken Rice - weeknights at 5:00, 10:00 (WPCW) and 11:00 p.m. Stacy Smith - weekdays at noon and 4:00 and weeknights at 6:00 p.m.; host of KD/PG Sunday Edition Kristine Sorensen - weeknights at 5:00 p.m.; host of Pittsburgh Today Live (weekday mornings at 9:00 a.m.) Brenda Waters - Saturday mornings (6:00-8:00 a.m.); also reporter Weather teamJeff Verszyla - chief meteorologist; weekdays at 4:00 and weeknights at 5:00, 6:00, 10:00 (WPCW) and 11:00 p.m. Dennis Bowman (AMS and NWA Seals of Approval) - meteorologist; weekday mornings (4:30-7:00 on KDKA and 7:00-8:00 a.m. on WPCW) and weekdays at noon; also co-host of Pittsburgh Today Live (weekday mornings at 9:00 a.m.) Jon Burnett - meteorologist; Saturday mornings (6:00-8:00 a.m.) and Saturdays at 6:00, Sundays at 6:30 and weekends at 10:00 (WPCW) and 11:00 p.m.; also hosts Pittsburgh Today Live (weekday mornings at 9:00 a.m.) Kristin Emery (AMS and NWA Seals of Approval) - fill-in meteorologist Dave Trygar (AMS Seal of Approval) - freelance/fill-in meteorologist Sports teamBob Pompeani - sports director; weekdays at 6:00, 10:35 (The Nightly Sports Call on WPCW) and 11:00 p.m.; also host of KDKA Sunday Sports Showdown Jory Rand - sports anchor; Saturdays at 6:00, Sundays at 6:30 and weekends at 10:35 (The Nightly Sports Call on WPCW) and 11:00 p.m., also sports reporter Mike Zappone - fill-in sports anchor/sports reporter/producer (various times) Reporters Heather Abraham - general assignment reporter Bob Allen - general assignment reporter Sarah Arbogast - traffic/transportation reporter Dave Crawley - "KD Country" reporter Jon Delano - money and politics editor Kym Gable - freelance reporter (also a spokeswoman for Comcast) Marty Griffin - investigative reporter ("KDKA Investigators") Ross Guidotti - general assignment reporter Harold Hayes - general assignment reporter Lynne Hayes-Freeland - general assignment reporter David Highfield - general assignment reporter; also co-host of Your Pittsburgh Ralph Iannotti - general assignment reporter Mary Robb Jackson - general assignment reporter Paul Martino - general assignment reporter Trina Orlando - Westmoreland County bureau chief Andy Sheehan - investigative reporter ("KDKA Investigators") John Shumway - general assignment reporter; also heard on KDKA Radio Dr. Maria Simbra - medical reporter Notable former on-air staff[edit] Susan Barnett - anchor (1999–2003; last at KYW-TV in Philadelphia from 2006 to 2013)[21] Bill Burns - anchor (1953–1989; died in 1997)[22] Patti Burns - anchor/reporter (1974–1997; died in 2001)[23] Don Cannon - anchor/reporter (1999–2008) Bill Currie - sports reporter (1971-1985, died on February 11, 2008) Rehema Ellis - (She began broadcast career at KDKA) Donna Hanover - hosted Evening Magazine (1977–1980, was first her major market television experience; Hanover served as a news anchor in New York; married New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani, both have since divorced)[citation needed] Patrice King Brown - anchor and former Pittsburgh 2Day host (1978–2011; retired on January 28, 2011) Ron Klink - weekend anchor/reporter (1977–1991; was elected as a United States Representative (D-PA), but lost his bid for the U.S. Senate; now running a lobbying firm in Washington, D.C.) Bob Kudzma - weatherman (1968–2002) Jim Lokay - traffic and transportation reporter (2005–2011, now at WCVB-TV in Boston) Vic Miles - weekend anchor/reporter (1966–1971, later worked at WCBS-TV in New York City;[24] died on October 12, 2011) Dennis Miller - contributor and guest host of Evening Magazine (got his first on air experience with KDKA) Paul Moyer - anchor/reporter (1971; later worked at KNBC in Los Angeles) Ron Olsen - reporter/talk show host (1976–1979; later at KTLA in Los Angeles, where he was awarded a Peabody for coverage of the Rodney King beating story; reported internationally on the O.J. Simpson trial for KTLA and Sky TV)[25] Jay Scott - anchor (1976-1978; later anchor at KTTV in Los Angeles) Paul Steigerwald - sports reporter (1987–1998, later the play-by-play announcer for the Penguins on Fox Sports Pittsburgh) Dick Stockton - sports reporter (1967–1971; later play-by-play announcer for NFL on Fox) Brian Sussman - weatherman[when?] Marie Torre - anchor/reporter (1962–1977; died on January 3, 1997) Yvonne Zanos - long-time correspondent from the 1970s whose last position was as KDKA-TV's consumer reporter (died January 12, 2010 at age 60 from ovarian cancer) References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ http://tvlistings.zap2it.com/tvlistings/ZCGrid.do?method=decideFwdForLineup&zipcode=26253&setMyPreference=false&lineupId=WV47645:-&aid=zap2it 2.Jump up ^ "WDTV starts; DuMont outlet debuts in Pittsburgh." Broadcasting - Telecasting, January 17, 1949, pg. 32. [1] 3.Jump up ^ DuMont History website by Clarke Ingram 4.Jump up ^ "Eyewitness: 1949 / TV makes Pittsburgh 'A New Promise'". Post-gazette.com. 2010-05-16. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 5.Jump up ^ "WDTV channel switch." Broadcasting - Telecasting, December 8, 1952, pg. 72. [2] 6.Jump up ^ "We're Making Television History on WDTV," Sponsor, 24 March 1952, 7. 7.Jump up ^ "NRC Convention 08'- Pittsburgh PA". Nrcdxas.org. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 8.Jump up ^ Togyer, Jason. "Pittsburgh Radio & TV Online - Creating 'QED ... at DuMont's expense?". Pbrtv.com. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 9.Jump up ^ "Westinghouse pays record to buy DuMont's WDTV (TV)." Broadcasting - Telecasting, December 6, 1954, pp. 27-28. [3][4] 10.Jump up ^ "WDTV (TV) Pittsburgh changes call to KDKA-TV." Broadcasting - Telecasting, January 31, 1955, pg. 73. [5] 11.Jump up ^ "Philadelphia circle is complete." Broadcasting, Aug. 3, 1964, pg. 23. 12.Jump up ^ "Nine-year history of that trade in Philadelphia." Broadcasting, August 3, 1964, pg. 24-25. 13.Jump up ^ "CBS signs KDKA-TV as basic affiliate." Broadcasting, April 1, 1957, pg. 126. [6] 14.Jump up ^ "Souls who enriched our lives, our region" from Pittsburgh Tribune-Review (December 1, 2002) 15.Jump up ^ "TV Q&A with Rob Owen/KDKA's Image Campaign". post-gazette.com. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 16.Jump up ^ RabbitEars TV Query for KDKA 17.Jump up ^ "DTV Tentative Channel Designations for the First and Second Rounds" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-03-24. 18.Jump up ^ "TV Query Results - Video Division (FCC) USA". Fcc.gov. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 19.Jump up ^ Sciullo, Maria (March 18, 2013). "Ratings race tight for KDKA, WTAE, WPXI news". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 20.Jump up ^ KDKA-TV 2 21.Jump up ^ "Susan Barnett Bio". KYW-TV. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 22.Jump up ^ http://www.apnewsarchive.com/1997/Walter-Spiro-PHILADELPHIA-AP-Walter-Spiro-a-refugee-from/id-5b5a10611e4d7d523b3e278e099af1f5 23.Jump up ^ http://old.post-gazette.com/obituaries/20011101burns1101p2.asp 24.Jump up ^ "Negro Gets TV News Series Show In Pittsburgh." Jet, July 7, 1966. Retrieved 2010-06-01. 25.Jump up ^ "The Peabody Awards | An International Competition for Electronic Media, honoring achievement in Television, Radio, Cable and the Web | Administered by University of Georgia's Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication". Peabody.uga.edu. Retrieved 2011-03-29. External links[edit] Portal icon Pittsburgh portal Portal icon Television portal CBSPittsburgh.com - Official website The early years of Pittsburgh's KDKA-TV Query the FCC's TV station database for KDKA-TV BIAfn's Media Web Database -- Information on KDKA-TV Program Information for KDKA at TitanTV.com Pittsburgh Television history page [show] v· t· e Broadcast television in Southwestern Pennsylvania, Northeastern West Virginia and Far Western Maryland, including Pittsburgh and Morgantown · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · :· · :· :· · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · :· · · [show] v· t· e CBS network affiliates in the state of Pennsylvania · · · · · :· · · · · · · · [show] v· t· e CBS Television Stations (a subsidiary of CBS Corporation) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · (· · ) · (· ) · () [show] v· t· e Owned-and-operated stations of the major television networks of the United States · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 0. 0. [show] v· t· e Major League Baseball on CBS · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Categories: CBS network affiliates Television stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania CBS Corporation television stations Channel 25 digital TV stations in the United States Channel 2 virtual TV stations in the United States Television channels and stations established in 1949 Westinghouse Broadcasting DuMont Television Network owned-and-operated stations Major League Baseball over-the-air television broadcasters Pittsburgh Pirates broadcasters Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages Bahasa Indonesia Edit links This page was last modified on 10 April 2014 at 16:30. 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KDKA (AM) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search KDKA Kdkaradio.png City of license Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Broadcast area Western Pennsylvania Branding Newsradio 1020 KDKA Slogan "The Voice of Pittsburgh" Frequency 1020 kHz(also on HD Radio) (also on HD Radio via KDKA-FM-93.7 HD 2) First air date November 2, 1920 Format News/Talk Language(s) English Power 50 kilowatts Class A Facility ID 25443 Transmitter coordinates 40°33′33.00″N 79°57′11.00″W Callsign meaning No meaning; sequentially assigned[1] Affiliations CBS Radio News Dial Global Networks Owner CBS Radio Sister stations KDKA-FM, KDKA-TV, WBZZ, WDSY-FM, WPCW Webcast Listen Live Website pittsburgh.cbslocal.com KDKA (1020 kHz) is a radio station licensed in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Created by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation on November 2, 1920, it is the world's first commercial radio station, a distinction that has also been challenged by other stations, although it has claimed to be the "world's first commercially licensed radio station". KDKA is currently owned and operated by CBS Radio, with studios located at the combined CBS Radio Pittsburgh facility on Foster Drive in Green Tree and transmitter in Allison Park. Contents [hide] 1 Overview 2 History 2.1 The beginning 2.2 The 1920s 2.3 1930s and '40s 2.4 1950s 2.5 1960s 2.6 1970s 2.7 1980s 2.8 1990s 2.9 2000 and beyond 2.9.1 Nearly sold off 2.10 "90 Years of Serving You" 3 World's First Station claims 4 Programming 5 References 6 External links Overview[edit] KDKA operates on a clear channel and broadcasts a news/talk radio format. News and spoken word programming has been a central feature of its programming from its beginning. The station's 50 kilowatt signal can be heard throughout central and western Pennsylvania, along with portions of Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland, New York, Virginia and Kentucky, and the Canadian province of Ontario during the day. At night, it reaches much of the eastern half of North America. KDKA enjoys grandfathered status as one of six remaining stations east of the Mississippi River that have call letters beginning with K. Three of them are in Pittsburgh, the other two being KDKA-FM (KDKA's sister station) and KQV, as well as KDKA's longtime sister station KYW in Philadelphia (though the KYW callsign has in the past been used in Chicago & Cleveland) KTGG Okemos, Michigan, and KFIZ in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin. History[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2012) The beginning[edit] "This is KDKA, of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We shall now broadcast the election returns." —Leo Rosenburg, on the very first radio broadcast by KDKA, November 2, 1920 KDKA's roots began with the efforts of Westinghouse employee Frank Conrad who operated KDKA's predecessor 75 watt 8XK from the Pittsburgh suburb of Wilkinsburg from 1916. Conrad, who had supervised the manufacturing of military receivers during WWI, broadcast phonograph music and communicated with other amateur radio operators via 8YK. On September 29, 1920, the Joseph Horne department store in Pittsburgh began advertising amateur wireless sets for $10, which could be used to listen to Conrad’s broadcasts.[2] Westinghouse vice president and Conrad’s supervisor, Harry P. Davis, saw the advertisement and recognized the economic potential of radio.[3] Instead of it being limited as a hobby to scientific experimenters, radio could be marketed to a mainstream audience. Consequently, Davis asked Conrad to build a 100-watt transmitter, which would air programming intended to create widespread demand for Westinghouse receivers.[2] The KDKA callsign was assigned sequentially from a list maintained for the use of US-registry maritime stations, and on November 2, 1920, KDKA broadcast the US presidential election returns from a shack on the roof of the K Building of the Westinghouse Electric Company "East Pittsburgh Works" in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania.[4] There is some indication that the new license had not been received by that date, and the station may have gone on the air with the experimental call sign of 8ZZ that night. The original broadcast was said to be heard as far away as Canada. KDKA continued to broadcast from the Westinghouse building for many months. The 1920s[edit] Soon after its successful election coverage, KDKA upgraded to a 100-watt transmitter. Early programming often featured live musical performances from a Westinghouse band. KDKA provided its first remote broadcast by airing a choir, live, from the Pittsburg Calvary Baptist Church in January 1921.[2] On January 15, 1921, at 8 p.m., KDKA broadcast a speech on European relief by Herbert Hoover from the Duquesne Club in Pittsburgh that was transmitted ten miles down a telephone line to Westinghouse's East Pittsburgh Works and broadcast on 330 meters.[5] On July 2, 1921, the station featured the first national broadcast with live commentary of the Jack Dempsey - Georges Carpentier fight via teletype from New Jersey.[6] Also in 1921 the station had the first broadcasts of major league professional baseball games and the first broadcast college football game. KDKA hosted political comedian Will Rogers in his very first radio appearance in 1922. KDKA played popular music and advertisers began sponsoring special radio programs like The Philco Hour, The Maxwell House Hour and The Wrigley Party. In 1923, KDKA began simulcasting its AM medium-wave broadcasts on shortwave. Along with RCA and General Electric, Westinghouse was a co-founder of NBC in 1926, and thus KDKA was affiliated with the new network. When NBC decided to split its network up into two networks (NBC Red Network and NBC Blue Network), KDKA affiliated with the NBC Blue Network, with WCAE (now WDDZ) and later KQV initially affiliated with the NBC Red Network. Westinghouse would later be forced to divest its 20% ownership stake in NBC in 1932 due to antitrust concerns.[7] 1930s and '40s[edit] In the 1930s, KDKA began the long-running (1932–1980) Uncle Ed Shaughency show. It carried up-to-the-minute coverage of the 1936 St. Patrick's Day flood that submerged downtown Pittsburgh as far as Wood Street. KDKA also played popular big band and jazz music every morning as well as hosting the KDKA Farm Hour. From 1941 to 1959, the Farm Hour was built around farm reports along with music by Slim Bryant and his Wildcats, who eventually became the top local country music act in the Pittsburgh area. Just before the FCC-mandated separation of the Blue Network from NBC, KDKA swapped affiliations with KQV and affiliated with NBC Red.[8] At the same time, it gained a sister station on the then-new FM band in KDKA-FM 92.9. That station would become WPNT in 1979, sold off by Westinghouse in 1984, and is now WLTJ. In 1946, KDKA provided live coverage of the inauguration of David L. Lawrence as Pittsburgh Mayor as well as presidential and governors' inaugurations. By the end of the decade, the musical and comedy team of Buzz Aston and Bill Hinds, billed as "Buzz & Bill", aired. 1950s[edit] In the 1950s, Ed Shaughency was moved from mornings to an afternoon slot, losing his partner, Rainbow (Elmer Walters) in the process. KDKA, impressed with the success Rege Cordic had on WWSW, hired Cordic away. He started his KDKA run on Labor Day, 1954. The Cordic & Company morning show, featuring a team of bright and innovative personalities, gave birth to today's "morning team" radio format, but in an unconventional way. Cordic and his group played a bit of music, but mainly created on-air mayhem in the form of skits, recurring characters such as "Louie The Garbageman" and space alien "Omicron." When Ed Shaughencyy did the news and read a commercial for a local brand of bacon, a sound effect of frying usually ran with it. One day, Cordic substituted a sound effect recording of explosions, and Shaughency barely kept his composure. Cordic's crew included Karl Hardman and Bob Trow, later known for portraying "Bob Dog" on Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. The 1950s saw a shift to local programming at KDKA as national radio shows were moving to television. Art Pallan, also hired away from WWSW, and Bob Tracey became household names on the KDKA airwaves, playing the popular music of the day. For some years, announcer Sterling Yates, also a musician, played hip, progressive jazz on a Sunday morning broadcast. On January 1, 1951, a couple named Ed and Wendy King launched Party Line, the station's first radio talk show. Phone lines were flooded with calls to "Party Line" for its 20-year run, which ended with Ed King's death on November 18, 1971. Unlike most talk shows, callers were not heard but the couple took turns relating what they heard on the line. In 1956, newsman Bill Steinbach, began his 36-year career at KDKA. Within 10 years, Steinbach was anchor of the award-winning 90-to-6, Pittsburgh's popular news program. KDKA gradually embraced rock and roll music with artists such as Bill Haley, the Everly Brothers, Fats Domino, and Elvis Presley, in addition to popular vocalists including Frank Sinatra, Peggy Lee, and Canonsburg, Pennsylvania native Perry Como. However, the station's sound remained much more conservative than most Top 40 stations. KDKA gained a television sister station in the form of KDKA-TV in late 1954, when Westinghouse purchased the then-WDTV from the DuMont Television Network for a then-record $9.75 million.[9] Before the purchase, Westinghouse attempted to purchase the channel 13 license that had been allocated for public broadcasting, but eventually donated the tower to the public interest groups and gave financial backing for the eventual WQED.[10] In a somewhat surprising move (in what would preceded several decades later), KDKA-TV affiliated with CBS instead of NBC like KDKA. KDKA would remain affiliated with NBC Radio until the network purchased WJAS in 1957 in order for WJAS's owners to have a 50% ownership stake in WIIC-TV (now WPXI) with the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.[11] KDKA would then go independent, relying more on its Group W ties than a national network. 1960s[edit] By 1960, KDKA leaned more toward rock and roll as competitor KQV made ratings gains. "Your Pal" Pallan played the hit songs and KDKA carried the sounds of screaming crowds as the Beatles arrived in Pittsburgh in 1964. The major exponent of rock on KDKA radio was disc jockey Clark Race, who also hosted "Dance Party" on KDKA-TV, a local version of Dick Clark's American Bandstand. Other artists featured on the station included The Four Seasons, The Vogues, Lou Christie (the latter two Pittsburgh-bred), The Beach Boys, The Hollies, The Supremes, Four Tops, and The Turtles. After 11 years of waking Pittsburghers with laughter, Rege Cordic moved on to new opportunities at KNX in Los Angeles. Pallan and Bob Trow did a two-man show that kept some of the Cordic & Company flavor. "Pallan and Trow, Two For the Show", lasted two and a half years. In April 1968, Jack Bogut moved from Salt Lake City to become the KDKA morning host, a position he held for 15 years. One of Bogut's most memorable contributions to KDKA was his introduction to Western Pennsylvania of the word Farkleberry, which is now a staple of the annual Children's Hospital fund-raising campaign. Other notable personalities included Big Jack Armstrong, Bob Shannon and Terry McGovern, the latter two would go on to enjoy lucrative careers in the Film/TV industry as actors. Also in the 1960s, KDKA was there to cover the highs and lows, from the Pirates' improbable 1960 World Series win, to the assassinations of President John F. Kennedy, Dr. Martin Luther King, and Sen. Robert Kennedy. In local news reporting, the station pioneered with "on the scene" reports of Mike Levine, the peripatetic former newspaper man whose mobile-unit broadcasts from Tri-State-area fires, floods, bank robberies, and coal mine disasters won numerous journalism awards. His nightly "Contact" show (later "Open Mike") was KDKA's initial venture into the news-based talk radio that would become the station's basic format. In the summer of 1969, KDKA debuted overnight talk with Jack Wheeler launching an anything-goes talk show that ran from midnight to 6 a.m. six nights a week. 1970s[edit] By the early 1970s, KDKA moved to more of an adult contemporary sound mixing the rock and roll hits of the 1960s with what is now considered soft rock. Artists such as America, The Carpenters, Doobie Brothers, Paul Simon, Dawn, and Neil Diamond became core artists. The morning show featured less music because of the news and commercial content. In 1973, KDKA found its new direction for the old "Party Line" slot. It was a completely different approach with the bombastic John Cigna moving over from WJAS to anchor the night talk and urge listeners to "buy American!" In 1974 Perry Marshall replaced Wheeler in the overnight slot, which became known as the "Marshall's Office." In 1975, Roy Fox signed on as the 6 to 9 pm talk host. By now, KDKA was considered a full service adult contemporary radio station. In 1979, a newsman Fred Honsberger joined the KDKA team and went on to host a successful evening talk show and a top-rated afternoon drive program. Also in 1979, KDKA covered the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, which was first reported by Harrisburg newsman Mike Pintek. By 1982, Pintek joined the KDKA News staff and later became one of KDKA's most popular talk hosts. He was fired at the end of 2005 in a programming overhaul. In 2007, Pintek became the host of Night Talk on the Pittsburgh Cable News Channel. As of January 2009, Pintek was rehired at KDKA to host a talkshow in the 6pm to 10 pm slot. Pintek then took over the Fred Honsberger shows 12 PM-3 PM slot as of January 2010 following the death of Honsberger in December 2009. 1980s[edit] On July 23, 1982, KDKA claims to have become the world's first radio station to broadcast in AM stereo[12] although experimental AM stereo broadcasts were conducted as early as the 1960s on Mexico's XETRA 690.[13] KDKA's commitment to news and information remained as strong as ever. KDKA kept listeners up-to-the minute on stories such as the 1986 Space Shuttle disaster, the Iran Contra hearings, the deaths of R. Budd Dwyer and Mayor Richard Caliguiri and a large oil spill on the Monongahela river. Through it all, KDKA Radio was the winner of four Joe Snyder awards for outstanding overall news service in Pennsylvania, an honor bestowed by the Associated Press. Throughout the 1980s, KDKA continued an information and news intensive adult contemporary music format, playing four to six songs per hour at drive times and 10 to 12 songs an hour during middays and weekends. At night, the station continued its talk format. 1990s[edit] One of KDKA's biggest changes was in the 1990s. KDKA made the decision to build upon its strengths and switch from a full-service format, which included music, to a news/talk format. The historic moment came on April 10, 1992, when Larry Richert played the last song aired as a regular part of KDKA Radio programming: Don McLean's "American Pie". For many listeners, it was "the day the music died." Rush Limbaugh was added to the noon to 3:00 p.m. slot. All-news blocks were added in the 6:00 to 9:00 a.m. and the 4:00 to 6:00 p.m. slots. KDKA also offered extensive coverage of the 1991 Gulf War and the crash of USAir Flight 427 in September 1994. In 1997, Bob DeWitt was hired as news director, serving for two years. His award-winning team included Bob Kopler, Dave James, Bob Kmetz, Barbara Boylan, Mike Whitely and Beth Trapani. Westinghouse merged with CBS at the start of 1996, so KDKA would soon become an Infinity Broadcasting station, after that chain (a previously separate entity from CBS and Westinghouse) was acquired by Westinghouse. Westinghouse would later turn itself into CBS Corporation in 1997. Viacom bought CBS Corporation in 1999, but five years later transformed itself into CBS Corporation, thus making KDKA now a part of CBS Radio. 2000 and beyond[edit] In September 2001, KDKA offered listeners "wall-to-wall" coverage of the attacks on America and provided the KDKA airwaves to listeners who felt the need to talk about the events. On October 1, 2006, after 52 seasons, KDKA aired its final Pirates game. The Pirates beat the Reds 1-0. On April 26, 2007, the East Pittsburgh building that was the birthplace for KDKA was razed to make way for an industrial complex. Nearly sold off[edit] KDKA Radio's former studios in One Gateway Center in Pittsburgh. The station was housed in this building from 1956 [14] until 2010. It still contains the studios of KDKA-TV today. After the Hearst Corporation sold off the former WTAE radio in 1997 (in effect, splitting the station from WTAE-TV, though the two stations still shared many news-related resources until the radio station became Radio Disney station WDDZ in 2011), KDKA and KDKA-TV became the last remaining heritage TV-radio cluster in the Pittsburgh market, and, until 2010, tied themselves together with both studios located one floor apart from each other in Pittsburgh's Gateway Center. However, on July 31, 2008, CBS Corporation announced that it was going to sell off stations in 12 mid-sized markets so that it could concentrate on larger markets.[15] With Pittsburgh being ranked 24 in Arbitron's national radio rankings (it is, however, ranked 22nd in Nielsen ratings for television), this has led to speculation that CBS may sell off KDKA as well as its three other sister stations (WBZW-FM WZPT-FM, and WDSY-FM); however due to the history of KDKA it is that station that has garnered the most concern. Although CBS has not announced which stations are for sale, CBS has announced on the day of first-round bids (September 22, 2008) that KDKA will not be on the auction block.[16] This was reassured on February 15, 2010, when WBZW-FM switched from a CHR format to a sports radio format and changing its call sign to KDKA-FM, with the sports director from KDKA also running KDKA-FM. "90 Years of Serving You"[edit] On Tuesday, November 2, 2010, KDKA celebrated its 90th anniversary on the air with its special election coverage, exactly the same way that they had every Tuesday, November 2, since its beginning in 1920. The 90th anniversary celebration was primarily sponsored by Westinghouse Electric Company, a nuclear power company which had its roots going back to the original Westinghouse. World's First Station claims[edit] By 1921, the Westinghouse publicity department was asserting that KDKA was the world's first radio station however there are claims by other stations disputing this. However since the call sign "KDKA" was first used in November 1920 all other stations contesting this title have undergone several call sign changes (mostly due to their switch from "experimental" to "commercial") or even have been transferred out of state. No matter which was the first licensed station, KDKA, since its beginning, continues to use its famous tagline: the "Pioneer Broadcasting Station of the World".[17][18] Programming[edit] KDKA is the area's predominant news talk radio station. KDKA's program lineup includes Larry Richert, John Shumway, Marty Griffin, Mike Pintek, Bill Rehkopf, Robert Mangino. The KDKA Morning and Afternoon news shows blend news, information and commentary during the drive time. Griffin, Pintek and Mangino host weekday talk shows. KDKA also has a local Tradio program on weekends (Saturday 4p-6p), one of the largest stations in the country to offer such a service, which is traditionally a staple of small-town radio. Monday - Friday 5:00-9:00 am KDKA Morning News with Larry Richert and John Shumway. News: Paul Rasmussen. Sports: Rob Pratte. 9:00-12:00 pm The Inside Story with Marty Griffin 12:00-3:00 pm The Mike Pintek Show 3:00-7:00 pm KDKA Afternoon News with Bill Rehkopf. News: Rose Ryan-Douglas. 7:00-11:00 pm The Robert Mangino Show 11:00-1:00 am The Jim Bohannon Show 1:00-5:00 am Overnight America with Jon Grayson During the weekend, Dr Knowledge (Overnights Saturday and Sunday with last broadcast December 29, 2013)- also hosts Knowledge in a Minute (to continue 2014 and beyond,[19]) syndicated throughout the country daily Chris Moore (Sundays 4:00 pm – 9:00 pm) References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ United States Callsign Policies, United States Early Radio History. 2.^ Jump up to: a b c Barnouw, Eric (1990). Tube of plenty : the evolution of American television. New York: Oxford University Press. 3.Jump up ^ Finding Aid for the Harry Phillips Davis Collection, 1915-1944, AIS.1964.21, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh 4.Jump up ^ "Milestones:Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA, 1920". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 5.Jump up ^ Indiana Evening Gazette, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Jan. 14, 1921, pg. 1 6.Jump up ^ Fisher, Marc. Something in the Air. Random House. xiv. ISBN 978-0-375-50907-0. 7.Jump up ^ http://adage.com/article/media/comcast-nbcu-merger-ge-birthed-nbc-1926/140893/ 8.Jump up ^ "KQV, Pittsburgh, and WCBM, Baltimore, Will Transfer to Blue Network in Fall". Broadcasting. March 17, 1941. p. 9. Retrieved December 25, 2010. 9.Jump up ^ "Westinghouse pays record to buy DuMont's WDTV (TV)." Broadcasting - Telecasting, December 6, 1954, pp. 27-28. [1][2] 10.Jump up ^ Togyer, Jason. "Pittsburgh Radio & TV Online - Creating 'QED ... at DuMont's expense?". Pbrtv.com. Retrieved 2011-03-29. 11.Jump up ^ "NBC buys WJAS Pittsburgh." Broadcasting - Telecasting, August 12, 1957, pg. 9. [3] 12.Jump up ^ KDKAradio.com, KDKA Firsts 13.Jump up ^ "Dx listening digest 5-201". World of Radio.com. 2005-11-22. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 14.Jump up ^ "NRC/DXAS Pittsburgh 2008 August 29-31". Retrieved 2011-07-21. 15.Jump up ^ Speculation mounts on KDKA radio sale - PostGazette.com 16.Jump up ^ "First bids on CBS Radio selloffs due today". Radio-Info.com. September 22, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2011. 17.Jump up ^ "Kdka".[dead link] 18.Jump up ^ "KDKA History". KDKA. Retrieved 2011-07-21. 19.Jump up ^ http://www.post-gazette.com/ae/tv-radio/2013/12/20/KDKA-AM-trims-staff-newscasts/stories/2013122001050000000> Melhuish, Martin. (1996). Oh What a Feeling: A Vital History of Canadian Music. Kingston, ON, Quarry Press. Portal icon Pittsburgh portal Portal icon Radio portal External links[edit] Official website FCC History Cards for KDKA KDKA (AM) on Twitter Listen live Query the FCC's AM station database for KDKA Radio-Locator Information on KDKA Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KDKA Google Inc. "Satellite View of KDKA (AM)'s Transmit Facility and Tower". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. Retrieved 2011-07-21. Finding Aid for the Harry Phillips Davis Collection, 1915-1944, AIS.1964.21, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh "Remarks at Eureka College in Eureka, Illinois". Retrieved 2011-07-21. Signal reaches Palm Beach County [show] v· t· e Radio stations in the Pittsburgh market · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · · · · · · (· · ) : [show] v· t· e News/Talk Radio Stations in the state of Pennsylvania · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · · · · · · · · [show] v· t· e Pittsburgh · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Symbol book class2.svg· Portal-puzzle.svg· Folder Hexagonal Icon.svg [show] v· t· e CBS Radio · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · : [show] v· t· e CBS Corporation · · · · · · · · · · (· ) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · (· · ) · (· ) · () · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · [show] v· t· e Clear-channel stations · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · : [show] v· t· e Major League Baseball on Westinghouse · · · · · · · · · · · [show] v· t· e All-News Radio Stations in the United States · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Categories: HD Radio stations CBS Radio stations Radio stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Westinghouse Broadcasting All news radio stations in the United States Radio stations established in 1920 History of radio Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages Deutsch Español Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Edit links This page was last modified on 3 April 2014 at 11:20. 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KDKA-FM From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For the previous station that held the KDKA-FM callsign, see WLTJ. KDKA-FM KDKA-FM logo City of license Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Broadcast area Pittsburgh metropolitan area Branding SportsRadio 93.7 The Fan Slogan All Sports. All The Time. Frequency 93.7 MHz First air date 1953 Format 93.7 HD-1: Sports talk 93.7 HD-2: KDKA simulcast 93.7 HD-3: CBS Sports Radio ERP 41,000 watts HAAT 167 meters Class B Facility ID 20350 Callsign meaning taken from sister station KDKA Former callsigns WKJF-FM (1950s-?) WKOI (?-?) WJOI (?-1981) WBZZ (12/10/1981-07/07/2004) WRKZ (07/07/2004-04/02/2007) WTZN-FM (04/02/2007-11/27/2007) WBZW-FM (11/27/2007-02/15/2010) Affiliations CBS Sports Radio Owner CBS Radio (CBS Radio Stations Inc.) Sister stations KDKA, KDKA-TV, WBZZ, WDSY-FM, WPCW Webcast Listen Live Website www.937thefan.com KDKA-FM (93.7 FM), branded as "SportsRadio 93.7 The Fan", is a radio station in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Owned by CBS Radio, the station operates at 93.7 MHz with an ERP of 41 kW. Its transmitter is located in Pittsburgh. The station currently programs a sports radio format. It is currently simulcasting its AM namesake, KDKA on its HD2 subchannel, while HD3 is currently the national broadcast feed of CBS Sports Radio. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 The first "B94" years 1.2 The "K-Rock" years and "The Zone" experiment 1.3 The return of B94 1.4 Sportsradio 93.7 The Fan 2 References 3 External links History[edit] The 93.7 frequency in Pittsburgh began its life as WKJF-FM in the 1950s, an independently-owned FM station. For a brief time, there was a co-owned UHF TV station, WKJF-TV (channel 53; now occupied by WPGH-TV), which operated in 1953-54. During its early incarnations as WKJF, WKOI, and WJOI, the station programmed a beautiful music format. The first "B94" years[edit] Debuting on Monday April 6, 1981, WBZZ (B94) was the city’s number one Top 40 music station, tailoring their programming to not only a younger audience, but also a Pittsburgh audience. The first song played after the format switch was " You May Be Right" by Billy Joel. B94 featured local morning shows such as “Quinn and Banana" (featuring Jim Quinn and "Banana" Don Jefferson) from its debut in 1983 until 1993, and “John, Dave, Bubba, Shelly” (with some minor personality changes) from 1993 through 2004. In 2000, Clear Channel Communications unveiled a new CHR format, KISS-FM, on WKST-FM. The new station began to take a large chunk out of B94's audience. With more syndicated programming featuring famous national on air talent and focusing more on the younger audience, B94, for the first time, saw itself slipping into second place. Also not helping matters was sister station WZPT switching to a Hot AC format at the same time, which, while it played a mix of 1980s and 1990s music with current hits, otherwise had a similar format to B94. In February 2003, WBZZ tweaked its name by calling itself “93-7 BZZ”. This was done because the station didn't want any confusion of exactly where they were on the radio dial, especially considering that the only station in Pittsburgh actually on the 94 range (WWSW-FM) had an oldies format. It was also done to re-image their station to compete with WKST, as well as most radio stations sounding out their exact frequency rather than rounding it due to the spread of digital tuners. Later, in mid-2004, the station would tweak its name again, calling itself "B93-7". The "K-Rock" years and "The Zone" experiment[edit] In 2004, Clear Channel yanked Howard Stern from all of their owned stations that aired his show, including the local WXDX-FM. In response, WBZZ operations manager Keith Clark decided to flip the station’s format after 23 years, and not only pick up Howard Stern (which they saw as a golden opportunity to improve their ratings), but unveil a new active rock format known as "93-7 K-Rock" to compete with Clear Channel’s other rock stations. On June 30, 2004, at 8 AM, without much warning, WBZZ’s on-air talent gathered to say goodbye to Pittsburgh, thanking them for their support throughout the years. WBZZ ended the Top 40 format at 8:30 AM with "Move This" by Technotronic, while K-Rock's first song was "For Those About To Rock" by AC/DC. Listeners that had liked WBZZ but didn't like the new rock format were encouraged on-air to listen to sister station WZPT. The WBZZ call letters would be replaced by WRKZ on July 7, 2004. Ratings for the station improved initially after the switch, but began to decline before Howard Stern's departure for Sirius Satellite Radio. To replace Stern, the station carried David Lee Roth's radio show as his replacement. However, due to low ratings, Roth was replaced by Opie and Anthony less than three months after his debut. The afternoon drive show of Kidd Chris, from co-owned WYSP in Philadelphia, aired on 93.7 from August 28, 2006 until March 19, 2007. On April 2, 2007, K-Rock became "93.7 The Zone," and changed call signs to WTZN-FM in the process. This left Pittsburgh without an active rock station until WKVE flipped to it in 2009. The new station, although not carrying the "Free FM" name in its branding, was considered to be part of CBS's hot talk network by that name, the only station to affiliate with the network after the initial launch. Joining the lineup were Opie and Anthony, Pittsburgh native Dennis Miller, and former WDVE personality Scott Paulsen.[1] The station also carried programming from Sporting News Radio. Miller and Paulsen were displaced to KDKA when the format was abandoned. The return of B94[edit] Logo for the revival of B94, used from October 2007 to February 2010 On Monday, October 1, 2007, at 10 AM, after Opie and Anthony, WTZN began stunting with Christmas music, in anticipation of a format flip scheduled for later that week.[2] The station made some fairly obvious hints as to the future of the station, advertising "Something's missing in 'Pitts-urgh'," and asking, "What is missing in Pitts-urgh?", prompting visitors to go to a message board at http://www.pitts-urgh.com/ where there is a message board asking "What do you miss the most about Pittsburgh?," among the choices being "B94 Radio." B94 returned to Pittsburgh the following Friday, October 5, at 5 pm, with its first song being Justin Timberlake's "SexyBack." This marked CBS Radio's first top 40 station launch of the late 2000s; it would later launch the format in Houston (KKHH), San Francisco (KMVQ-FM), New York City (WXRK), Los Angeles (KAMP-FM), and Detroit (WVMV). The return of B94 was apparently part of a CBS Radio initiative of resurrecting radio stations that had been killed off for other formats, such as WCBS-FM in New York and KFRC-FM in San Francisco. However, unlike those stations, which carry classic hits formats, B94 played current hits. On November 27, 2007, WTZN switched its call sign to WBZW-FM to reflect its new format. B94's former call letters, WBZZ, were in use by an Adult Contemporary radio station in Malta, New York. That station is now known as WQSH, and CBS has indicated an intention to reacquire the call signs for use on one of its properties (which would later be at WZPT). In the wake of WAMO-FM's departure from the Urban Contemporary format in September 2009 after it was sold to a Catholic-based organization, WBZW have managed to take advantage of the situation by adding current R&B/Hip-Hop tracks to pick up the displaced WAMO listeners, even at the expense of the more Rhythmic-heavy WKST, but at the same time stay within the Mainstream Top 40/CHR realm due to WKST's Rhythmic direction. Sportsradio 93.7 The Fan[edit] On January 19, 2010, it was announced that CBS Radio would drop B94 for sports talk, launching February 15, 2010 under the name "Sportsradio 93.7 The Fan".[3] Again, the change was part of an initiative by CBS to establish FM sports talk stations; often displacing heritage music stations in the process (WBZ-FM in Boston was another example of this). The station will focus on local sports programming while going head-to-head with WEAE and WBGG, which are owned by ESPN Radio and affiliated with Fox Sports Radio, respectively. Much like the previous abandonment of B94, the station's format was merged into WZPT ("Star 100.7"). Bubba and Melanie from the former B94 morning show have both moved to Star 100.7, with Bubba joining JR and Shelly on the morning show and Melanie Taylor taking the midday shift. Former WZPT midday jock Scott Alexander slides to afternoons, prompting the exit of former Star afternoon personality Jonny Hartwell. Kobe, B94's afternoon jock and Music Director, and Flick, B94's night jock, were both released. Flick eventually wound up at WKST. Midday guy Sean "Coop" Cooper was transferred to nights at WYCD in Detroit.[4] The station also adopted the call sign KDKA-FM on February 15, 2010, to reflect the recent trend for CBS Radio all-sports stations in markets with a heritage CBS-owned station to have matching call signs, in this case KDKA-TV and the historic KDKA Radio. As with both the new format and when it was WTZN-FM, the only other FM talk station in Pittsburgh is WPGB. Portal icon Pittsburgh portal Portal icon Radio portal References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ [1], 2.Jump up ^ Radio station 93.7 dumps talk format after six months 3.Jump up ^ http://www.wpxi.com/news/22273461/detail.html 4.Jump up ^ http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/10020/1029443-67.stm External links[edit] Official website Query the FCC's FM station database for KDKA Radio-Locator information on KDKA Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for KDKA Pittsburgh Tribune-Review article Paulsen's Departure from WDVE Article on B94's return from Edison Media Research (October 10, 2007) [show] v· t· e Radio stations in the Pittsburgh market · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · · · · · · (· · ) : [show] v· t· e Sports Radio Stations in the state of Pennsylvania · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · [show] v· t· e Fox Sports Radio stations in the United States · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · : :· · · · · :· · · · · · · · · :· · [show] v· t· e CBS Corporation · · · · · · · · · · (· ) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · (· · ) · (· ) · () · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · [show] v· t· e CBS Radio · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · : [show] v· t· e Pittsburgh Pirates · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · :· · · · · :· · · · · · · :· · · · · · · · · · · :· :· :· · · :· · · · · · · :· :· · · · · · · · :· · · · · · · · · :· : (· · ) · (· · ) · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Coordinates: 40.4412°N 80.0253°W Categories: CBS Radio stations Radio stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Sports radio stations in the United States Radio stations established in 1953 CBS Sports Radio stations Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export This page was last modified on 3 April 2014 at 04:19. 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WLTJ From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Question book-new.svg This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2013) This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (May 2009) WLTJ City of license Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Broadcast area Pittsburgh metropolitan area Branding Q 92.9 Slogan 90's, 2k & Today! Frequency 92.9 MHz (also on HD Radio) 92.9 HD-2 "Q in the City" (Soul and R&B) 92.9 HD-3 "Rockin' Q" (Classic rock) 92.9 HD-4 "Dancin' Q (Dance hits) First air date W75P (1940) April 4, 1942 (as KDKA-FM) Format Hot Adult Contemporary ERP 43,000 watts HAAT 260 meters Class B Facility ID 73889 Callsign meaning LiTe (former branding) Former callsigns W75P (1940-1942) KDKA-FM (1942-1979) WPNT (1979-1986) WLTJ (1986-Present) Owner Steel City Media Sister stations WRRK-FM Webcast [1] Website q929fm.com WLTJ (92.9 FM), is a Hot Adult Contemporary music format radio station based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The station, which is owned by Steel City Media, broadcasts with an ERP of 43 kW. Its transmitter is co-located with the transmission facilities of WPGH-TV and WPMY in the Summer Hill area of Pittsburgh. Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Experimental stereo 1.2 The Point 1.3 Enter WLTJ 1.4 The New "Q92.9" 2 References 3 External links History[edit] WLTJ was originally known as W75P, and at times was simulcast with its then AM sister station, KDKA. Experimental stereo[edit] In the late 1950s, several systems to add stereo to FM radio were considered by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). Included were systems from 14 competitors, such as Crosley, Halstead, EMI, Zenith Electronics Corporation and General Electric. The individual systems were evaluated for their strengths and weaknesses during field tests in Uniontown, Pennsylvania using KDKA-FM in Pittsburgh as the originating station. While credit is given for WEFM Chicago and WGFM Schenectady, New York on June 1, 1961 as the first stereo FM broadcasters, KDKA-FM was the first to broadcast in stereo, albeit on an experimental basis. During the 1970s, KDKA-FM was an automated station that played beautiful music during the day, and classical music at night. During morning and afternoon drive periods, the station joined its AM sister for rebroadcasting its intensive news blocks. The Point[edit] In October 1979, the station changed its call letters from KDKA-FM to WPNT (The Point), completely separating its programming from that of its AM sister. While still under the same ownership umbrella, Westinghouse also dropped the classical music for an all-beautiful music format with live announcers. It had a good debut, taking ratings away from the beautiful music station next to it on the dial, WJOI (93.7 FM, which, ironically, would later take the KDKA-FM callsign). In 1984, WPNT was purchased by Long Island-based entrepreneur Saul Frischling in April 1984 for $3 million. Though Frischling himself is listed as the licensee, the station did business at that time as Legend Communications and then changed its name to Steel City Media in the late 1990s. Almost immediately after Saul Frischling purchased WPNT, it switched its format from easy listening to a totally live format of light adult contemporary, yet the station retained the WPNT calls and continued to bill itself as "The Point". The station then moved its studios from the KDKA home at One Gateway Center to 1051 Brinton Road, in suburban Pittsburgh community of Forest Hills. WPNT's original lineup of on-air personalities at the time of start-up under the new format was Program Director Nat Humphries hosting mornings, John Gallagher for middays, Jon Summers for afternoons, Peter Morley for evenings, Jean Lam hosting overnights, and news anchors Jeff Long and Rick Charles. A year after the ownership change, KQV legend George Hart replaced Humphries as Program Director and morning show host. Enter WLTJ[edit] Two years later, in an effort to better reflect its image as that of a light adult contemporary station, the station took on the call letters WLTJ and the moniker "Lite FM 92.9". Not long after the change, the station moved to a new, state-of-the-art broadcast facility at Seven Parkway Center in Green Tree borough. Music was a mixture of current and recurrent adult contemporary hits with a mix of standard hits from artists such as Sérgio Mendes, Dionne Warwick, Barbra Streisand, and Andy Williams. Songs by those artists became a featured part of WLTJ's playlist and later became known as "Lite FM Encores". In addition, a new program known as "Heartlite" was created as a three-hour request and dedication show from 9 to midnight, hosted by Morley. The show was one of the first of its kind in the nation at the time. Weekend and fill-in announcer Gary Love would later assume responsibilities for the morning show from Hart, and Beth Bershok would assume Jean Lam's overnight shift by the end of the 1980s, in addition to doing traffic reports with Love on the morning show. The chemistry between Gary and Beth worked so well that the decision was made in the early 90's to pair them together and bill them as equals. "Gary and Beth in the Morning" aired from 1991 until the station's format change in 2008. WLTJ became a dominant force among Pittsburgh Arbitron ratings, and among listeners as an office favorite.[citation needed] In 1989, WLTJ's position as a listen-at-work radio station was challenged when Pittsburgh's longtime easy-listening institution, WSHH, switched to a soft adult contemporary format and used its existing audience base to replicate WLTJ's ratings successes. WLTJ and WSHH often ran neck-and-neck in the ratings with similar formats, with one or the other occasionally shifting to the older or younger core of the 25-54 age demographic in order to keep up with ratings trends. That competition continues between the two stations today. Both WLTJ and WSHH share the distinction of being held by private owners, as opposed to publicly traded multiconglomerate broadcast operations. WLTJ's logo as of 2006, as "Lite Rock 92.9". In 1993, after the FCC relaxed its ownership rules and allowed companies to own more than one FM station in the same market, Legend Communications purchased album rock formatted WRRK-FM (licensed to Braddock) from WHYW Associates. The station, which had been known as 97 Rock, reverted to its previous format of classic rock and its former moniker, Magic 97. The call letters, however, did not revert to WMYG, and the station became known as "Magic 97 WRRK". In 1999, both stations moved to a new, more spacious location on Smithfield Street in downtown Pittsburgh, with state-of-the-art, all-digital Equipment & Studios built by Chief Engineer, Paul Carroll from August to November of that year. Of the original WPNT adult contemporary weekday lineup, John Gallagher lasted until the entire staff was dismissed during the format adjustment made the weekend of March 23, 2008. George Hart died of complications from liver transplant surgery in 1993. Pat Bridges, who had joined the station in the early 80s in a part-time capacity, returned in 2004 to assume the role of host for "Heartlite". The New "Q92.9"[edit] After consistently disappointing ratings, the WLTJ identity disappeared the weekend of March 23, 2008 and the station was immediately rebranded as "Q92.9" with a different music mix. Station executives said they wanted to add more '90s music and felt the station needed an imaging overhaul to complete the transition. Most of the music from the 1970s was dropped, and more upbeat material from the 80s and 90s was added along with more current hits. The station began with no DJs. The station has a live air staff from 5:30 am to 12 am weekdays and 9 am to 7 pm on weekends. They also have weather and traffic reports, which were not initially run in the early days of the format. In November 2009, WLTJ shifted directions to Hot Adult Contemporary, with most of the musical mix focusing on more current product with some classics from the 1980s and 1990s getting less playtime. As the radio stations new identity progressed, in May 2011, WLTJ's formats changed once again. Focusing on a bigger music mix, the "80's, 90's, 2K and Today!" slogan and musical selection was brought to Q92.9. Competition with longtime opponent Wish 99.7 seemed to lessen with their format change. With this, competition with other Pittsburgh radio, 96.1 Kiss and Star 100.7 began, stating the Q had a bigger mix than the two mentioned. In addition to this change, the Q-Tags that were heard at the beginning of the Q's days, which stated the name and artist of every song at the end, were eliminated to create a faster paced, less interruptive musical selection, stemming from the opinions of some listeners. References[edit] Wiki letter w.svg This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010) Portal icon Pittsburgh portal Portal icon Radio portal External links[edit] Q92.9 official website Query the FCC's FM station database for WLTJ Radio-Locator information on WLTJ Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WLTJ List of "grandfathered" FM radio stations in the U.S. [hide] v· t· e Radio stations in the Pittsburgh market By FM frequency 88.1· 88.1· 88.3· 88.7· 88.9· 89.3· 90.1· 90.5· 91.3· 91.7· 92.1· 92.1· 92.5· 92.9· 93.7· 94.5· 94.9· 95.3· 95.7· 96.1· 96.9· 97.7· 98.3· 98.9· 99.3· 99.7· 100.1· 100.7· 101.1· 101.5· 102.5· 103.1· 103.5· 103.7· 103.9· 104.3· 104.7· 105.1· 105.9· 106.3· 106.7· 107.1· 107.5· 107.9 By AM frequency 540· 590· 620· 660· 680· 730· 770· 810· 860· 910· 940· 970· 1020¹· 1080· 1150· 1210· 1250· 1280· 1320· 1360· 1380· 1410· 1450· 1460· 1480· 1490· 1510· 1550· 1570· 1640 ¹ Clear-channel stations with extended nighttime coverage NOAA Weather Radio frequency 162.550 By callsign KDKA¹· KDKA-FM· KFX300· KIH35· KQV· W261AX· WAMO· WANB· WAOB· WAOB-FM· WAVL· WBCW· WBGG· WBJV· WBUT· WBVP· WBZZ· WCAL· WCNS· WCYJ· WDDZ· WDIG· WDSY-FM· WDVE· WEDO· WEGW· WESA· WFSJ-LP· WFGI· WGBN· WGLZ· WHJB· WISR· WIUP· WJAS· WJPA· WJPA-FM· WJST· WKBN· WKFB· WKHB· WKPL· WKST· WKST-FM· WKVE· WLCY· WLER· WLSW· WLTJ· WMBA· WMBS· WMNY· WHOT· WMUG-LP· WNJR· WOGG· WOGH· WOGI· WOHI· WORD· WPGB· WPGR· WPHP· WPIT· WPKL· WPKV· WPTS-FM· WQED· WQMU· WQTW· WRCT· WRRK· WRWJ· WSHH· WSRU· WTYM· WUKL· WVKF· WVNP· WWCS· WWNL· WWSW· WWVA· WXDX· WYEP· WYFU· WYZR· WZUM Defunct WKZV 1110 AM· WASP 1130 AM· WBGI 1340 AM· WSTV 1340 AM· WZUM 1590 AM Pennsylvania radio markets: Allentown-Bethlehem· Altoona· Bradford-Coudersport· Chambersburg-Waynesboro· Erie· Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle· Lancaster· Montrose· New Castle· Philadelphia· Pittsburgh· Reading· Sayre-Towanda-Mansfield-Wellsboro· Wilkes Barre-Scranton· Williamsport· York Other Pennsylvania radio regions: Bedford· Indiana· Johnstown· Lewistown-Mifflintown· Meadville-Franklin· Punxsutawney-DuBois· St. Marys-Emporium-Kane· State College· Stroudsburg· Sunbury-Selinsgrove-Lewisburg· Warren Mass media in the Pittsburgh Area (Radio stations· TV stations· Newspapers) See also: List of radio stations in Pennsylvania Coordinates: 40.4954°N 80.0045°W Categories: HD Radio stations Radio stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Hot adult contemporary radio stations in the United States Radio stations established in 1942 Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export This page was last modified on 7 January 2014 at 14:53. 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Allegheny Health Network From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from WPAHS) Jump to: navigation, search Allegheny General Hospital, the flagship facility of Allegheny Health Network. The Allegheny Health Network (AHN), formerly the West Penn Allegheny Health System (WPAHS), is an academic medical center located in the Pittsburgh metropolitan area. The second-largest provider of healthcare in its region, AHN was formed by the merger of the Western Pennsylvania Hospital (West Penn), founded in 1848 as Pittsburgh's first chartered public hospital, and Allegheny General Hospital (AGH), which was founded in 1886. AHN is made up of these two tertiary hospitals, both located in Pittsburgh, as well as three community hospitals: Alle-Kiski Medical Center in Harrison Township, Canonsburg General Hospital in Canonsburg, and The Western Pennsylvania Hospital – Forbes Regional Campus in Monroeville. The system also includes Forbes Hospice, now located in West Penn Hospital, which opened in 1979 as Pittsburgh’s first end-of-life and palliative care program,[1] and West Penn Allegheny Health System’s STAR Center (Simulation, Training and Academic Research Center), which provides simulation training for medical, nursing, and other health care professionals.[2] AHN adopted its current name in 2013 after becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of Highmark.[3] AHN employs approximately 13,000 people with a medical staff of 2,726. The system offers 46 graduate medical programs, operates two nursing schools, and serves as a clinical campus for the medical schools of Drexel University and Temple University, which are located in Philadelphia.[4] AHN is also home to the Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, which sponsors interdisciplinary programs to understand, treat, and prevent human diseases. WPAHS's specialty programs have received national and international recognition, particularly those based in its Bone and Joint, Cardiovascular, Neurosciences, and Oncology institutes. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 AHERF 3 Regional competition 4 Financials 5 Recognition 6 References 7 External links History[edit] Allegheny Health Network was formed from two of Pittsburgh's major historical hospitals: the Western Pennsylvania Hospital and Allegheny General Hospital. The Western Pennsylvania Hospital (West Penn), founded in 1848 and originally located in Pittsburgh's Strip District neighborhood moved to its current location in Bloomfield in 1912.[5] Allegheny General Hospital (AGH) was founded in 1886 in Pittsburgh's North Side, then the separate municipality of Allegheny City. In 1930 construction began on one of the nation's first "skyscraper" hospitals, a 22-story high rise which is now designated a Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation historic landmark.[6] AHERF[edit] Allegheny Health, Education and Research Foundation (AHERF) was established in 1983 as a nonprofit corporation to oversee the Allegheny General Hospital organization's affairs. In 1986 Sherif Abdelhak was hired as CEO and instituted a plan to create a statewide integrated health care delivery system. To accomplish this, and in reaction to its rivalry with local medical center competitor University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), AHERF undertook an aggressive acquisition of physician practices and hospitals across the state of Pennsylvania. By the mid-1990s, AHERF had acquired two medical schools (the Medical College of Pennsylvania and Hahnemann Medical College) and five hospitals located in the Philadelphia area, as well as additional hospitals in the Pittsburgh area. However, by 1997 financial problems started to appear and AHERF initiated hospital closures to divest itself of its operations in the eastern portion of the state. In July 1998 AHERF declared bankruptcy, the largest nonprofit health care failure in U.S. history. As a result, Drexel University took over the medical school operated by AHERF. In order to avoid bankruptcy, Allegheny General Hospital and some of AHERF's other hospitals in western Pennsylvania were sold to Pittsburgh's West Penn Health System in 1999, thus forming the current West Penn Allegheny Health System.[7][8] Regional competition[edit] AHN competes against much larger health care organizations including UPMC. In April 2009 the former WPAHS filed an antitrust lawsuit in the U.S. District Court in Pittsburgh against UPMC and Highmark Inc., the region’s largest insurer. The suit claimed that UPMC and Highmark had conspired to create a monopoly. WPAHS stated that UPMC had refused to contract with smaller health insurance companies at reasonable rates and in exchange, Highmark had agreed to pay UPMC at inflated rates.[9] The lawsuit was dismissed with prejudice.[10] WPAHS filed an appeal of this judgment.[11] As of February 2011, the case is still undecided.[12] Financials[edit] In 2007 the hospital group issued more than $750 million in high-yield debt, the largest junk bond offering by a nonprofit health care concern. In 2008 the system had an operating loss of $89 million and a net loss of $57.8 million.[13] That same year, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission began an investigation of West Penn for "potentially erroneous evaluation and management claims" after the health system found $73 million in overstated accounts receivables.[14] For fiscal year 2009, the health system posted a net loss of $25.2 million compared with a $57.8 million loss in fiscal 2008, when they were forced to make a $73 million writedown. Total revenues were $1.6 billion for the year, a seven percent increase.[15] In July 2009 the system, which employed a total of about 13,000 people,[16] announced furloughs of 185 full-time equivalent people by attrition, by eliminating vacant positions and through layoffs. On December 1, 2009, West Penn Allegheny Health System recorded its second consecutive quarterly profit. The system had a net profit of $4.3 million for the first quarter of fiscal 2010 and a net profit of $2.1 million for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2009.[17] On June 29, 2010, WPAHS announced major consolidation plans to eliminate 1,500 positions and 300 beds. The plans would also close the emergency department, oncology, neuroscience, critical care, orthopedic, and cardiovascular services at West Penn Hospital in order to consolidate services at what would become the sole facility – Allegheny General Hospital.[18] Plans were finalized in October 2010. However, WAPHS lost $56 million in the last half of 2011, had $740 million in outstanding bonds, had a pension fund underfunded by $20 million,[19] and had its bond rating reduced by Moody's to Caa1 with a negative outlook.[20] WPAHS received financial support from a partnership with regional insurance giant Highmark in 2011. Highmark pledged $475 million over three years to strengthen and acquire the hospital system, however the partnership has prompted a Justice Department investigation due to anti-trust concerns.[21] The system received $100 million through 2011 and reopened the emergency department at West Penn Hospital.[22] On April 29, 2013, Pennsylvania state regulations allowed Highmark to acquire WPAHS outright, and announced that it would be renamed the Allegheny Health Network.[3] Recognition[edit] In 1986, Allegheny General was the first hospital in the region to receive designation as a Level I Shock Trauma Center, the highest designation available, and its LifeFlight aeromedical service was the first to fly in the northeastern United States.[23] In 2001 the Western Pennsylvania Cancer Institute was one of 35 centers nationwide recognized as a Center of Excellence by the Myelodysplastic Syndromes Foundation. The Institute is a nationally recognized provider of advanced treatment programs for patients with blood-related disorders. In December 2006 the Western Pennsylvania Hospital became the first hospital in Pittsburgh and Western Pennsylvania to receive prestigious Magnet recognition status from the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC). Magnet status recognizes excellence in nursing and quality patient care and only four percent of all healthcare facilities in the U.S. have achieved this status. In 2007 Allegheny General opened the region's first dedicated inpatient Stroke Unit, which centralizes and coordinates the multidisciplinary care of stroke patients. In 2009 AGH ranked among the top 10 percent of U.S. medical centers for the treatment of stroke, according to HealthGrades, a leading independent healthcare ratings organization. The hospital has been designated as a Primary Stroke Center by the Joint Commission and was named a Stroke Center of Excellence by NeuStrategy, a Chicago-based healthcare think tank. More than 1,000 stroke patients are admitted to AGH annually. [24] For three consecutive years – 2007, 2008 and 2009 – West Penn has been recognized as the best hospital in Pennsylvania for weight-loss surgery by HealthGrades, a leading independent health care ratings organization.[25] The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project, based at Allegheny General, is a cancer research initiative supported by the National Cancer Institute and coordinates the efforts of more than 6,000 medical professionals in the study of breast and bowel cancer. Some of the most prominent research into breast and colorectal cancer treatment and prevention has come from the NSABP.[26] Established in 1969, West Penn Burn Center at West Penn Hospital treats more than 500 inpatients per year and serves as a national, regional and community resource dedicated to the prevention and care of burn injuries. West Penn Burn Center is the only burn center in the region verified by the American Burn Association (ABA) and the American College of Surgeons (ACS) and is the only burn center in Pennsylvania to earn ABA/ACS verification four times.[27] West Penn Hospital’s obstetrics program is one of the region’s busiest and its Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is one of the region’s largest referral resources for sick newborns. [28] In September 2010 Canonsburg General Hospital was recognized by T-System, a leader in clinical, business, and IT solutions for hospital emergency departments, at the American College of Emergency Physicians Scientific Assembly, as one of six hospitals to receive the first annual T-System Client Excellence Award. The hospital was selected from more than 1,700 facilities nationwide. Award winners represent the facilities that most effectively partnered with T-System in 2010 to improve their quality, operational and financial results in the emergency departments.[29] In September 2010 the heart surgery program at Forbes Regional Hospital was recognized by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) as one of the 50 best in the nation. Forbes Regional’s McGinnis Thoracic and Cardiovascular Associates surgical group received three stars, the Society’s highest possible rating, in a comprehensive assessment of the nation’s heart surgery programs. Forbes Regional is one of just two hospitals in Western Pennsylvania lauded by STS for having above average patient outcomes.[30] In January 2011 the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery (ASMBS) designated West Penn Allegheny Health System’s Bariatric Surgery program a Bariatric Surgery Center of Excellence, a designation that recognizes surgical programs with a demonstrated track record of favorable outcomes in bariatric surgery. The program has been rated by HealthGrades as Pennsylvania’s number one bariatric surgery program from 2007 to 2011.[citation needed] References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/hospice/index.html 2.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/star/index.html 3.^ Jump up to: a b http://triblive.com/news/adminpage/3933998-74/highmark-allegheny-penn 4.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/about/index.html 5.Jump up ^ Potter, Chris (2004-12-09). "My father once told me that West Penn Hospital got its start in the Strip District. Is that true?". Pittsburgh City Paper. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 6.Jump up ^ "Anatomy of a Bankruptcy: Lifeline for an institution". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 1999-01-17. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 7.Jump up ^ Burns, Lawton R.; Cacciamani, John; Clement, James; Aquino, Welman (January/February 2000). "The Fall of the House of AHERF: The Allegheny Bankruptcy". Health Affairs 19 (1): 7–41. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.19.1.7. PMID 10645071. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 8.Jump up ^ "Anatomy of a Bankruptcy" (6 part series). Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 1999. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 9.Jump up ^ Todd Rodriguez (April 23, 2009). "West Penn Allegheny Health System Inc. Files Anti-trust Lawsuit Against University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and Highmark Inc.". Physician News. 10.Jump up ^ Toland, Bill; Twedt, Steve (2009-10-30). "West Penn's lawsuit dismissed". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2009-10-30. 11.Jump up ^ "Business news briefs". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 2009-11-21. 12.Jump up ^ Mamula, Kris B. (February 1, 2011). "Judge again freezes WPAHS lawsuit". Pittsburgh Business Times. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 13.Jump up ^ Gretchen Morgenson (August 29, 2009). "Fresh Air in the Muni Market". New York Times. 14.Jump up ^ Twedt, Steve (2009-03-07). "Hospital facing 2 U.S. probes". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 15.Jump up ^ Twedt, Steve (2009-10-30). "West Penn Allegheny reports quarterly, full-year results". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 16.Jump up ^ "West Penn Allegheny Health System lays off employees". Pittsburgh Business Times. July 9, 2009. 17.Jump up ^ http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/business/s_655587.html 18.Jump up ^ "West Penn Hospital to lay off 1,500 in Bloomfield". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. 2010-06-30. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 19.Jump up ^ Morgenson, Gretchen (2012-02-18). "A Fog Warning, Again, for Municipal Bonds". The New York Times (New York, NY). Retrieved 2012-02-20. 20.Jump up ^ "Rating Action: Moody's Downgrades West Penn Allegheny Health System's (PA) Bond Rating to Caa1 from B2; Outlook Remains Negative". Moody's Investors Service. 2011-11-22. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 21.Jump up ^ Boren, Jeremy; Nixon, Alex (2012-02-19). "Federal investigators take look at Highmark's acquisition plans". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 22.Jump up ^ Nixon, Alex (2012-02-13). "West Penn Hospital emergency department reopens Tuesday". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved 2012-02-20. 23.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/lifeflight/ 24.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/agh/news/index.cfm?mode=view&article=1810 25.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/wph/news/index.cfm?mode=view&article=1488 26.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/agh/about/index.html 27.Jump up ^ http://www.westpennburncenter.com/ 28.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/wph/about/index.html 29.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/news/releases/index.cfm?mode=view&article=2561 30.Jump up ^ http://www.wpahs.org/news/releases/index.cfm?mode=view&article=2560 Portal icon Pittsburgh portal External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Allegheny Health Network. West Penn Allegheny Health System website LifeFlight Helicopter Services [show] v· t· e Pittsburgh · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Wikipedia book· Portal· Category Categories: Hospitals in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Hospitals in Pennsylvania Companies based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Healthcare in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Hospital networks in the United States 1999 establishments in Pennsylvania Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export This page was last modified on 7 April 2014 at 14:11. 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Highmark From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the health insurance company. For other uses, see Highmark (disambiguation). Highmark Inc. Highmark Logo.svg Type Not-For-Profit Industry Healthcare, Insurance Founded June 22, 1977 [1] Headquarters Fifth Avenue Place Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Key people William Winkenwerder, Jr., President & CEO J. Robert Baum, Board of Directors Products Health Insurance Revenue Increase$14.78 billion (2011) USD Employees 19,500 (2012) Website www.highmark.com Highmark's headquarters at Penn Avenue and Fifth Avenue in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Highmark is a not-for-profit healthcare company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. It is the largest health insurer in Pennsylvania, and through a purchase in 1996, the largest health insurer in West Virginia and also later Delaware . As Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield, it primarily serves the 29 counties of western Pennsylvania. As Highmark Blue Shield it services 21 counties of Central Pennsylvania and the Lehigh Valley. There is also a presence in the border areas of eastern Ohio, and all of West Virginia through its subsidiary Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield West Virginia. Highmark has a stake in the largest health insurer in northeastern Pennsylvania as well, Blue Cross of North East Pennsylvania BCNEPA. It is currently one of the largest not-for-profit health insurers in the United States which owns several for-profit subsidiaries. Contents [hide] 1 Organizational Structure 2 Company History 3 Subsidiary Business 4 Community Involvement 5 Consolidation with Independence Blue Cross 6 Individual And Family Plans 7 External links Organizational Structure[edit] Highmark, Inc Highmark Health Services Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield (Western PA) Highmark Blue Shield (Central PA) Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield West Virginia Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield Delaware Allegheny Health Network Allegheny General Hospital Allegheny Valley Hospital Canonsburg General Hospital Forbes Regional Hospital Jefferson Regional Medical Center Saint Vincent Hospital Western Pennsylvania Hospital Diversified Businesses United Concordia (Dental) Davis Vision (Vision) Visionworks of America (Vision) Viva International Group (Vision) HM Insurance Group (Health-related Insurance) The Highmark Foundation Company History[edit] Highmark was created in 1977 and in the 1990s by the consolidation of two Pennsylvania licensees of the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association — Pennsylvania Blue Shield (now Highmark Blue Shield) based in suburban Harrisburg, and Blue Cross of Western Pennsylvania based in Downtown Pittsburgh (now Highmark Blue Cross/Blue Shield). The consolidated group now serves 49 of the state's 67 counties. In West Virginia, the company operates as Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield West Virginia, and in Delaware, it operates as Highmark Blue Cross Blue Shield Delaware. The new company based its head offices in Downtown Pittsburgh and features greatly expanded services. In 2011 the company announced it would buy the financially troubled West Penn Allegheny Health System (WPAHS) for about $500 million. Subsidiary Business[edit] There are several wholly owned for-profit subsidiaries of Highmark. These include United Concordia Companies, Inc., a dental insurer; Davis Vision, a provider of managed care vision benefits; Viva, a designer and distributor of eyeglass frames and sunglasses; Eye Care Centers of America, a vision retail provider offering frames, lens and accessories; and HM Insurance Group, a reinsurer providing stop-loss, limited benefit medical plans, worksite, life, disability, and administrative services. Community Involvement[edit] Highmark is most notably mentioned for its Healthy High 5 Initiative - a pledge by Highmark of $100 million to help combat childhood obesity, and enable more individuals to live longer, healthier lives. Highmark has consistently contributed charitably to organizations throughout the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Highmark awarded a $25 million pledge to the Penn State University so a new children's hospital can be built in Hershey, Pennsylvania. In 2010, Highmark developed the Highmark Blue Shield Living Legacy Series to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The series includes oral histories from 150 Harrisburg residents, using the ground-breaking Digital Video Library (DVL) technology created and pioneered by Carnegie Mellon University. Among the Harrisburg 150 are Pedro Cortes (Pennsylvania's longest serving Secretary of State), Graham Hetrick (Dauphin County Coroner) and many more. These histories represent an encompassing cross-section of personal stories that provide Harrisburg its unique character. Consolidation with Independence Blue Cross[edit] On March 28, 2007, Highmark announced that it intended to consolidate with Independence Blue Cross of Philadelphia. The combination of these insurers would have created a new company with over 18,000 employees, with dual-headquarters in both Pittsburgh and Philadelphia. The new company would have had an economic impact of over $4 billion throughout the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. On January 22, 2009, Highmark and Independence Blue Cross withdrew their applications to consolidate. This was due to the unacceptability of conditions that the Pennsylvania Insurance Department was going to place upon the merger [2]. Individual And Family Plans[edit] Highmark offers five personal plans to residents of Western Pennsylvania. They are PPOBlue, AdvancedBlue, SimplyBlue, DirectBlue and Community Blue. A temporary plan is also available. Comprehensive, high-deductible and short-term coverage can be purchased with many available deductible options. Portal icon Pittsburgh portal External links[edit] Official website Blue Cross Blue Shield Western Pa Highmark Rates And Information [show] v· t· e Pittsburgh · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Symbol book class2.svg· Portal-puzzle.svg· Folder Hexagonal Icon.svg Categories: Companies established in 1996 Privately held companies based in Pennsylvania Healthcare in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export This page was last modified on 9 December 2013 at 20:55. 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United States Department of Homeland Security From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Usdhs) Jump to: navigation, search "USDHS" and "DHS" redirect here. For the former high school, see University of San Diego High School. For other uses, see DHS (disambiguation). United States Department of Homeland Security US Department of Homeland Security Seal.svg Seal of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Flag of the United States Department of Homeland Security.svg Flag of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Agency overview Formed November 25, 2002 Jurisdiction United States Headquarters Nebraska Avenue Complex Washington, D.C., United States 38°56′17″N 77°4′56″WCoordinates: 38°56′17″N 77°4′56″W Employees 240,000 Annual budget US$60.8 billion (FY 2013) Agency executive Jeh Johnson, United States Secretary of Homeland Security Child agencies U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services U.S. Customs and Border Protection Federal Emergency Management Agency U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement Transportation Security Administration U.S. Coast Guard National Protection and Programs Directorate U.S. Secret Service Website www.DHS.gov The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, and with the primary responsibilities of protecting the United States and its territories (including protectorates) from and responding to terrorist attacks, man-made accidents, and natural disasters. The Department of Homeland Security, and not the United States Department of the Interior, is equivalent to the Interior ministries of other countries. In fiscal year 2011, DHS was allocated a budget of $98.8 billion and spent, net, $66.4 billion. Where the Department of Defense is charged with military actions abroad, the Department of Homeland Security works in the civilian sphere to protect the United States within, at, and outside its borders. Its stated goal is to prepare for, prevent, and respond to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism.[1] On March 1, 2003, DHS absorbed the Immigration and Naturalization Service and assumed its duties. In doing so, it divided the enforcement and services functions into two separate and new agencies: Immigration and Customs Enforcement and Citizenship and Immigration Services. The investigative divisions and intelligence gathering units of the INS and Customs Service were merged forming Homeland Security Investigations. Additionally, the border enforcement functions of the INS, including the U.S. Border Patrol, the U.S. Customs Service, and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service were consolidated into a new agency under DHS: U.S. Customs and Border Protection. The Federal Protective Service falls under the National Protection and Programs Directorate. With more than 200,000 employees, DHS is the third largest Cabinet department, after the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs.[2] Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Departments of Health and Human Services, Justice, and Energy. On December 16, 2013, the U.S. Senate confirmed Jeh Johnson as the next Secretary of Homeland Security.[3] According to the Homeland Security Research Corporation, the combined financial year 2010 state and local homeland security (HLS) markets, which employ more than 2.2 million first responders, totaled $16.5 billion, whereas the DHS HLS market totaled $13 billion.[4] According to The Washington Post, "DHS has given $31 billion in grants since 2003 to state and local governments for homeland security and to improve their ability to find and protect against terrorists, including $3.8 billion in 2010".[5] According to Peter Andreas, a border theorist, the creation of DHS constituted the most significant government reorganization since the Cold War,[6] and the most substantial reorganization of federal agencies since the National Security Act of 1947, which placed the different military departments under a secretary of defense and created the National Security Council and Central Intelligence Agency. DHS also constitutes the most diverse merger of federal functions and responsibilities, incorporating 22 government agencies into a single organization.[7] Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Creation 2.2 Consolidated agencies 3 Overview 3.1 Homeland Security Advisory System 3.2 Ready.gov 3.3 National Incident Management System 3.4 National Response Framework 3.5 Cyber-security 3.6 First Responders 3.6.1 R-Tech 3.6.2 Communities of Practice 3.6.3 Virtual Social Media Working Group 4 Structure 5 Budget and finances 5.1 Audit of expenditures 6 Seal 7 Headquarters 8 Criticism 8.1 Excess, waste, and ineffectiveness 8.2 Fragmented congressional oversight 8.3 Data mining (ADVISE) 8.4 Fusion centers 8.4.1 MIAC report 8.4.2 2009 Virginia terrorism threat assessment 8.5 Mail interception 8.6 Employee morale 8.7 Consumer satisfaction 9 See also 10 Notes and references 11 External links Etymology[edit] In an August 5, 2002 speech, U.S. President George W. Bush stated: "We're fighting...to secure freedom in the homeland".[8] Prior to the creation of DHS, American presidents had referred to the United States as "the nation" or "the republic", and to its internal policies as "domestic".[9] Also unprecedented was the use, from 2002, of the phrase "the homeland" by White House spokespeople.[9] The choice of this phrase raised questions regarding the self-image of the United States.[10] History[edit] Creation[edit] The flag and seal of the Office of Homeland Security, the predecessor to the DHS In response to the September 11 attacks, President George W. Bush announced the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security (OHS) to coordinate "homeland security" efforts. The office was headed by former Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge, who assumed the title of Assistant to the President for Homeland Security. The official announcement stated: “ The mission of the Office will be to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks. The Office will coordinate the executive branch's efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States.[11] ” Ridge began his duties as OHS director on October 8, 2001. The Department of Homeland Security was established on November 25, 2002, by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. It was intended to consolidate U.S. executive branch organizations related to "homeland security" into a single Cabinet agency. A U.S. Customs and Border Protection Officer addresses Dick Cheney (center), then Vice President of the United States, Saxby Chambliss (center right), a U.S. senator from Georgia and Michael Chertoff (far right), then United States Secretary of Homeland Security in 2005 Prior to the signing of the bill, controversy about its adoption centered on whether the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency should be incorporated in part or in whole (neither were included). The bill itself was also controversial for the presence of unrelated "riders", as well as for eliminating certain union-friendly civil service and labor protections for department employees. Without these protections, employees could be expeditiously reassigned or dismissed on grounds of security, incompetence or insubordination, and DHS would not be required to notify their union representatives. The plan stripped 180,000 government employees of their union rights.[12] In 2002, Bush Administration officials argued that the September 11 attacks made the proposed elimination of employee protections imperative.[13] Congress ultimately passed the Homeland Security Act of 2002 without the union-friendly measures, and President Bush signed the bill into law on November 25, 2002. It was the largest U.S. government reorganization in the 50 years since the United States Department of Defense was created. Tom Ridge was named secretary on January 24, 2003, and began naming his chief deputies. DHS officially began operations on January 24, 2003, but most of the department's component agencies were not transferred into the new Department until March 1.[11] President George W. Bush signs the Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2004 on October 1, 2003. After establishing the basic structure of DHS and working to integrate its components and get the department functioning, Ridge announced his resignation on November 30, 2004, following the re-election of President Bush. Bush initially nominated former New York City Police Department commissioner Bernard Kerik as his successor, but on December 10, Kerik withdrew his nomination, citing personal reasons and saying it "would not be in the best interests" of the country for him to pursue the post.[citation needed] On January 11, 2005, President Bush nominated federal judge Michael Chertoff to succeed Ridge. Chertoff was confirmed on February 15, 2005, by a vote of 98–0 in the U.S. Senate. He was sworn in the same day.[11] In February 2005, DHS and the Office of Personnel Management issued rules relating to employee pay and discipline for a new personnel system named MaxHR. The Washington Post said that the rules would allow DHS "to override any provision in a union contract by issuing a department-wide directive" and would make it "difficult, if not impossible, for unions to negotiate over arrangements for staffing, deployments, technology and other workplace matters".[13] In August 2005, U.S. District Judge Rosemary M. Collyer blocked the plan on the grounds that it did not ensure collective-bargaining rights for DHS employees.[13] A federal appeals court ruled against DHS in 2006; pending a final resolution to the litigation, Congress's fiscal year 2008 appropriations bill for DHS provided no funding for the proposed new personnel system.[13] DHS announced in early 2007 that it was retooling its pay and performance system and retiring the name "MaxHR".[11] In a February 2008 court filing, DHS said that it would no longer pursue the new rules, and that it would abide by the existing civil service labor-management procedures. A federal court issued an order closing the case.[13] Consolidated agencies[edit] The following 22 agencies were incorporated into the new department:[14] Original Agency Original Department New Agency or Office Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (part) Agriculture U.S. Customs and Border Protection CBRN Countermeasures Programs Energy Science & Technology Directorate Domestic Emergency Support Teams Justice Responsibilities distributed within FEMA Energy Security and Assurance Program Energy Office of Infrastructure Protection Environmental Measurements Laboratory Energy Science & Technology Directorate Federal Computer Incident Response Center General Services Administration US-CERT, Office of Cybersecurity and Communications National Protection and Programs Directorate Federal Emergency Management Agency none Federal Emergency Management Agency Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Treasury Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Federal Protective Service General Services Administration National Protection and Programs Directorate Immigration and Naturalization Service Justice U.S. Customs and Border Protection U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services National Biological Warfare Defense Analysis Center Defense Science & Technology Directorate National Communications System Defense Office of Cybersecurity and Communications National Protection and Programs Directorate National Domestic Preparedness Office FBI Responsibilities distributed within FEMA National Infrastructure Protection Center FBI Office of Operations Coordination Office of Infrastructure Protection Nuclear Incident Response Team Energy Responsibilities distributed within FEMA Office for Domestic Preparedness Justice Responsibilities distributed within FEMA Plum Island Animal Disease Center Agriculture Science & Technology Directorate Strategic National Stockpile National Disaster Medical System Health and Human Services Returned to HHS, July 2004 Transportation Security Administration Transportation Transportation Security Administration U.S. Coast Guard Transportation U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Customs Service Treasury U.S. Customs and Border Protection U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement U.S. Secret Service Treasury U.S. Secret Service Overview[edit] Homeland Security Advisory System[edit] The Homeland Security Advisory System scale On March 12, 2002, the Homeland Security Advisory System, a color-coded terrorism risk advisory scale, was created as the result of a Presidential Directive to provide a "comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people." Many procedures at government facilities are tied in to the alert level; for example a facility may search all entering vehicles when the alert is above a certain level. Since January 2003, it has been administered in coordination with DHS; it has also been the target of frequent jokes and ridicule on the part of the administration's detractors about its ineffectiveness. After resigning, Tom Ridge stated that he did not always agree with the threat level adjustments pushed by other government agencies.[15] In January 2003, the office[clarification needed] was merged into the Department of Homeland Security and the White House Homeland Security Council, both of which were created by the Homeland Security Act of 2002. The Homeland Security Council, similar in nature to the National Security Council, retains a policy coordination and advisory role, and is led by the Assistant to the President for Homeland Security.[11] As of January 13, 2011, the DHS advised the American public of an 'elevated national threat' level, recommending that all Americans 'should establish an emergency preparedness kit and emergency plan for themselves and their family, and stay informed about what to do during an emergency'.[16] The National Terrorism Advisory System, or NTAS, replaces the color-coded Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS). The NTAS will include information specific to the particular credible threat, and will not use a color-coded scale. Ready.gov[edit] Ready.gov program logo Soon after the formation of Department of Homeland Security, the Martin Agency of Richmond, Virginia worked pro bono to create "Ready.gov", a readiness website. The site and materials were conceived in March 2002 and launched in February 2003, just before the launch of the Iraq War.[17][18][19] One of the first announcements that garnered widespread public attention to this campaign was one by Tom Ridge in which he stated that in the case of a chemical attack, citizens should use duct tape and plastic sheeting to build a homemade bunker, or "sheltering in place" to protect themselves.[20][21] As a result, the sales of duct tape skyrocketed and DHS was criticized for being too alarmist.[22] The site was promoted with banner ads containing automatic audio components on commercial web sites. National Incident Management System[edit] On March 1, 2004, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) was created. The stated purpose was to provide a consistent incident management approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments. Under Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, all federal departments were required to adopt the NIMS and to use it in their individual domestic incident management and emergency prevention, preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation program and activities. National Response Framework[edit] In December 2004, the National Response Plan (NRP) was created, in an attempt to align federal coordination structures, capabilities, and resources into a unified, all-discipline, and all-hazards approach to domestic incident management. The NRP was built on the template of the NIMS. On January 22, 2008, the National Response Framework was published in the Federal Register as an updated replacement of the NRP, effective March 22, 2008. Cyber-security[edit] See also: Cyber-security regulation The DHS National Cyber Security Division (NCSD) is responsible for the response system, risk management program, and requirements for cyber-security in the U.S. The division is home to US-CERT operations and the National Cyber Alert System.[23][24] The DHS Science and Technology Directorate helps government and private end-users transition to new cyber-security capabilities. This directorate also funds the Cyber Security Research and Development Center, which identifies and prioritizes research and development for NCSD.[24] The center works on the Internet's routing infrastructure (the SPRI program) and Domain Name System (DNSSEC), identity theft and other online criminal activity (ITTC), Internet traffic and networks research (PREDICT datasets and the DETER testbed), Department of Defense and HSARPA exercises (Livewire and Determined Promise), and wireless security in cooperation with Canada.[25] On October 30, 2009, DHS opened the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center. The center brings together government organizations responsible for protecting computer networks and networked infrastructure.[26] First Responders[edit] The DHS Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) runs a number of technology-based programs aimed at assisting first responders, including R-Tech, Communities of Practice, and the Virtual Social Media Working Group. R-Tech[edit] The DHS S&T First Responder Technologies (R-Tech) program helps first responders by finding solutions in areas that first responders have gaps in their abilities to respond. The program tries to do this through fast prototyping of technologies, giving technical help and support, and sharing information.[27] Communities of Practice[edit] The DHS S&T First Responder Communities of Practice program gives first responders an online service for professional networking, working together on projects with other organizations, and sharing resources.[28] Virtual Social Media Working Group[edit] First responders have increasingly used social media in emergency response and recovery operations. Social media tools are used to connect with citizens after a disaster and share information.[29] The Virtual Social Media Working group (VSMWG) is an online platform that gives advice to first responders on how to safely and effectively use social media in emergency response operations. The working group is made up of subject matter experts from across the U.S.[29] It was created by DHS in December 2010 and gives first responders guidance and best practices regarding the use of social media during emergencies. The DHS S&T and the VSMWG work with local and state governments, academics and nonprofits.[30] Structure[edit] Organizational chart showing the chain of command among the top-level officials in the Department of Homeland Security, as of July 17, 2008 The Department of Homeland Security is headed by the Secretary of Homeland Security, who is appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate. The Secretary serves at the pleasure of the President. The Secretary is assisted in the management of the Department by the Deputy Secretary, several Under Secretaries, and several Assistant Secretaries. Within the Department are several component agencies and internal divisions.[31] Secretary of Homeland Security Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security Agencies Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) U.S. Secret Service (USSS) Transportation Security Administration (TSA) Divisions DHS Management Directorate DHS National Protection and Programs Directorate DHS Office of Health Affairs DHS Office of Intelligence and Analysis DHS Office of Operations Coordination DHS Office of Policy DHS Science and Technology Directorate Domestic Nuclear Detection Office Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Budget and finances[edit] The Department of Homeland Security was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2012 of $46.9 billion. The budget authorization is broken down as follows:[32] Program Funding (in billions) $10.4 Departmental Operations $1.3 Domestic Nuclear Detection Office $0.4 Federal Emergency Management Agency $6.8 Federal Law Enforcement Training Center $0.3 Mandatory Spending $0.6 National Protection and Programs Directorate $1.4 Office of the Inspector General $0.1 Science and Technology Directorate $1.0 Transportation Security Administration $5.1 U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services $0.4 U.S. Coast Guard $8.7 U.S. Customs and Border Protection U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement $5.5 U.S. Secret Service $1.7 Total $46.9 Audit of expenditures[edit] The DHS independent auditor is KPMG, one of the Big Four audit firms.[33] Due to the level of material weaknesses identified, KPMG were unable to audit the DHS financial statements for FY 2010.[33] KPMG were unable to express an audit opinion on the FY 2009,[34] FY 2008,[35] FY 2007,[36] FY 2005,[37] and FY 2003[38] financial statements. Attempts to access the reports for FY 2006 and FY 2004 within the 'information for citizens' portal met with a 404 error.[39] The Message from the DHS chief financial officer in the FY 2010 report states 'This Annual Financial Report (AFR) is our principal financial statement of accountability to the President, Congress and the American public. The AFR gives a comprehensive view of the Department's financial activities and demonstrates the Department's stewardship of taxpayer dollars.'[40] The Message from the DHS chief financial officer concludes 'I am extremely proud of the Department's accomplishments ... we will continue to build upon our successes.'[40] The Secretary of Homeland Security endorsed this message saying that the DHS is 'continuing to be responsible stewards of taxpayer resources. The scope of our mission is broad, challenging, and vital to the security of the Nation ... Thank you for your partnership and collaboration. Yours very truly, Janet Napolitano.'[41] Seal[edit] Main article: Seal of the United States Department of Homeland Security Seal of the Department of Homeland Security. A DHS press release dated June 19, 2003[42] describes the seal as follows: “ The seal is symbolic of the Department's mission – to prevent attacks and protect Americans – on the land, in the sea and in the air. In the center of the seal, a graphically styled white American eagle appears in a circular blue field. The eagle's outstretched wings break through an inner red ring into an outer white ring that contains the words "U.S. DEPARTMENT OF" in the top half and "HOMELAND SECURITY" in the bottom half in a circular placement. The eagle's wings break through the inner circle into the outer ring to suggest that the Department of Homeland Security will break through traditional bureaucracy and perform government functions differently. In the tradition of the Great Seal of the United States, the eagle's talon on the left holds an olive branch with 13 leaves and 13 seeds while the eagle's talon on the right grasps 13 arrows. Centered on the eagle's breast is a shield divided into three sections containing elements that represent the American homeland – air, land, and sea. The top element, a dark blue sky, contains 22 stars representing the original 22 entities that have come together to form the department. The left shield element contains white mountains behind a green plain underneath a light blue sky. The right shield element contains four wave shapes representing the oceans alternating light and dark blue separated by white lines. ” The seal was developed with input from senior DHS leadership, employees, and the U.S. Commission on Fine Arts. The Ad Council – which partners with DHS on its Ready.gov campaign – and the consulting company Landor Associates were responsible for graphic design and maintaining heraldic integrity. Headquarters[edit] President George W. Bush visiting the National Operations Center in 2007. Since its inception, the department has had its temporary headquarters in Washington, D.C.'s Nebraska Avenue Complex, a former naval facility. The 38-acre (15 ha) site, across from American University, has 32 buildings comprising 566,000 square feet (52,600 m2) of administrative space.[43] In early 2007, the Department submitted a $4.1 billion plan to Congress to consolidate its 60-plus Washington-area offices into a single headquarters complex at the St. Elizabeths Hospital campus in Anacostia, Southeast Washington, D.C. The earliest DHS began moving to St. Elizabeths is 2013.[44] The move is being championed by District of Columbia officials because of the positive economic impact it will have on historically depressed Anacostia. The move has been criticized by historic preservationists, who claim the revitalization plans will destroy dozens of historic buildings on the campus.[45] Community activists have criticized the plans because the facility will remain walled off and have little interaction with the surrounding area.[46] On January 8, 2009, the National Capital Planning Commission approved the Department of Homeland Security's plans to move into the campus of St. Elizabeths Hospital.[47] The new DHS headquarters campus is now slated to open in 2021. The five-year delay is due primarily to spending cuts in construction funds imposed by Congress. In fiscal 2011, DHS and the General Services Administration (GSA; which oversees construction for DHS) requested $668 million for construction and consolidation but received only $77 million. In fiscal 2012, DHS and GSA requested $377 million but received only $106 million. In fiscal 2013, President Obama's budget suggested giving GSA $56 million in construction funds, and DHS $89 million (to be used primarily for local road improvements and for moving the Coast Guard into its new building). The two agencies had requested $460 million. Only the new Coast Guard headquarters building is due to open on time (in 2013). This is because GSA has relied on $200 million in funding from the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act and a large appropriation from the fiscal 2009 federal budget to complete the structure.[48] Criticism[edit] See also: Criticism of government response to Hurricane Katrina Excess, waste, and ineffectiveness[edit] The Department of Homeland Security has been dogged by persistent criticism over excessive bureaucracy, waste, ineffectiveness and lack of transparency. A House of Representatives subcommittee estimated that as of September 2008 the department has wasted roughly $15 billion in failed contracts.[49] In 2003, the department came under fire after the media revealed that Laura Callahan, Deputy chief information officer at DHS with responsibilities for sensitive national security databases, had obtained her advanced computer science degrees through a diploma mill in a small town in Wyoming. The department was blamed for up to $2 billion of waste and fraud after audits by the Government Accountability Office revealed widespread misuse of government credit cards by DHS employees, with purchases including beer brewing kits, $70,000 of plastic dog booties that were later deemed unusable, boats purchased at double the retail price (many of which later could not be found), and iPods ostensibly for use in "data storage".[50][51][52][53] Fragmented congressional oversight[edit] Current and former DHS officials, 9/11 Commission members, liberal and conservative policy groups[54] and the ranking Republican member of the House Homeland Security Committee, Peter T. King, have strongly criticized the growing number of House and Senate panels that regularly demand formal reports, testimony and formal briefings from DHS officials and staff. By 2010, there were 108 congressional committees and subcommittees claiming jurisdiction over the Department of Homeland Security,[55] up from 86 committees in 2004, when the 9/11 Commission published its final report, which addressed this issue, stating that "Congress should create a single, principal point of oversight and review for homeland security." Former DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff warns that too much oversight results, ironically, in too much autonomy for the department: "The [DHS] winds up getting a mixed message. ... So either the department has no guidance or, more likely, the department ignores both because they're in conflict. And so the department does what it wants to do."[56] Data mining (ADVISE)[edit] The Associated Press reported on September 5, 2007,[57] that DHS had scrapped an anti-terrorism data mining tool called ADVISE (Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight and Semantic Enhancement) after the agency's Privacy Office[58] and Office of Inspector General (OIG)[59][60] found that pilot testing of the system had been performed using data on real people without having done a Privacy Impact Assessment, a required privacy safeguard for the various uses of real personally identifiable information required by section 208 of the e-Government Act of 2002. The OIG report noted that ADVISE was poorly planned, time-consuming for analysts to use, and lacked adequate justifications. The system, in development at Lawrence Livermore and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since 2003, had cost the agency $42 million to date. Controversy over the program preceded the Privacy Office and OIG reports; in March 2007, the Government Accountability Office stated that "the ADVISE tool could misidentify or erroneously associate an individual with undesirable activity such as fraud, crime or terrorism."[61] Fusion centers[edit] Main article: Fusion center Fusion centers are terrorism prevention and response centers, many of which were created under a joint project between the Department of Homeland Security and the US Department of Justice's Office of Justice Programs between 2003 and 2007. The fusion centers gather information not only from government sources, but also from their partners in the private sector.[62][63] They are designed to promote information sharing at the federal level between agencies such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Department of Justice, US Military and state and local level government. As of July 2009, the Department of Homeland Security recognized at least seventy-two fusion centers.[64] Fusion centers may also be affiliated with an Emergency Operations Center that responds in the event of a disaster. There are a number of documented criticisms of fusion centers, including relative ineffectiveness at counterterrorism activities, the potential to be used for secondary purposes unrelated to counterterrorism, and their links to violations of civil liberties of American citizens and others.[65] David Rittgers of the Cato Institute has noted a long line of fusion center and DHS reports labeling broad swaths of the public as a threat to national security. The North Texas Fusion System labeled Muslim lobbyists as a potential threat; a DHS analyst in Wisconsin thought both pro- and anti-abortion activists were worrisome; a Pennsylvania homeland security contractor watched environmental activists, Tea Party groups, and a Second Amendment rally; the Maryland State Police put anti-death penalty and anti-war activists in a federal terrorism database; a fusion center in Missouri thought that all third-party voters and Ron Paul supporters were a threat....”[66] MIAC report[edit] The Missouri Information Analysis Center (MIAC) made news in 2009 for targeting[vague] supporters of third party candidates, pro-life activists, and conspiracy theorists as potential militia members.[67] Anti-war activists and Islamic lobby groups were targeted in Texas, drawing criticism from the American Civil Liberties Union.[68] The Privacy Office has identified a number of risks to privacy presented by the Fusion Center program: 1) justification for Fusion Centers, 2) ambiguous lines of authority, rules, and oversight, 3) participation of the military and the private sector, 4) data mining, 5) excessive secrecy, 6) inaccurate or incomplete information, and 7) mission creep.[69] 2009 Virginia terrorism threat assessment[edit] In early April 2009, the Virginia Fusion Center came under criticism for publishing a terrorism threat assessment which stated that certain universities are potential hubs for terror related activity.[70] The report targeted historically black colleges and identified hacktivism as a form of terrorism.[71] Mail interception[edit] In 2006, MSNBC reported that Grant Goodman, "an 81-year-old retired University of Kansas history professor, received a letter from his friend in the Philippines that had been opened and resealed with a strip of dark green tape bearing the words “by Border Protection” and carrying the official Homeland Security seal."[72] The letter was sent by a devout Catholic Filipino woman with no history of supporting Islamic terrorism.[72] A spokesman for U.S. Customs and Border Protection "acknowledged that the agency can, will and does open mail coming to U.S. citizens that originates from a foreign country whenever it's deemed necessary": "All mail originating outside the United States Customs territory that is to be delivered inside the U.S. Customs territory is subject to Customs examination," says the CBP Web site. That includes personal correspondence. "All mail means 'all mail,'" said John Mohan, a CBP spokesman, emphasizing the point.[72] The Department declined to outline what criteria are used to determine when a piece of personal correspondence should be opened or to say how often or in what volume Customs might be opening mail.[72] Goodman's story provoked outrage in the blogosphere,[73] as well as in the more established media. Reacting to the incident, Mother Jones remarked that "[u]nlike other prying government agencies, Homeland Security wants you to know it is watching you".[74] CNN observed that "[o]n the heels of the NSA wiretapping controversy, Goodman's letter raises more concern over the balance between privacy and security".[75] Employee morale[edit] In July 2006, the Office of Personnel Management conducted a survey of federal employees in all 36 federal agencies on job satisfaction and how they felt their respective agency was headed. DHS was last or near to last in every category including: 33rd on the talent management index 35th on the leadership and knowledge management index 36th on the job satisfaction index 36th on the results-oriented performance culture index The low scores were attributed to major concerns about basic supervision, management and leadership within the agency. Examples from the survey reveal most concerns are about promotion and pay increase based on merit, dealing with poor performance, rewarding creativity and innovation, leadership generating high levels of motivation in the workforce, recognition for doing a good job, lack of satisfaction with various component policies and procedures and lack of information about what is going on with the organization.[76][77] Consumer satisfaction[edit] A 2007 AP poll ranked DHS at the bottom of an index of consumer satisfaction among cabinet departments, and two of its agencies, FEMA and TSA, at the bottom, below the IRS.[78] See also[edit] Portal icon United States portal Container Security Initiative E-Verify Electronic System for Travel Authorization Home Office UK Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program Homeland security grant Homeland Security Market Research Homeland Security USA Interior ministry—generally in other countries "interior ministries" usually deal with internal police, immigration and border control duties National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), Ft. Detrick, MD National Strategy for Homeland Security Project Hostile Intent Public Safety Canada Shadow Wolves Terrorism in the United States United States visas United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT) Visa Waiver Program Notes and references[edit] 1.Jump up ^ [1][dead link] 2.Jump up ^ "The National Academy of Public Administration". Napawash.org. Retrieved November 24, 2011. 3.Jump up ^ Senate confirms new homeland security secretary 4.Jump up ^ "U.S. HLS-HLD Markets – 2011-2014". Homeland Security Market Research. Retrieved 2013-10-22. 5.Jump up ^ Priest, Dana and Arkin, William (December 2010) Monitoring America, Washington Post 6.Jump up ^ Andreas, Peter (2003). "Redrawing the Line: Borders and Security in the Twenty-first Century" (PDF). International Security 28 (2): 78–111. doi:10.1162/016228803322761973. 7.Jump up ^ Perl, Raphael (2004)."The Department of Homeland Security: Background and Challenges", Terrorism—reducing Vulnerabilities and Improving Responses, Committee on Counterterrorism Challenges for Russia and the United States, Office for Central Europe and Eurasia Development, Security, and Cooperation Policy and Global Affairs, in Cooperation with the Russian Academy of Sciences, page 176. National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-08971-9. 8.Jump up ^ Bovard, James. "Moral high ground not won on battlefield", USA Today, October 8, 2008. Retrieved on August 19, 2008. 9.^ Jump up to: a b Wolf, Naomi (2007). The End of America, page 27. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 1-933392-79-0 10.Jump up ^ Bartlett, James (December 2001). "Homeland: Behind the Buzzword". The Ethical Spectacle. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 11.^ Jump up to: a b c d e "National Strategy For Homeland Security" (PDF). pdf file. DHS. July 2002. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. 12.Jump up ^ Chomsky, Noam (2005). Imperial Ambitions, page 199. Metropolitan Books. ISBN 0-8050-7967-X. 13.^ Jump up to: a b c d e Stephen Barr. "DHS Withdraws Bid to Curb Union Rights", The Washington Post page D01, February 20, 2008. Retrieved on August 20, 2008. 14.Jump up ^ “History: Who Became Part of the Department?” United States Department of Homeland Security website. Retrieved on August 22, 2008. 15.Jump up ^ "Remarks by Governor Ridge Announcing Homeland Security Advisory System". Dhs.gov. March 12, 2002. Retrieved November 24, 2011. 16.Jump up ^ "Copy of press release 0046". US Department of Defense. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 17.Jump up ^ Forbes, Daniel (May 28, 2004). "$226 Million in Govt Ads Helped Pave the Way for War". Antiwar.com. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 18.Jump up ^ "Homeland Security: Ready.Gov". 12/29/2003. Outdoor Advertising Association of America. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 19.Jump up ^ "CNN Live at daybreak". Aired February 20, 2003 (CNN). Retrieved October 31, 2007. 20.Jump up ^ "Homeland Security Frequently Asked Questions". ready.gov. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 21.Jump up ^ "Clean Air". ready.gov. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 22.Jump up ^ "Are You Ready.gov?". February 21st, 2003. lies.com. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 23.Jump up ^ "National Cyber Security Division". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved June 14, 2008. 24.^ Jump up to: a b "FAQ: Cyber Security R&D Center". U.S. Department of Homeland Security S&T Directorate. Retrieved June 14, 2008. 25.Jump up ^ "Ongoing Research and Development". U.S. Department of Homeland Security S&T Directorate. Retrieved June 14, 2008. 26.Jump up ^ AFP-JiJi, "U.S. boots up cybersecurity center", October 31, 2009. 27.Jump up ^ Home - First Responder Communities of Practice. Communities.firstresponder.gov. (U.S. Department of Homeland Security). Retrieved 2014-02-24. 28.Jump up ^ "DHS First Responder Communities of Practice". First Responder Technologies Bulletin (U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate). 2011-02-11 (Retrieved 2014-02-24) 29.^ Jump up to: a b First Responder Communities of Practice. Virtual Social Media Working Group Community Engagement Guidance and Best Practices [FINAL] (U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate). 2012-09-18 (Retrieved 2014-02-24) 30.Jump up ^ Tinder, Paul. “Social media plays major role in emergency response”. BioPrepWatch. 2014-02-21 (Retrieved 2014-02-24) 31.Jump up ^ "DHS | Department Structure". DHS.gov. October 11, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2011. 32.Jump up ^ 2013 Department of Homeland Security Budget Request, pg 4, United States Government Printing Office, Accessed 2012-12-22 33.^ Jump up to: a b "US Department of Homeland Security Annual Financial Report FY 2010 (vid. pp.147 ff.)". US Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 34.Jump up ^ "US Department of Homeland Security Annual Financial Report FY 2009 (vid. p.134)". US Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 35.Jump up ^ "US Department of Homeland Security Annual Financial Report FY 2008 (vid. p.44)". US Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 36.Jump up ^ "US Department of Homeland Security Annual Financial Report FY 2007 (vid. p.50)". US Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 37.Jump up ^ "US Department of Homeland Security Annual Financial Report FY 2005 (vid. p.294)". US Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 38.Jump up ^ "US Department of Homeland Security Annual Financial Report FY 2003 (vid. p.40)". US Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 39.Jump up ^ "US Department of Homeland Security Annual Financial Report FY 2006, FY 2004 (404 error)". US Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 40.^ Jump up to: a b "US Department of Homeland Security Annual Financial Report FY 2010 (vid. pp.33 ff.)". US Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 41.Jump up ^ "US Department of Homeland Security Annual Financial Report FY 2010 (vid. pp.4 f.)". US Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 42.Jump up ^ Office of the Press Secretary (June 19, 2003). "Department of Homeland Security Seal". Fact Sheet. United States Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved October 24, 2006. "Today Secretary Ridge unveiled the new Department of Homeland Security seal while speaking to 200 employees in Selfridge, Michigan.The seal is symbolic of the Department's mission – to prevent attacks and protect Americans – on the land, in the sea and in the air. Seal Description: In the center of the seal, a graphically styled white American eagle appears in a circular blue field. The eagle's outstretched wings break through an inner red ring into an outer white ring that contains the words "U.S. DEPARTMENT OF" in the top half and "HOMELAND SECURITY" in the bottom half in a circular placement. The eagle's wings break through the inner circle into the outer ring to suggest that the Department of Homeland Security will break through traditional bureaucracy and perform government functions differently. In the tradition of the Great Seal of the United States, the eagle's talon on the left holds an olive branch with 13 leaves and 13 seeds while the eagle's talon on the right grasps 13 arrows. Centered on the eagle's breast is a shield divided into three sections containing elements that represent the American homeland – air, land, and sea. The top element, a dark blue sky, contains 22 stars representing the original 22 entities that have come together to form the department. The left shield element contains white mountains behind a green plain underneath a light blue sky. The right shield element contains four wave shapes representing the oceans alternating light and dark blue separated by white lines. Background: The seal was developed with input from DHS senior leadership, employees, and the U.S. Commission on Fine Arts. The Ad Council, which currently partners with DHS on its Ready campaign, and the consulting company Landor Associates were responsible for graphic design and maintaining heraldic integrity. Going Forward: All 180,000 DHS employees will soon receive a DHS lapel pin and a personalized DHS certificate. The personalized certificate signifies that the employee was part of the Department of Homeland Security at its inception. The seal will ultimately be used on department materials, signage, credentials, badges, vehicles, sea vessels and aircraft. Media wishing to obtain a high resolution version of the new Department of Homeland Security seal should contact the press office." 43.Jump up ^ "Statement of Secretary Tom Ridge". DHS. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 44.Jump up ^ "DHS Opens New Headquarters on St. Elizabeths Campus" (Press release). DHS Press Office. July 29, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2013. 45.Jump up ^ "Most Endangered Places". 2/2009. National Trust. Retrieved February 4, 2009. 46.Jump up ^ Holley, Joel (June 17, 2007). "Tussle Over St. Elizabeths". Washington Post. p. C01. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 47.Jump up ^ "NCPC Approves Final Master Plan for DHS Headquarters at St. Elizabeths". 48.Jump up ^ Medici, Andy. "Budget Plan Underfunds DHS Headquarters Construction." Federal Times. February 13, 2012. Accessed 2012-05-02. 49.Jump up ^ Hedgpeth, Dana (September 17, 2008). "Congress Says DHS Oversaw $15 Billion in Failed Contracts". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 17, 2008. 50.Jump up ^ Lipton, Eric (July 19, 2006). "Homeland Security Department Is Accused of Credit Card Misuse". The New York Times. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 51.Jump up ^ Jakes Jordan, Lara (July 19, 2006). "Credit Card Fraud at DHS". Homeland Security Weekly. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 52.Jump up ^ "Government's Katrina credit cards criticized". Associated Press. September 15, 2005. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 53.Jump up ^ Hedgpeth, Dana (September 17, 2008). "Congress says DHS oversaw $15 billion in failed contracts". Washington Post. Retrieved September 17, 2008. 54.Jump up ^ Task Force Report on Streamlining and Consolidating Congressional Oversight of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Annenberg Public Policy Center. 2013. p. 6. 55.Jump up ^ "Who Oversees Homeland Security? Um, Who Doesn't?". National Public Radio. 20 July 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 56.Jump up ^ Task Force Report on Streamlining and Consolidating Congressional Oversight of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Annenberg Public Policy Center. 2013. p. 13. 57.Jump up ^ Sniffen, Michael J. (September 5, 2007). "DHS Ends Criticized Data-Mining Program". Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 58.Jump up ^ "ADVISE Report: DHS Privacy Office Review of the Analysis, Dissemination, Visualization, Insight and Semantic Enhancement (ADVISE) Program" (PDF). pdf file. DHS. Retrieved July 31, 2007. 59.Jump up ^ "ADVISE Could Support Intelligence Analysis More Effectively" (PDF). pdf file. DHS. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 60.Jump up ^ Singel, Ryan (March 20, 2007). "Homeland Data Tool Needs Privacy Help, Report Says". Wired. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 61.Jump up ^ "Early Attention to Privacy in Developing a Key DHS Program Could Reduce Risks (GAO-07-293)". GAO. February 28, 2007. Retrieved July 31, 2007. 62.Jump up ^ Monahan, T. 2009. The Murky World of 'Fusion Centres'. Criminal Justice Matters 75 (1): 20–21. 63.Jump up ^ Jeffery, Keith. "Smashing Intelligence Stovepipes". Security Management. Retrieved November 24, 2011. 64.Jump up ^ Report on Fusion Centers July 29, 2009 Democracy Now 65.Jump up ^ Monahan, T. and Palmer, N.A. 2009. "The Emerging Politics of DHS Fusion Centers." Security Dialogue 40 (6): 617–636. 66.Jump up ^ Rittgers, David (February 2, 2011) We're All Terrorists Now, Cato Institute 67.Jump up ^ "'Fusion Centers' Expand Criteria to Identify Militia Members". Fox News. March 23, 2009.[dead link] 68.Jump up ^ Wagley, John. "Fusion Centers Under Fire in Texas and New Mexico". Security Management. Retrieved November 24, 2011. 69.Jump up ^ Privacy Impact Assessment for the Department of Homeland Security State, Local, and Regional Fusion Center Initiative December 11, 2008 [2] 70.Jump up ^ "Fusion center declares nation's oldest universities possible terror threat". The Raw Story. Retrieved November 24, 2011. 71.Jump up ^ "Assessment". The Raw Story. March 2009. Retrieved 2013-10-22. 72.^ Jump up to: a b c d Meeks, Brock (January 6, 2006) Homeland Security opening private mail, MSNBC 73.Jump up ^ Cole, John (January 9, 2006) Your Mail- Free for Government Inspection, Balloon Juice 74.Jump up ^ Dees, Diane (January 9, 2006) Department of Homeland Security opens Kansas professor's mail, Mother Jones 75.Jump up ^ Transcript from The Situation Room (January 12, 2006) 76.Jump up ^ "Homeland Security employees rank last in job satisfaction survey". ABC Inc., WLS-TV Chicago. February 8, 2007. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 77.Jump up ^ Conroy, Bill (January 31, 2007). "DHS memo reveals agency personnel are treated like "human capital"". narco news. Retrieved October 31, 2007. 78.Jump up ^ Poll: Travelers dislike TSA as much as IRS External links[edit] ANSI Homeland Security Standards Panel Ready.gov – DHS website to promote readiness for natural and man-made emergencies. House Committee on Homeland Security The White House – Homeland Security DHS Organizational Chart PDF (144 KB) – from March 20, 2008. Homeland Security from UCB Libraries GovPubs OpenRegs.com – Department of Homeland Security Proposed and finalized federal regulations from the United States Department of Homeland Security. United States Department of Homeland Security collected news and commentary at The Washington Post Interactive graph detailing post 9/11 DHS inter-agency communication and responsibility National Terrorism Advisory System Department of Homeland Security at the Wayback Machine (archived July 12, 2002) Department of Homeland Security at the Wayback Machine (archived July 26, 2002) Department of Homeland Security at the Wayback Machine (archived October 8, 2003) [show] v· t· e Agencies under the United States Department of Homeland Security · · · · · · · · · · · · · A graphically styled American eagle appears in a circular blue field. The eagle's outstretched wings break through an inner red ring into an outer white ring that contains a circular placement of the words "U.S. DEPARTMENT OF" in the top half and "HOMELAND SECURITY" in the bottom half. The outer white ring has a silvery gray border. As in The Great Seal, the eagle’s left claw holds an olive branch with 13 leaves and 13 seeds while the right claw grasps 13 arrows. Centered on the eagle's breast is a shield divided into three sections containing elements that represent the homeland "from sea to shining sea." The top element, a dark blue sky, contains 22 stars representing the original 22 agencies and bureaus that have come together to form the department. The left shield element contains white mountains behind a green plain underneath a light blue sky. 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Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view

American Medical Association From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search [hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2009) This article has an unclear citation style. (November 2010) Question book-new.svg This article relies on references to primary sources. (August 2009) This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (June 2011) American Medical Association Logo(ama).png Motto Helping Doctors Help Patients Formation 1847 Type professional association Headquarters Chicago, Illinois Location United States Membership 217,490 as of 2011[1] Official languages English President Ardis Dee Hoven[2] Key people Chair Steven J. Stack CEO & EVP James Madara The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897,[3] is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.[4] Contents [hide] 1 Scope and operations 2 Charitable activities 3 Politics 4 Criticisms 5 Membership 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links Scope and operations[edit] (See also List of presidents of the American Medical Association) The AMA's stated mission is to promote the art and science of medicine for the betterment of the public health, to advance the interests of physicians and their patients, to promote public health, to lobby for legislation favorable to physicians and patients, and to raise money for medical education. The Association also publishes the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), which has the largest circulation of any weekly medical journal in the world.[5] The AMA also publishes a list of Physician Specialty Codes which are the standard method in the U.S. for identifying physician and practice specialties. The AMA has one of the largest political lobbying budgets of any organization in the United States.[6] Its political positions throughout its history have often been controversial. In the 1930s, the AMA attempted to prohibit its members from working for the then-primitive health maintenance organizations that had sprung up during the Great Depression, which violated the Sherman Antitrust Act and resulted in a conviction ultimately affirmed by the US Supreme Court.[7] The AMA's vehement campaign against Medicare in the 1950s and 1960s included the Operation Coffee Cup supported by Ronald Reagan. Since the enactment of Medicare, the AMA reversed its position and now opposes any "cut to Medicare funding or shift [of] increased costs to beneficiaries at the expense of the quality or accessibility of care". However, the AMA remains opposed to any single-payer health care plan that might enact a National Health Service in the United States, such as the United States National Health Care Act. In the 1990s, the organization was part of the coalition that defeated the health care reform advanced by Hillary and Bill Clinton. The AMA has also supported changes in medical malpractice law to limit damage awards, which, it contends, makes it difficult for patients to find appropriate medical care. In many states, high risk specialists have moved to other states that have enacted reform. For example, in 2004, all neurosurgeons had relocated out of the entire southern half of Illinois[citation needed]. The main legislative emphasis in multiple states has been to effect caps on the amount that patients can receive for pain and suffering. These costs for pain and suffering are only those that exceed the actual costs of healthcare and lost income. At the same time however, states without caps also experienced similar results; suggesting that other market factors may have contributed to the decreases. Some economic studies have found that caps have historically had an uncertain effect on premium rates.[8] Nevertheless, the AMA believes the caps may alleviate what is often perceived as an excessively litigious environment for many doctors.[citation needed] A recent report by the AMA found that in a 12 month period, five percent of physicians had claims filed against them.[9] Claims that the AMA generates $70 million in revenue through its stewardship of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes appear to be a mischaracterization.[citation needed] The estimate is based on a distortion[citation needed] of the transparent financial information the AMA voluntarily offers in its Annual Report. The AMA has publicly reported this figure represents income from its complete line of books and products, which include more than 100 items, not just CPT.[10] The AMA sponsors the Specialty Society Relative Value Scale Update Committee which is an influential group of 29 physicians, mostly specialists, who help determine the value of different physician's labor in Medicare prices. Collections of the association's papers dating from the late 1860s to the late 1960s are held at the National Library of Medicine.[11][12] Charitable activities[edit] The AMA Foundation provides approximately $1,000,000 annually in tuition assistance to financially needy students. This has to be seen on the background that in 2007, graduating medical students carried a mean debt load of $140,000 which rose to $220,000 after 4 yrs of negative amortization during residency[13] medical student debt has increased by 7% each successive year.[14] Funds awareness projects about health literacy Funds community service, community health, and healthcare education events held by local medical societies and student chapters Supports research funding for students and fellows around the U.S. Provides grants to community projects designed to encourage healthy lifestyles (of diet and exercise, good sleep habits, etc.). The Worldscopes project is a collaboration with the medical community to collect stethoscopes and the funds to buy them. The stethoscopes are then distributed to those in the global medical community who normally lack the resources to obtain the instruments. Thousands of stethoscopes have been sent to physicians and others in the medical community around the world who lack access to this medical instrument.[15] Politics[edit] The American Medical Association headquarters building in Chicago. Throughout its history, the AMA has been actively involved in a variety of medical policy issues, from Medicare and HMOs to public health, and climate change. Between 1998 and 2011, the AMA spent $264 million on lobbyists, second only to the American Chamber of Commerce.[6] In the 1930s, the AMA attempted to prohibit its members from working for the primitive health maintenance organizations that sprung up during the Great Depression. The AMA's subsequent conviction for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act was affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court.[7] The AMA's vehement campaign against Medicare in the 1950s and 1960s included the Operation Coffee Cup supported by Ronald Reagan. Before Medicare passed, according to Steven Schroeder, Wilbur Cohen inserted "usual, customary and reasonable" charges into the Social Security Act of 1965 "in an unsuccessful attempt to placate" the AMA.[16] Since the enactment of Medicare, the AMA stated that it "continues to oppose attempts to cut Medicare funding or shift increased costs to beneficiaries at the expense of the quality or accessibility of care" and "strongly supports subsidization of prescription drugs for Medicare patients based on means testing". The AMA also campaigns to raise Medicare payments to physicians, arguing that increases will protect seniors' access to health care. In the 1990s, it was part of the coalition that defeated the health care reform proposed by President Bill Clinton. The AMA supported the War on Drugs, providing a medical excuse to clamp down on marijuana-use in the 90s. The AMA has given high priority to supporting changes in medical malpractice law to limit damage awards, which, it contends, makes it difficult for patients to find appropriate medical care. In many states, high-risk specialists have moved to other states with such limits. For example, in 2004, not a single neurosurgeon remained in the entire southern half of Illinois[citation needed]. The main legislative emphasis in multiple states has been to effect caps on the amount that patients can receive for pain and suffering. These costs for pain and suffering are only those that exceed the actual costs of health care and lost income. Multiple states found that limiting pain and suffering costs has dramatically slowed increases in the cost of medical malpractice insurance. The state of Texas enacted such reforms in 2003 and subsequently reported in 2005 that all major malpractice insurers were able to offer either no increase or a decrease in premiums to physicians. Another top priority of the AMA is to lobby for change to the federal tax codes to allow the current health insurance system (based on employment) to be purchased by individuals. Such changes could possibly allow millions of currently uninsured Americans to be able to afford insurance through a series of refundable tax credits based on income (for example, the lower one's income, the greater your credit)[citation needed]. The AMA has made efforts to respond to health care disparities. As such, the AMA created an advisory committee to assess the nature of disparities within different racial and ethnic groups.[17] One such committee focuses on the health of the Gay, Lesbian Bisexual and Transgender community. In 2005, the AMA president Edward Hill gave a keynote address to the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association at its annual conference.[18] Since that time, the AMA has worked closely with GLMA to develop AMA policy towards better health care access for LGBT patients and better working environments for LGBT physicians and medical students.[19] The AMA responded to the government estimate that more than 35 million Americans live in underserved areas by stating it would take 16,000 doctors to immediately fill that need, and the gap is expected to widen due to rising population and aging work force. "And that will mostly be felt in rural America," said Sen. Kent Conrad, D-N.D., adding, "We're facing a real crisis." Fueling the shortage are the restrictions on allowing foreign physicians to work in the U.S. after the September 11, 2001 attack, and may become more restrictive after the attempted terrorist bombings June 2007 in Britain, still under investigation, linked to foreign doctors.[20][21] In June 2007, at its annual meeting, the AMA discussed its opposition to a fast-spreading nationwide trend for medical clinics to open up in supermarkets and drugstores. The AMA identified at least two problems with in-store clinics: potential conflict of interest, and potential jeopardized quality of care. The AMA went on to rally state and federal agencies to investigate the relationship between the operating clinics and the pharmacy chains to decide if this practice should be prohibited or regulated. Dr. Peter Carmel, neurosurgeon and AMA board member asked, "If you own both sides of the operation, shouldn't people look at that?" The AMA also noted some employers reduce or waive the co-payment if an employee goes to the retail clinic instead of the doctor's office, inferring that this practice might negatively affect quality of care.[22] In 2008, the AMA issued a policy statement on global climate change declaring that they "support the findings of the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, which states that the Earth is undergoing adverse global climate change and that these changes will negatively affect public health." They also "support educating the medical community on the potential adverse public health effects of global climate change, including topics such as population displacement, flooding, infectious and vector-borne diseases, and healthy water supplies."[23] In July 2008, the AMA focused its energy on blocking cuts to Medicare. Through advocacy efforts and communications campaigns, the AMA and all the specialty societies and state medical societies it comprises came out with a temporary victory. Despite a presidential veto, H.R. 6331, the "Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008", passed with wide, bi-partisan majorities in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. The AMA has affirmed, through continual policy statement (policies H-460.957, H-460.974, H-460.964, and H-460.991 for example), its support for appropriate and compassionate use of animals in biomedical research programs, and its opposition to the actions of other groups that impede such research, such as some actions from animal rights groups, and its opposition to legislation that unduly restricts such research. The AMA's Office of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse promotes temperance and lobbies for a reduction of alcoholic beverage advertising and an increase in alcoholic beverage taxes, among other activities. The AMA supported the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act as a step toward providing coverage to all Americans and improving the nation's health system.[24] See AMA news release at: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/health-system-reform/ama-supports-reform-passage.shtml Criticisms[edit] Critics of the American Medical Association, including economist Milton Friedman, have asserted that the organization acts as a guild and has attempted to increase physicians' wages and fees by influencing limitations on the supply of physicians and non-physician competition. Some counter this argument by citing "the American Medical Association has been supportive of medical school expansion to help ensure there are enough physicians to care for all Americans. The number of medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, of which the AMA is one of two co-sponsors, increased from 125 in 2006 to 137 in 2012. The number of medical students in the U.S. is also increasing." [25] In Free to Choose, Friedman said "the AMA has engaged in extensive litigation charging chiropractors and osteopathic physicians with the unlicensed practice of medicine, in an attempt to restrict them to as narrow an area as possible."[26] Profession and Monopoly, a book published in 1975, is critical of the AMA for limiting the supply of physicians and inflating the cost of medical care in the United States. The book claims that physician supply is kept low by the AMA to ensure high pay for practicing physicians. It states that in the United States the number, curriculum, and size of medical schools are restricted by state licensing boards controlled by representatives of state medical societies associated with the AMA. The book is also critical of the ethical rules adopted by the AMA which restrict advertisement and other types of competition between professionals. It points out that advertising and bargaining can result in expulsion from the AMA and legal revocation of licenses. Restrictions against advertising that is not false or deceptive were dropped from the AMA Code of Medical Ethics in 1980 (AMA Ethical Policy E-5.02). The book also states that before 1912 the AMA included uniform fees for specific medical procedures in its official code of ethics. The AMA's influence on hospital regulation was also criticized in the book.[27] The AMA and other industry groups predicted an over-supply of doctors, and worked to limit the number of new doctors. But recently, the AMA has changed its position, predicting a doctor shortage instead.[28] It has been argued that the AMA's CPT monopoly has been created by the government and makes the organization subject to government influence; further, the restricted access to CPT codes may not be in the interest of its constituents.[29] Membership[edit] Published membership figures as reported by the AMA include: Year Membership Reference 2002 278,000 [30] 2007 238,977 [31] 2009 228,150 2010 215,854 [32][33] 2011 217,490 [34] See also[edit] JAMA (journal) JAMA Pediatrics AMA Foundation Leadership Award AMA Manual of Style AMA Scientific Achievement Award American Association of Physicians and Surgeons American College of Physicians American Dental Association American Medical Student Association American Osteopathic Association List of journals published by the American Medical Association National Physicians Alliance Physicians for a National Health Program References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ Collier R (August 9, 2011). "American Medical Association membership woes continue". CMAJ 183 (11): E713–E714. doi:10.1503/cmaj.109-3943. PMC 3153537. PMID 21746826. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 2.Jump up ^ http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/news/news/2013/2013-06-18-ardis-hoven-inaugurated-ama-president.page 3.Jump up ^ "AMA (AMA History) 1847 to 1899". American Medical Association. Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-16. 4.Jump up ^ "AMA Recognizes Obesity as a Disease". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 5.Jump up ^ "About JAMA: JAMA website". 6.^ Jump up to: a b Klein, Ezra (22 Mar 2012). "Our Corrupt Politics: It's Not All Money". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 2013-06-30. 7.^ Jump up to: a b American Medical Ass'n. v. United States, 317 U.S. 519 (1943) 8.Jump up ^ Weiss Ratings News: Medical Malpractice Caps Fail to Prevent Premium Increases, According to Weiss Ratings Study 9.Jump up ^ Medical Liability Claim Frequency: A 2007-2008 Snapshot of Physicians 10.Jump up ^ http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/37/2009-annual-report.pdf 11.Jump up ^ "American Medical Association annual meetings collection 1866-1890". National Library of Medicine. 12.Jump up ^ "AMA Deceased Physicians Masterfile 1906-1969". National Library of Medicine. 13.Jump up ^ "House passes partial forgiveness for medical student loans". 14.Jump up ^ "Medical Student Debt". Archived from the original on 30 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-07. 15.Jump up ^ "Give a simple stethoscope, Make a world of difference". Retrieved August 2009. 16.Jump up ^ Steven A. Schroeder (April 2011). "Personal reflections on the high cost of American medical care: Many causes but few politically sustainable solutions". Archives of Internal Medicine 171 (8): 722–727. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.149. PMID 21518938. 17.Jump up ^ AMA (Public Health) Eliminating health disparities 18.Jump up ^ AMA (GLBT) News release from the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association 19.Jump up ^ AMA (GLBT) AMA policy regarding sexual orientation 20.Jump up ^ "Shortage of doctors affects rural U.S.". Retrieved 2007-07-22.[dead link] 21.Jump up ^ "Short supply of foreign doctors". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07-22. 22.Jump up ^ "In-store clinics". Retrieved 2007-07-22. 23.Jump up ^ AMA policy statement on climate change 24.Jump up ^ http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/399/hsr-3590-passage-support.pdf 25.Jump up ^ "AMA Supports Training More M.D.s". Wall Street Journal. 2012-04-12. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 26.Jump up ^ Friedman, Milton; Rose D. Friedman (1990). Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. Mariner Books. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-15-633460-0. 27.Jump up ^ Berlant, Jeffrey (1975). Profession and Monopoly: a study of medicine in the United States and Great Britain. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02734-5. 28.Jump up ^ Cauchon, Dennis (2005-03-02). "Medical miscalculation creates doctor shortage". USA Today. 29.Jump up ^ Scherz H. (2010-05-07). "Why the AMA wants to muzzle your doctor". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-10. 30.Jump up ^ Korcok M (August 20, 2002). "As membership plummets, American Medical Association seeks answers". CMAJ 167 (4): 386. PMC 117867. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 31.Jump up ^ Peck P (June 25, 2007). "AMA: after one-year increase, AMA membership declines again". MedPage Today. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 32.Jump up ^ Walker EP (June 20, 2011). "AMA: once again fewer doctors choose AMA". MedPage Today. Retrieved January 4, 2012. 33.Jump up ^ "DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HOUSE OF DELEGATES AND AMA LEADERSHIP". 34.Jump up ^ Collier R (August 9, 2011). "American Medical Association membership woes continue". CMAJ 183 (11): E713–E714. doi:10.1503/cmaj.109-3943. PMC 3153537. PMID 21746826. Retrieved January 4, 2012. Further reading[edit] Burrow, James G. AMA: Voice of American Medicine. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1963. Campion, Frank. The AMA and U.S. Health Policy Since 1940. Chicago: Chicago Review Press, 1984. Fishbein, Morris. History of the American Medical Association, 1847–1947. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1947. Numbers, Ronald. Almost Persuaded: American Physicians and Compulsory Health Insurance, 1912–1920. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978. Poen, Monte. Harry S. Truman versus the Medical Lobby: The Genesis of Medicare. Columbia, MO: The University of Missouri Press, 1979. Starr, Paul. The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry. New York: Basic Books, 1982. External links[edit] Official website American Medical Association annual meetings collection (1866-1890)—National Library of Medicine finding aid AMA Deceased Physicians Masterfile (1906-1969)—National Library of Medicine finding aid [show] v· t· e State affiliates of the American Medical Association · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Categories: Organizations established in 1847 American Medical Association Medical and health professional associations in Chicago, Illinois Supraorganizations Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages العربية Беларуская Català Deutsch Español Français Italiano Norsk bokmål Русский Suomi Türkçe 中文 Edit links This page was last modified on 11 March 2014 at 07:49. 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Rockefeller Foundation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The Rockefeller Foundation Rockefeller Foundation logo Type Non-operating private foundation (IRS exemption status): 501(c)(3)[1] Founded 1913 Founder(s) John D. Rockefeller, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Frederick Taylor Gates Headquarters 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City Key people President - Judith Rodin Focus(es) "Smart Globalization" Mission "to promote the well-being of mankind throughout the world."[2] Method(s) Endowment Endowment $3.4 billion (2009)[1] Website RockefellerFoundation.org The Rockefeller Foundation is a philanthropic organization and private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City.[3] The preeminent institution established by the six-generation Rockefeller family, it was founded by John D. Rockefeller ("Senior"), along with his son John D. Rockefeller, Jr. ("Junior"), and Senior's principal business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, in New York State May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature.[4] Its central historical mission is "to promote the well-being of mankind throughout the world."[2] Some of its objectives and achievements include: Financially supported education in the United States "without distinction of race, sex or creed"[5] Helped establish the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom; Established the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health and Harvard School of Public Health, two of the first such institutions in the United States;[6][7] Established the School of Hygiene at the University of Toronto in 1927;[8] Developed the vaccine to prevent yellow fever;[9][10] Helped The New School provide a haven for scholars threatened by the Nazis[11] It developed and funded various German eugenics programs, including the one that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.[12][13] Although it is no longer the largest foundation by assets, the Rockefeller Foundation's pre-eminent legacy ranks it among the most influential NGOs in the world.[14] By year-end 2008 assets were tallied at $3.1 billion from $4.6 billion in 2007, with annual grants of $137 million.[1] Contents [hide] 1 Leadership 2 Beginnings 3 Early grants and connections 4 Programs: scale and scope 5 The Green Revolution 6 The Bellagio Center 7 Family involvement 8 Historical legacy 9 Current trustees 10 Notable past trustees 11 Presidents 12 Bibliography 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links Leadership[edit] The foundation's president is Judith Rodin, who succeeded Gordon Conway in 2005. A former president of the University of Pennsylvania, Rodin is the first woman to head the foundation.[15] Beginnings[edit] Original Rockefeller logo, no longer in use Rockefeller's interest in philanthropy on a large scale began in 1889, influenced by Andrew Carnegie's published essay, The Gospel of Wealth, which prompted him to write a letter to Carnegie praising him as an example to other rich men.[citation needed] It was in that year that he made the first of what would become $35 million in gifts, over a period of two decades, to fund the University of Chicago.[16] His initial idea to set up a large-scale tax-exempt foundation occurred in 1901, but it was not until 1906 that Senior's famous business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, seriously revived the idea, saying that Rockefeller's fortune was rolling up so fast his heirs would "dissipate their inheritances or become intoxicated with power", unless he set up "permanent corporate philanthropies for the good of Mankind".[17] It was also in 1906 that the Russell Sage Foundation was established, though its program was limited to working women and social ills. Rockefeller's would thus not be the first foundation in America (Benjamin Franklin was the first to introduce the concept), but it brought to it unprecedented international scale and scope. In 1909 he signed over 73,000 shares of Standard Oil of New Jersey, valued at $50 million, to the three inaugural trustees, Junior, Gates and Harold Fowler McCormick, the first installment of a projected $100 million endowment.[17] They applied for a federal charter for the foundation in the US Senate in 1910, with at one stage Junior even secretly meeting with President William Howard Taft, through the aegis of Senator Nelson Aldrich, to hammer out concessions.[citation needed] However, because of the ongoing (1911) antitrust suit against Standard Oil at the time, along with deep suspicion in some quarters of undue Rockefeller influence on the spending of the endowment, the end result was that Senior and Gates withdrew the bill from Congress in order to seek a state charter.[17] On May 14, 1913, New York Governor William Sulzer approved a state charter for the foundation - two years after the Carnegie Corporation - with Junior becoming the first president. With its large-scale endowment, a large part of Senior's fortune was insulated from inheritance taxes. The total benefactions of both him and Junior and their philanthropies in the end would far surpass Carnegie's endowments, his biographer Ron Chernow states, ranking Rockefeller as "the greatest philanthropist in American history."[17] Early grants and connections[edit] The first Secretary of the foundation was Jerome Davis Greene, the former Secretary of Harvard University, who wrote a "memorandum on principles and policies" for an early meeting of the trustees that established a rough framework for the foundation's work. On December 5, the Board made its first grant of $100,000 to the American Red Cross to purchase property for its headquarters in Washington, D.C.[2] At the beginning the foundation was global in its approach and concentrated in its first decade entirely on the sciences, public health and medical education. It was initially located within the family office at Standard Oil's headquarters at 26 Broadway, later (in 1933) shifting to the GE Building (then RCA), along with the newly named family office, Room 5600, at Rockefeller Center; later it moved to the Time-Life Building in the Center, before shifting to its current Fifth Avenue address. In 1913 the foundation set up the International Health Commission (later Board), the first appropriation of funds for work outside the US, which launched the foundation into international public health activities. This expanded the work of the Sanitary Commission worldwide, working against various diseases in fifty-two countries on six continents and twenty-nine islands, bringing international recognition of the need for public health and environmental sanitation. Its early field research on hookworm, malaria, and yellow fever provided the basic techniques to control these diseases and established the pattern of modern public health services.[citation needed] The Commission established and endowed the world's first school of Hygiene and Public Health, at Johns Hopkins University, and later at Harvard, and then spent more than $25 million in developing other public health schools in the US and in 21 foreign countries - helping to establish America as the world leader in medicine and scientific research. In 1913 it also began a 20-year support program of the Bureau of Social Hygiene, whose mission was research and education on birth control, maternal health and sex education. In 1914 the foundation set up the China Medical Board, which established the first public health university in China, the Peking Union Medical College, in 1921; this was subsequently nationalised when the Communists took over the country in 1949. In the same year it began a program of international fellowships to train scholars at the world's leading universities at the post-doctoral level; a fundamental commitment to the education of future leaders. Also in 1914, the trustees set up a new Department of Industrial Relations, inviting William Lyon MacKenzie King to head it. He became a close and key advisor to Junior through the Ludlow massacre, turning around his attitude to unions; however the foundation's involvement in IR was criticized for advancing the family's business interests.[citation needed] It henceforth confined itself to funding responsible organizations involved in this and other controversial fields, which were beyond the control of the foundation itself.[18] Through the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial, established by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. in 1918 and named after his mother, the family shifted the focus of philanthropy into the social sciences, stimulating the founding of university research centres and creating the Social Science Research Council. This memorial fund was subsequently folded into the foundation in a major reorganization in 1928/9. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. became the foundation chairman in 1917. One of the many prominent trustees of the institution since has been C. Douglas Dillon, the United States Secretary of the Treasury under both Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. The foundation also supported the early initiatives of Henry Kissinger, such as his directorship of Harvard's International Seminars and the early foreign policy magazine Confluence, both established by him while he was still a graduate student.[19] Programs: scale and scope[edit] Through the years the foundation has expanded greatly in scope. Historically, it has given more than $14 billion in current dollars[16] to thousands of grantees worldwide and has assisted directly in the training of nearly 13,000 Rockefeller Fellows. Its overall philanthropic activity has been divided into five main subject areas:[20] Medical, health, and population sciences Agricultural and natural sciences Arts and humanities Social sciences International relations In the 1920s, the Rockefeller Foundation started a program to eradicate hookworm in Mexico. The program exemplified the time period's confidence in science as the solution for everything.[21] This reliance on science was known as scientific neutrality. The Rockefeller Foundation program stated that there was a crucial correlation between the world of science, politics and international health policy. This heavy reliance of scientific neutrality contradicted the hookworm program's fundamental objective to invest in public health in order to develop better social conditions and to establish positive ties between the United States and Mexico.[22] The Hookworm Campaign set the terms of the relationship between Mexico and the Rockefeller Foundation that persisted through subsequent programs including the development of a network of local public health departments. The importance of the hookworm campaign was to get a foot in the door and swiftly convince rural people of the value of public health work. The roles of the RF's hookworm campaign are characteristic of the policy paradoxes that emerge when science is summoned to drive policy. The campaign in Mexico served as a policy cauldron through which new knowledge could be demonstrated applicable to social and political problems on many levels.[23] A major program beginning in the 1930s was the relocation of German (Jewish) scholars from German universities to America. This was expanded to other European countries after the Anschluss occurred; when war broke out it became a full-scale rescue operation. Another program, the Emergency Rescue Committee was also partly funded with Rockefeller money; this effort resulted in the rescue of some of the most famous artists, writers and composers of Europe. Some of the notable figures relocated or saved (out of a total of 303 scholars) by the Foundation were Thomas Mann, Claude Lévi-Strauss and Leó Szilárd, enriching intellectual life and academic disciplines in the US. This came to light afterwards through a brief, unpublished history of the Foundation's program.[24] Another significant program was its Medical Sciences Division, which extensively funded women's contraception and the human reproductive system in general. Other funding went into endocrinology departments in American universities, human heredity, mammalian biology, human physiology and anatomy, psychology, and the pioneering studies of human sexual behavior by Dr. Alfred Kinsey.[25] Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory Field Assistant, Nariva Swamp, Trinidad. 1959 In 1950 the Foundation mounted a major program of virus research, establishing field laboratories in Poona, India; Port of Spain, Trinidad; Belém, Brazil; Johannesburg, South Africa; Cairo, Egypt; Ibadan, Nigeria; and Cali, Colombia.[citation needed] In time, major funding was also contributed by the countries involved, while in Trinidad the British government and neighbouring British-controlled territories also assisted. Sub-professional staff were almost all recruited locally and, wherever possible, local people were given scholarships and other support to be professionally trained. In most cases, locals eventually took over management of the facilities. Support was also given to research on viruses in many other countries. The result of all this research was the identification of a huge number of viruses affecting humans, the development of new techniques for the rapid identification of viruses, and a quantum leap in our understanding of arthropod-borne viruses.[26] In the arts it has helped establish or support the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in Ontario, Canada, and the American Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Connecticut; Arena Stage in Washington, D.C.; Karamu House in Cleveland, Ohio; and Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York. In a recent shift[when?] in program emphasis, President Rodin eliminated the division that spent money on the arts, the creativity and culture program. One program that signals the shift was the foundation's support as the underwriter of Spike Lee's documentary on New Orleans, When the Levees Broke. The film has been used as the basis for a curriculum on poverty, developed by the Teachers College at Columbia University for their students.[27] Thousands of scientists and scholars from all over the world have received foundation fellowships and scholarships for advanced study in major scientific disciplines. In addition, the foundation has provided significant and often substantial research grants to finance conferences and assist with published studies, as well as funding departments and programs, to a vast range of foreign policy and educational organizations, including:[citation needed] Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) - Especially the notable 1939-45 War and Peace Studies that advised the US State Department and the US government on World War II strategy and forward planning Royal Institute of International Affairs (RIIA) in London Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington - Support of the diplomatic training program Brookings Institution in Washington - Significant funding of research grants in the fields of economic and social studies World Bank in Washington - Helped finance the training of foreign officials through the Economic Development Institute Harvard University - Grants to the Center for International Affairs and medical, business and administration Schools Yale University - Substantial funding to the Institute of International Studies Princeton University - Office of Population Research Columbia University - Establishment of the Russia Institute University of the Philippines, Los Baños - Funded research for the College of Agriculture and built an international house for foreign students McGill University - The Rockefeller Foundation funded the Montreal Neurological Institute, on the request of Dr. Wilder Penfield, a Canadian neurosurgeon, who had met David Rockefeller years before Library of Congress - Funded a project for photographic copies of the complete card catalogues for the world's fifty leading libraries Bodleian Library at Oxford University - Grant for a building to house five million volumes Population Council of New York - Funded fellowships Social Science Research Council - Major funding for fellowships and grants-in-aid National Bureau of Economic Research[28] National Institute of Public Health of Japan (formerly The Institute of Public Health (国立公衆衛生院 Kokuritsu Kōshū Eisei-in?) "School of Public Health"ja) in Tokyo (1938) Group of Thirty - In 1978 the Foundation invited Geoffrey Bell to set up this high-powered and influential advisory group on global financial issues, whose current chairman is a longtime Rockefeller associate Paul Volcker[29] London School of Economics - funded research and general budget University of Lyon, France - funded research in natural sciences, social sciences, medicine and the new building of the medical school during the 1920s-1930s The Trinidad Regional Virus Laboratory The Results for Development Institute - funded the Center for Health Market Innovations The Green Revolution[edit] Main article: Green Revolution Agriculture was introduced to the Natural Sciences division of the foundation in the major reorganization of 1928. In 1941, the foundation gave a small grant to Mexico for maize research, in collaboration with the then new president, Manuel Ávila Camacho. This was done after the intervention of vice-president Henry Wallace and the involvement of Nelson Rockefeller; the primary intention being to stabilise the Mexican Government and derail any possible communist infiltration, in order to protect the Rockefeller family's investments.[30] By 1943 this program, under the foundation's Mexican Agriculture Project, had proved such a success with the science of corn propagation and general principles of agronomy that it was exported to other Latin American countries; in 1956 the program was then taken to India; again with the geopolitical imperative of providing an antidote to communism.[30] It wasn't until 1959 that senior foundation officials succeeded in getting the Ford Foundation (and later USAID, and later still, the World Bank) to sign on to the major philanthropic project, known now to the world as the Green Revolution, originally conceived as CIMMYT The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. It also provided significant funding for the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines. Part of the original program, the funding of the IRRI was later taken over by the Ford Foundation.[30] Costing around $600 million, over 50 years, the revolution brought new farming technology, increased productivity, expanded crop yields and mass fertilization to many countries throughout the world. Later it funded over $100 million of plant biotechnology research and trained over four hundred scientists from Asia, Africa and Latin America. It also invested in the production of transgenic crops, including rice and maize. In 1999, the then president Gordon Conway addressed the Monsanto Company board of directors, warning of the possible social and environmental dangers of this biotechnology, and requesting them to disavow the use of so-called terminator genes;[31] the company later complied. In the 1990s, the foundation shifted its agriculture work and emphasis to Africa; in 2006 it joined with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in a $150 million effort to fight hunger in the continent through improved agricultural productivity. In an interview marking the 100 year anniversary of the Rockefeller Foundation, Judith Rodin explained to This Is Africa that Rockefeller has been involved in Africa since their beginning in three main areas - health, agriculture and education, though agriculture has been and continues to be their largest investment in Africa.[32] The Bellagio Center[edit] The foundation also owns and operates the Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center in Bellagio, Italy. The Center comprises several buildings, spread across a 50-acre (200,000 m2) property, on the peninsula between lakes Como and Lecco in Northern Italy. The Center is sometimes colloquially referred to as the Villa Serbelloni. The Villa is only one of the many buildings in which residents and conference participants are housed. The property was bequeathed to the Foundation in 1959 under the presidency of Dean Rusk (who was later to become U.S. President Kennedy's secretary of state). The Bellagio Center operates both a conference center and a residency program.[33] The residency program is a highly competitive program to which scholars, artists, writers, musicians, scientists, policymakers and development professionals from around the world can apply to work on a project of their own choosing for a period of four weeks. The essence of the program is the synergy obtained by the interaction between people coming from the most diverse backgrounds. Numerous Nobel laureates, Pulitzer winners, National Book Award recipients, Prince Mahidol Award winners and MacArthur fellows, as well as several acting and former heads of State and Government, have been in residence at Bellagio. Family involvement[edit] The Rockefeller family helped lead the foundation in its early years, but later limited itself to one or two representatives, to maintain the foundation's independence and avoid charges of undue family influence. These representatives have included the former president John D. Rockefeller 3rd, and then his son John D. Rockefeller, IV, who gave up the trusteeship in 1981. In 1989, David Rockefeller's daughter, Peggy Dulany, was appointed to the board for a five-year term. In October 2006, David Rockefeller, Jr. joined the board of trustees, re-establishing the direct family link and becoming the sixth family member to serve on the board. By contrast, the Ford Foundation has severed all direct links with the Ford family.[citation needed] Stock in the family's oil companies is a major part of the foundation's assets, beginning with Standard Oil and now with its corporate descendants, including Exxon Mobil.[34] Historical legacy[edit] The second-oldest major philanthropic institution in America after the Carnegie Corporation, the foundation's impact on philanthropy in general has been profound. It has supported United Nations programs throughout its history, such as the recent First Global Forum On Human Development, organized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in 1999.[35] The early institutions it set up have served as models for current organizations: the UN's World Health Organization, set up in 1948, is modeled on the International Health Division; the U.S. Government's National Science Foundation (1950) on its approach in support of research, scholarships and institutional development; and the National Institute of Health (1950) imitated its longstanding medical programs.[36] The Rockefeller Foundation, funded Nazi racial studies even after it was clear what this research was being used to rationalize the demonizing of Jews and other groups. Up until 1939 the Rockefeller Foundation was funding research used to support Nazi racial science studies at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (KWIA.) Reports submitted to Rockefeller did not hide what these studies were being used to justify, but Rockefeller continued the funding and refrained from criticizing this research so closely derived from Nazi ideology. The Rockefeller Foundation did not alert "the world to the nature of German science and the racist folly" that German anthropology promulgated and Rockefeller funded for years after the passage of the 1935 Nuremberg racial laws.[37] Current trustees[edit] As of December 27, 2012[38]Ann M. Fudge, 2006-, former chairman and CEO, Young & Rubicam Brands, New York. Helene D. Gayle, 2009-, president and CEO of CARE. Alice S. Huang, Senior Faculty Associate, California Institute of Technology. Martin L. Leibowitz, 2012-, Managing Director, Morgan Stanley; formerly TIAA-CREF (1995 to 2004) and 26 years with Salomon Brothers Monica Lozano, 2012-, CEO, ImpreMedia, LLC Strive Masiyiwa, 2003-, Zimbabwean businessman and cellphone pioneer, founding Econet Wireless. Diana Natalicio, 2004-, President, The University of Texas at El Paso Sandra Day O'Connor, 2006-, Associate Justice, Retired, Supreme Court of the United States, Washington, D.C. (First woman appointed to the Supreme Court.) Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, 2009-, Finance Minister of Nigeria; former Managing Director of the World Bank; former Foreign Minister of Nigeria. Richard Parsons, 2007-, Chairman of the Board, Citigroup Inc. David Rockefeller, Jr., 2006-, Chair of foundation board Dec. 2010- ; Vice Chairman of Rockefeller Family & Associates; Director and former Chair, Rockefeller & Co., Inc.; current Trustee of the Museum of Modern Art. Judith Rodin, President of the Foundation; ex-officio member of Board John Rowe, 2007-, professor at the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health; former Chairman and CEO of Aetna Inc. Notable past trustees[edit] Alan Alda, 1989–1994 - Actor and film director. Winthrop W. Aldrich 1935–1951 - Chairman of the Chase National Bank, 1934–1953; Ambassador to the Court of St. James, 1953-1957. John W. Davis 1922–1939 - J. P. Morgan's private attorney; founding president of the Council on Foreign Relations. C. Douglas Dillon 1960–1961 - US Treasury Secretary, 1961–1965; Member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Orvil E. Dryfoos 1960–1963 - Publisher of the New York Times, 1961-1963. Peggy Dulany, 1989–1994 - Fourth child of David Rockefeller; Founder and president of Synergos. John Foster Dulles 1935–1952 {Chairman} - US Secretary of State, 1953–1959; Senior partner, Sullivan & Cromwell law firm. Charles William Eliot 1914–1917 - President of Harvard, 1869-1909. Frederick Taylor Gates 1913–1923 - John D. Rockefeller Sr.'s principal advisor. Stephen Jay Gould 1993–2002 - Author; Professor and Curator, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. Rajat Gupta, 2006–11, former director, Goldman Sachs, Procter & Gamble, AMR Corporation; Special Advisor to the UN Secretary-General; former Managing Director, McKinsey & Company. Wallace Harrison 1951–1961 - Rockefeller family architect; lead architect for the UN Headquarters complex. Thomas J. Healey, 2003–2012, Partner, Healey Development LLC; teaching course at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government; formerly with Goldman, Sachs and an Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Treasury. Charles Evans Hughes 1917-1921;1925–1928 - Chief Justice of the United States, 1930-1941. Robert A. Lovett 1949–1961 - US Secretary of Defense, 1951-1953. Yo-Yo Ma 1999–2002 - Cellist. Jessica T. Mathews, President, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington, D.C. John J. McCloy Chairman: 1946-1949; 1953–1958 - Prominent US Presidential Advisor; Chairman of the Ford Foundation, 1958–1965; Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations. Bill Moyers 1969–1981 - Journalist. James F. Orr, III, (Board Chair), President and Chief Executive Officer, LandingPoint Capital, Boston, Massachusetts. Surin Pitsuwan, 2010–2012, Secretary general of ASEAN (2007-2012)[39] and Thai politician. Mamphela Ramphele, Chairperson, Circle Capital Ventures, Cape Town, South Africa. John D. Rockefeller 1913-1923. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Chairman: 1917-1939. John D. Rockefeller 3rd Chairman: 1952-1972. John D. Rockefeller, IV 1976-81. Julius Rosenwald 1917–1931 - Chairman of Sears Roebuck, 1932-1939. Dean Rusk 1950–1961 - US Secretary of State, 1961-1969. Raymond W. Smith, Chairman, Rothschild, Inc., New York; Chairman of Arlington Capital Partners; Chairman of Verizon Ventures; and a Trustee of the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Frank Stanton 1961-1966? - President of CBS, 1946-1971. Arthur Hays Sulzberger 1939–1957 - Publisher of the New York Times, 1935-1961. Paul Volcker 1975–1979 - Chairman, Board of Governors, Federal Reserve Board; President, New York Federal Reserve Bank. Thomas J. Watson, Jr 1963-1970?[40] - President of IBM, 1952-1971. James Wolfensohn - former President of the World Bank. George D. Woods 1961-1967? - President of the World Bank, 1963-1968. Vo-Tong Xuan, 2002–2010, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Tan Tao University, Ho Chi Minh City; former rector of An Giang University, the second university in Vietnam's Mekong Delta. Owen D. Young 1928–1939 - Chairman of GE, 1922–1939, 1942-1945. Presidents[edit] Judith Rodin - 2005- ; former president of the University of Pennsylvania, and provost, chair of the Department of Psychology, Yale University. Gordon Conway - 1998-2004; an agricultural ecologist and former President of the Royal Geographical Society. Peter Goldmark, Jr. - 1988-1997; former executive director of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.[41] Richard Lyman - 1980-1988; president of Stanford University (1970–1980). John Knowles - 1972-1979; physician, general director of the Massachusetts General Hospital (1962–1971).[42] J. George Harrar - 1961-1972; plant pathologist, "generally regarded as the father of 'the Green Revolution.'"[43] Dean Rusk - 1952-1961; United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 Chester Barnard - 1948-1952; Bell System executive and author of landmark 1938 book, The Functions of the Executive Raymond Fosdick - 1936-1948; brother of American clergyman Harry Emerson Fosdick Max Mason - 1929-1936 George E. Vincent - 1917-1929; member of the John D. Rockefeller/Frederick T. Gates General Education Board (1914–1929)[44] John D. Rockefeller, Jr. - 1913-1917. Bibliography[edit] Berman, Edward H. The Ideology of Philanthropy: The influence of the Carnegie, Ford, and Rockefeller foundations on American foreign policy, New York: State University of New York Press, 1983. Brown, E. Richard, Rockefeller Medicine Men: Medicine and Capitalism in America, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979. Chernow, Ron, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., London: Warner Books, 1998. Dowie, Mark, American Foundations: An Investigative History, Boston: The MIT Press, 2001. Fisher, Donald, Fundamental Development of the Social Sciences: Rockefeller Philanthropy and the United States Social Science Research Council, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1993. Fosdick, Raymond B., John D. Rockefeller, Jr., A Portrait, New York: Harper & Brothers, 1956. Fosdick, Raymond B., The Story of the Rockefeller Foundation, New York: Transaction Publishers, Reprint, 1989. Harr, John Ensor, and Peter J. Johnson. The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988. Harr, John Ensor, and Peter J. Johnson. The Rockefeller Conscience: An American Family in Public and in Private, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991. Jonas, Gerald. The Circuit Riders: Rockefeller Money and the Rise of Modern Science. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 1989. Kay, Lily, The Molecular Vision of Life: Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology, New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. Lawrence, Christopher. Rockefeller Money, the Laboratory and Medicine in Edinburgh 1919-1930: New Science in an Old Country, Rochester Studies in Medical History, University of Rochester Press, 2005. Nielsen, Waldemar, The Big Foundations, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1973. Nielsen, Waldemar A., The Golden Donors, E. P. Dutton, 1985. Called Foundation "unimaginative ... lacking leadership and 'slouching toward senility.'"[41] Palmer, Steven, Launching Global Health: The Caribbean Odyssey of the Rockefeller Foundation, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. Rockefeller, David, Memoirs, New York: Random House, 2002. Shaplen, Robert, Toward the Well-Being of Mankind: Fifty Years of the Rockefeller Foundation, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964. Theiler, Max and Downs, W. G., The Arthropod-Borne Viruses of Vertebrates: An Account of The Rockefeller Foundation Virus Program, 1951-1970. (1973) Yale University Press. New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-01508-9. See also[edit] Asia Society Association Internationale Africaine CGIAR Eugenics in the United States Industrial relations MacArthur Foundation Rockefeller Brothers Fund Rockefeller family Philanthropy Social sciences References[edit] 1.^ Jump up to: a b c FoundationCenter.org, The Rockefeller Foundation, accessed 2010-12-23 2.^ Jump up to: a b c Rockfound.org, history, 1913-1919 3.Jump up ^ "Company Overview of The Rockefeller Foundation". Businessweek. Retrieved 17 April 2013. 4.Jump up ^ The Rockefeller Foundation Annual Report 1913-14 5.Jump up ^ "Our History - A Powerful Legacy". The Rockefeller Foundation. 6.Jump up ^ Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health,[citation needed] History 7.Jump up ^ Harvard School of Public Health, History 8.Jump up ^ Friedland, Martin L. (2002). The University of Toronto : a history. Toronto [u.a.]: Univ. of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-4429-8. 9.Jump up ^ National Library of Medicine 10.Jump up ^ Wilbur A Sawyers Papers 11.Jump up ^ "History", The New School for Social Research webpage. Retrieved 2013-02-17. 12.Jump up ^ Black, 2003: p. 1 13.Jump up ^ Black, 2003: p. 5 14.Jump up ^ The Foundation Center 15.Jump up ^ "Judith Rodin, Rockefeller Foundation CEO: 'Culture Eats Strategy for Lunch'". Forbes. Retrieved 11 March 2013. 16.^ Jump up to: a b The Rockefeller Foundation Timeline 17.^ Jump up to: a b c d Details of the establishment and future legacy of the Rockefeller Foundation - see Ron Chernow, Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., New York: Warner Books, 1998, (pp. 563-566) 18.Jump up ^ Foundation withdrew from direct involvement in Industrial Relations - see Robert Shaplen, Toward the Well-Being of Mankind: Fifty Years of the Rockefeller Foundation, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1964, (p.128) 19.Jump up ^ Early backing of Henry Kissinger - see Walter Isaacson, Kissinger: A Biography, New York: Simon & Schuster, (updated) 2005, (p.72) 20.Jump up ^ Rockefeller Archive Center: Main subject areas. 21.Jump up ^ Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Armando Solórzano (1999). "Public health policy paradoxes: science and politics in the Rockefeller Foundation's hookworm campaign in Mexico in the 1920s". Social Science & Medicine 49 (9): 1197. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00160-4. 22.Jump up ^ Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Armando Solórzano (1999). "Public health policy paradoxes: science and politics in the Rockefeller Foundation's hookworm campaign in Mexico in the 1920s". Social Science & Medicine 49 (9): 1197–1210. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00160-4. 23.Jump up ^ Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Armando Solórzano (1999). "Public health policy paradoxes: science and politics in the Rockefeller Foundation's hookworm campaign in Mexico in the 1920s". Social Science & Medicine 49 (9): 1209–1210. 24.Jump up ^ Major rescue program of European scholars - see John Ensor Harr and Peter J. Johnson, The Rockefeller Century: Three Generations of America's Greatest Family, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988. (pp.401-03) 25.Jump up ^ Medical Sciences Division and Alfred Kinsey funding - Ibid., (p.456) 26.Jump up ^ Theiler, Max; Downs, W. G. (1973). The Arthropod-Borne Viruses of Vertebrates: An Account of The Rockefeller Foundation Virus Program, 1951-1970. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. xvii, xx. ISBN 0-300-01508-9. 27.Jump up ^ "Charities Try to Keep Up With the Gateses" New York Times, 2007 28.Jump up ^ Funding of programs and fellowships at major universities, foreign policy think tanks and research councils - see Robert Shaplen, op, cit., (passim) 29.Jump up ^ AFP Online 30.^ Jump up to: a b c The story of the Foundation and the Green Revolution - see Mark Dowie, American Foundations: An Investigative History, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2001, (pp.105-140) 31.Jump up ^ Biotech-info.net: "The Rockefeller Foundation and Plant Biotechnology" 32.Jump up ^ "A century of innovation? Philanthropy and the African growth story". Retrieved 5 August 2013. 33.Jump up ^ The Bellagio Center. The Rockefeller Foundation. Retrieved on 2013-08-24. 34.Jump up ^ Share portfolio - see Waldemar Nielsen The Big Foundations, New York: Columbia University Press, 1972. (p.72) 35.Jump up ^ Global Forum on Human Development. Hdr.undp.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-24. 36.Jump up ^ As model for UN organizations - Ibid., (pp.64-5) 37.Jump up ^ (Gretchen Schafft, From Racism to Genocide: Anthropology in the Third Reich. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004) 38.Jump up ^ Board of Trustees, foundation webpage plus associated bio pages on members. Retrieved 2012-12-27. 39.Jump up ^ Parameswaran, Prashanth, "Outgoing ASEAN Chief’s Farewell Tour", The Diplomat, December 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-27. 40.Jump up ^ RF Annual Report 1969, p. VI. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 41.^ Jump up to: a b Teltsch, Kathleen, "Rockefeller Foundation Selects a New President", The New York Times, May 8, 1988. Goldmark was son of Peter Carl Goldmark. See Blumenthal, Ralph, "Remembering the Travel Scandal at the Port Authority", The New York Times City Room blog, June 24, 2008 4:41 pm ET. Both retrieved 2011-01-09. 42.Jump up ^ John Hilton Knowles Papers, The Rockefeller Archive Center. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 43.Jump up ^ J. George Harrar Papers, The Rockefeller Archive Center. Retrieved 2011-01-09. 44.Jump up ^ George E. Vincent Papers, The Rockefeller Archive Center. Retrieved 2011-01-09. Further reading[edit] Gates, Rockefeller foundations join to fight hunger in Africa Seattle Post-Intelligencer article dealing with the Green Revolution and the previous collaboration with the Ford Foundation. "The Rockefeller Foundation and Plant Biotechnology" Address given in 1999 by former RF president Gordon Conway to the board of directors of Monsanto, on biotechnology and the terminator gene. Letter in Reply: Open Letter From Monsanto CEO Robert B. Shapiro To Rockefeller Foundation President Gordon Conway in 1999 An Entrepreneurial Spirit: Three Centuries of Rockefeller Family Philanthropy This 2005 PDF document contains a detailed history and philosophy of the various Rockefeller philanthropies, presented by the Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors (RPA), set up by the family in New York in 2002. G30 Members Discuss Critical Concerns For American Corporations Association for Financial Professionals 2005 article on the Group of Thirty, mentioning the Rockefeller Foundation's initiation of the Group in 1978. CFR Website - Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations from 1921 to 1996 The history of the Council by Peter Grose, a Council member - mentions financial support from the Rockefeller foundation. Oct 17, 2006: David Rockefeller Jr., Ann Fudge, Rajat Gupta to join Rockefeller Foundation Board of Trustees Franz Boas, Margaret Mead, and ... J.D. Rockefeller?: The Role Of The Rockefeller Foundation in the History of American Anthropology Interview with Norman Dodd An investigation of a hidden agenda within tax-free foundations, including the Rockefeller Foundation (Video). Time For Ford Foundation & CFR To Divest? Collaboration of the Rockefeller, Ford and Carnegie Foundations with the Council on Foreign Relations. 2004: Citigroup Names Anne Mulcahy and Judith Rodin to Board of Directors Foundation Center: Top 100 US Foundations by total giving New York Times: Rockefeller Foundation Elects 5 - Including Alan Alda and Peggy Dulany Rockefeller Foundation: The Bellagio Study and Conference Center SFGate.com: "Eugenics and the Nazis: the California Connection" "The Long Road of Eugenics: From Rockefeller to Roe v. Wade", Rebecca Messall, The Human Life Review, Fall 2004 Press for Conversion! magazine, Issue # 53: "Facing the Corporate Roots of American Fascism," Bryan Sanders, Coalition to Oppose the Arms Trade, March 2004 External links[edit] Rockefeller Foundation website, including a timeline Hookworm and malaria research in Malaya, Java, and the Fiji Islands; report of Uncinariasis commission to the Orient, 1915-1917 The Rockefeller foundation, International health board. New York 1920 Categories: Rockefeller Foundation Rockefeller family Institutions founded by the Rockefeller family Foundations based in the United States Council on Foreign Relations Rockefeller Center 1913 establishments in New York Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page Tools Print/export Languages العربية Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch Español Français 한국어 Bahasa Indonesia Italiano Nederlands 日本語 Norsk bokmål Polski Português Русский Suomi ไทย Українська 中文 Edit links This page was last modified on 16 March 2014 at 15:28. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. 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Rothschild From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the Rothschild surname. For other uses, see Rothschild (disambiguation). Rothschild (German Rotschild [rot Schild]: [ˈʁoːt.ʃɪlt]), meaning "red shield", is a surname derived from a house distinguished with a red shield (Middle High German rot (or roth)= "red" + schild = "shield"), the earliest recorded example dating from the 13th century.[1] In English-speaking countries it is often pronounced as "Roth's child". The German surname "Rothschild" is not related to the Scottish/Irish surname of "Rothchilds" from the United Kingdom. Contents [hide] 1 People 2 People outside the banker family 3 People of the banker family 3.1 A 3.2 B 3.3 C 3.4 D 3.5 E 3.6 F 3.7 G 3.8 H 3.9 J 3.10 L 3.11 M 3.12 N 3.13 P 3.14 S 3.15 V 3.16 W 4 Fictional characters 5 References 6 Bibliography People[edit] Main article: Rothschild family Most notable people with this surname are descendants of Mayer Amschel Rothschild who formed a European financial dynasty and, in modern history, perhaps the wealthiest family by the scale of their private fortune. The name is also carried by others, mostly Ashkenazi Jews, who are not related to the famous family: People outside the banker family[edit] Abraham Rothschild (1853–?), American traveling salesman and murderer of Diamond Bessie. Bruce Lee Rothschild (b. 1941), American mathematician. Daniel Rothschild (b. 1946), Israeli general. Dorothy Rothschild, better known as Dorothy Parker (1893–1967), American poet and writer. Eva Rothschild (b. 1972), Irish artist based in London Friedrich S. Rothschild (1899–1995), German-Jewish psychiatrist and semiotician Jean Maurice Rothschild (1902–1998), French furniture designer Jonathan Rothschild (b. 1955), American (Arizona) lawyer and politician, mayor of Tucson Joseph Rothschild (1931–2000), American historian Larry Rothschild (b. 1954), American Baseball pitcher and manager Lynn J. Rothschild (b. 1957), American evolutionary biologist and astrobiologist Michael Rothschild (b. 1942), American economist, former dean at Princeton Michael Rothschild (b. 1952), American CEO and writer on economy Oliver Rothschild (b. 1951), British corporate strategist Robert Rothschild (1911–1978), Belgian diplomat (descendent of Amschel Moses Rothschild) Samuel Rothschild (1899–1987), Canadian ice hockey player Sylvia Rothschild, British Reform rabbi People of the banker family[edit] A[edit] Adèle von Rothschild (1843–1922), German socialite, daughter of Mayer Carl von Rothschild and wife of her 2nd cousin Salomon James de Rothschild Albert Salomon von Rothschild (1844–1911), Austrian banker, son of Anselm von Rothschild. Alfred de Rothschild (1842–1918), English banker, son of Lionel de Rothschild. Alice Charlotte von Rothschild (1847–1922), Austrian socialite, daughter of Anselm von Rothschild. Aline Caroline de Rothschild (1865 – 1909), French socialite, daughter of Baron Gustave de Rothschild Alphonse James de Rothschild (1827–1905), French businessman and philanthropist, son of James Mayer de Rothschild. Amschel Mayor James Rothschild (1955–1996), British businessman, son of Victor Rothschild. Amschel Mayer von Rothschild (1773–1855), German banker, son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Amschel Moses Rothschild (c. 1710–1755), German trader, father of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Anselm von Rothschild (1803–1874), Austrian banker, son of Salomon Mayer von Rothschild. Anthony Gustav de Rothschild (1887–1961), British banker, son of Leopold de Rothschild. Anthony James de Rothschild (b. 1977), British businessman, son of Evelyn Robert de Rothschild Anthony Nathan de Rothschild (1810–1876), British banker, son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild. Ariane de Rothschild (née Langner 1965), French banker, wife of Benjamin de Rothschild. Arthur de Rothschild (1851–1903), French socialite, son of Nathaniel and Charlotte de Rothschild B[edit] Béatrice Ephrussi de Rothschild (1864-1934), French socialite and art collector, daughter of Alphonse James de Rothschild Benjamin de Rothschild (b. 1963), Swiss banker, son of Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild. Bethsabée de Rothschild (1914–1999), Jewish philanthropist, daughter of Édouard Alphonse de Rothschild Bettina Caroline de Rothschild (1858–1892, French socialite, daughter of Alphonse James de Rothschild, wife of her cousin Albert Salomon von Rothschild Betty de Rothschild (1805–1886), Austrian socialite, daughter of Salomon Mayer von Rothschild, wife of her cousin James Mayer de Rothschild C[edit] Carl Mayer von Rothschild (1788–1855), German banker, son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Charles Rothschild (1877–1923), English banker and entomologist, son of Nathan, 1st Baron Rothschild. Charlotte de Rothschild (1825–1899), French socialite and painter, daughter of James Mayer de Rothschild, wife of her cousin Nathaniel de Rothschild Charlotte von Rothschild (1819–1884), British socialite, daughter of Carl Mayer von Rothschild, wife of her first cousin Lionel de Rothschild. Charlotte Henriette de Rothschild (b. 1955), British singer, daughter of Edmund Leopold de Rothschild. Charlotte Nathan Rothschild (1807–1859), British socialite, daughter of Nathan Mayer Rothschild, wife of her first cousin Anselm von Rothschild D[edit] David Mayer de Rothschild (b. 1978), British adverturer, ecologist, and environmentalist, son of Evelyn Robert de Rothschild. David René de Rothschild (b. 1942), French banker, son of Guy de Rothschild. Dorothy de Rothschild (née Pinto 1895–1988), English philanthropist, wife of James Armand de Rothschild E[edit] Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild (1926–1997), French-Swiss banker Edmond James de Rothschild (1845–1934), French banker, son of James Mayer de Rothschild. Edmond de Rothschild (1926-1997), Swiss banker. Edmund Leopold de Rothschild (1916-2009), British banker, son of Lionel Nathan de Rothschild. Édouard de Rothschild (b. 1957), French businessman and equestrian, son of Guy de Rothschild. Édouard Alphonse de Rothschild (1868–1949), French financier, son of Alphonse James de Rothschild Élie de Rothschild (1917–2007), French banker, son of Robert Philippe de Rothschild. Elisabeth de Rothschild (née de Chambure 1902–1945), French vintner, wife of Philippe de Rothschild. Emma Georgina Rothschild (b. 1948), British historian and professor, daughter of Victor Rothschild. Evelina de Rothschild (1839–1866), English socialite, daughter of Lionel de Rothschild, wife of her 2nd cousin Ferdinand James von Rothschild Evelyn Achille de Rothschild (1886–1917), British banker, son of Leopold de Rothschild. Evelyn Robert de Rothschild (b. 1931), British financier, son of Anthony Gustav de Rothschild. F[edit] Ferdinand James von Rothschild (1839–1898), British politician and art collector, son of Anselm von Rothschild. G[edit] Guy de Rothschild (1909–2007), French banker, son of Édouard Alphonse de Rothschild. H[edit] Hannah de Rothschild, Countess of Rosebery (1851–1890), British philanthropist, daughter of Mayer Amschel de Rothschild. Hélène de Rothschild better known as Hélène van Zuylen (1863–1947), French socialite and author, daughter of Salomon James de Rothschild J[edit] Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild (b. 1936), British banker, son of Victor Rothschild. Jacqueline de Rothschild (1911–2012), French-born American chess and tennis layer, daughter of Édouard Alphonse de Rothschild James Armand de Rothschild (1878–1957), British politician and philanthropist, son of son of Edmond James de Rothschild. James Mayer de Rothschild (born Jakob Rothschild 1792–1868), German-French banker, son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Jeanne de Rothschild, née Stuart (1908–2003), British actress, wife of Eugène Daniel de Rothschild L[edit] Leonora de Rothschild (1837–1911), British socialite, daughter of Lionel de Rothschild, wife of Alphonse James de Rothschild Leopold de Rothschild (1845–1917), British banker and horse breeder, son of Lionel de Rothschild. Leopold David de Rothschild (1927-2012), British financier and musician, son of Lionel Nathan de Rothschild. Lionel de Rothschild (1808–1879), British banker and politician, son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild. Lionel Nathan de Rothschild (1882–1942), British banker and politician, son of Leopold de Rothschild. Louis Nathaniel de Rothschild (1882–1955), Austrian baron, son of Albert Salomon von Rothschild. Lynn Forester de Rothschild (née Forester 1954), American businesswoman, wife of Evelyn Robert de Rothschild M[edit] Marie-Hélène de Rothschild (1927–1996), French socialite, granddaughter of Hélène de Rothschild and wife of Guy de Rothschild Mathilde Hannah von Rothschild (1832–1924), German baroness and composer, daughter of Anselm von Rothschild, wife of her 2nd cousin Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744–1812), German banker and founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty. Mayer Amschel de Rothschild (1818–1874), British politician, son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild. Miriam Rothschild (1908–2005), British naturalist and author, daughter of Charles Rothschild. N[edit] Nadine de Rothschild (née Lhopitalier 1932), French author and actress, wife of Edmond Adolphe de Rothschild Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777–1836), Jewish banker, son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild(1840–1915), British banker and politician, son of Lionel de Rothschild. Nathaniel de Rothschild (1812–1870), French banker, businessman, and wine maker, son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild. Nathaniel Anselm von Rothschild (1836–1905), Austrian socialite, son of Anselm von Rothschild. Nathaniel Philip Rothschild (born 1971), a British financier, son of Jacob, 4th Baron Rothschild. Nica Rothschild (1913–1988), jazz patroness and writer, daughter of Charles Rothschild. P[edit] Pauline de Rothschild (née Potter, 1908–1976), French writer and fashion designer, wife of Philippe de Rothschild. Philippe de Rothschild (1902–1988), French race car driver, screenwriter, producer, and wine grower, son of Henri de Rothschild. Philippine de Rothschild (1935-), French actress and wine grower, daughter of Philippe de Rothschild. S[edit] Salomon James de Rothschild (1835–1864), son of James Mayer de Rothschild. Salomon Mayer von Rothschild (1774–1855), German banker, son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Serena Dunn Rothschild (née Dunn 1935), wife of Jacob, 4th Baron Rothschild V[edit] Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild (1910–1990), a British biologist and cricketeer, son of Charles Rothschild. W[edit] Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild (1868–1937), British banker, politician, and zoologist, son of Nathan, 1st Baron Rothschild Wilhelm Carl von Rothschild (1828–1901), German banker, son of Carl Mayer von Rothschild Fictional characters[edit] Winston Rothschild, III (fictional character from The Red Green Show) References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ "Rothschild". Behind the Name. Bibliography[edit] Hanks, Patrick Dictionary of American Family Names Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-508137-4 WPanthroponymy.svg This page or section lists people with the surname Rothschild. If an internal link intending to refer to a specific person led you to this page, you may wish to change that link by adding the person's given name(s) to the link. Categories: Surnames Rothschild family Jewish surnames Yiddish-language surnames Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Tools Print/export Languages Français עברית Русский Edit links This page was last modified on 7 April 2014 at 12:54. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. 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Mafia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Mafia (disambiguation). Mafia is a type of organized crime syndicate that primarily practices protection racketeering — the use of violent intimidation to manipulate local economic activity, especially illicit trade; secondary activities may be practiced such as drug-trafficking, Loan sharking and fraud. Being bonded together by a code of honour, in particular the code of silence (or omertà in southern Italy), safeguards the Mafia from outside intrusion and law enforcement action.[1] The term was originally applied to the Sicilian Mafia, but has since expanded to encompass other organizations of similar methods and purpose, e.g. "the Russian Mafia", "the Japanese Mafia", or "the Albanian Mafia". The term is applied informally by the press and public; the criminal organizations themselves have their own terms (e.g. the Sicilian and American Mafia calls itself "Cosa Nostra", the Mexican Mafia calls itself La Eme and the "Japanese Mafia" calls itself yakuza). When used alone, "Mafia" typically refers to either the Sicilian Mafia or the American Mafia. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 Definitions 2.1 Mafias as private protection firms 2.2 Mafia-type organizations under Italian law 3 International 3.1 Italy 3.2 Other countries 4 References 4.1 Sources Etymology[edit] The Italian term "Mafia" (sometimes spelled "Maffia" in early texts) was created in Sicily, but there are several theories about its origin. That area of Southern Italy, in fact, was an Islamic emirate (the Emirate of Sicily) between 827 and 1091. Therefore, the Sicilian adjective mafiusu (in Italian: mafioso) may derive from the slang Arabic mahyas (مهياص), meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or marfud (مرفوض) meaning "rejected". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta.[2] In reference to a woman, however, the feminine-form adjective "mafiusa" means beautiful and attractive. Other possible origins from Arabic: maha = quarry, cave[3] mu'afa = safety, protection[3] The public's association of the word with the criminal secret society was perhaps inspired by the 1863 play "I mafiusi di la Vicaria" ("The Mafiosi of the Vicaria") by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca. The words Mafia and mafiusi are never mentioned in the play; they were probably put in the title to add a local flair. The play is about a Palermo prison gang with traits similar to the Mafia: a boss, an initiation ritual, and talk of "umirtà" (omertà or code of silence) and "pizzu" (a codeword for extortion money).[4] The play had great success throughout Italy. Soon after, the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon. The word made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo, Filippo Antonio Gualterio.[5] Definitions[edit] A formal definition of "mafia" can be hard to come by. The term was never officially used by Sicilian mafiosi, who prefer to refer to their organization as "Cosa Nostra". Nevertheless, it is typically by comparison to the Sicilian Mafia that other criminal groups earn the label. The expansion of the term has not been welcomed by all scholars. Giovanni Falcone, an anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Sicilian Mafia in 1992, objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general: While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia" ... nowadays people have gone so far in the opposite direction that it has become an overused term ... I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organized crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia.[6] —Giovanni Falcone, 1990 Mafias as private protection firms[edit] Scholars such as Diego Gambetta[7] and Leopoldo Franchetti have characterized the Sicilian Mafia as a "cartel of private protection firms", whose primary business is protection racketeering: they use their fearsome reputation for violence to deter people from swindling, robbing, or competing with those who pay them for protection. For many businessmen in Sicily, they provide an essential service when they cannot rely on the police and judiciary to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves (this is often because they are engaged in black market deals). Scholars have observed that many other societies around the world have criminal organizations of their own that provide essentially the same protection service through similar methods. For instance, in Russia after the collapse of Communism, the state security system had all but collapsed, forcing businessmen to hire criminal gangs to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves. These gangs are popularly called "the Russian Mafia" by foreigners, but they prefer to go by the term "krysha". With the [Russian] state in collapse and the security forces overwhelmed and unable to police contract law, cooperating with the criminal culture was the only option [...] most businessmen had to find themselves a reliable krysha under the leadership of an effective vor. —excerpt from McMafia by Misha Glenny.[8] Mafia-type organizations under Italian law[edit] In Italy, the term associazione di tipo Mafioso ("Mafia-type organisation") is used to clearly distinguish the uniquely Sicilian Mafia from other criminal organisations that are structured like the Sicilian Mafia, such as the Camorra, the 'Ndrangheta, the Sacra Corona Unita.[9] Article 416-bis of the Italian Penal Code, under which all criminal organisations are prosecuted, defines an association as being of Mafia-type nature "when those belonging to the association exploit the potential for intimidation which their membership gives them, and the compliance and omertà which membership entails and which lead to the committing of crimes, the direct or indirect assumption of management or control of financial activities, concessions, permissions, enterprises and public services for the purpose of deriving profit or wrongful advantages for themselves or others."[10][11] International[edit] Mafia-proper can refer to either: Sicilian Mafia American Mafia Italy[edit] Other Italian criminal organizations include: Camorra, operating in the region of Campania 'Ndrangheta in Calabria Sacra Corona Unita in Apulia Stidda in Sicily Other countries[edit] Armenian mafia Azeri mafia Assyrian mafia Bosnian mafia Brazilian cartels (such as Comando Vermelho or Primeiro Comando da Capital) British crime firms including Turkish-Cypriot mafia and Pakistani mafia Bulgarian mafia Canadian Aboriginal organized crime Neo-paramilitary criminal gangs, also called BACRIM, in Colombia Corsican mafia Dixie Mafia in southern USA Dutch Penose including Riffian mafia and Kajahatan French Milieu including Caids des Cités Georgian mafia Greek mob Indo-Canadian organized crime including Tamil organized crime Irish Mob in Ireland and USA Israeli mafia Jewish-American organized crime Kkangpae, also known as Gundal/Jopok, in South Korea KKK or Klu Klux Klan in the USA Mexican cartels (such as Gulf Cartel, Juarez Cartel, Los Zetas, or Sinaloa Cartel) Mexican Mafia in the USA, also called "La Eme" Mitsri Mafia (Egyptian) that is commonly used as a term for a large community of Arabic people Montenegrin mafia Nigerian mafia Preman in Indonesia Pathan mafia in India Russian mafia (Organizatsiya) in Russia (such as Solntsevskaya Bratva and Tambovskaya Bratva) (including Chechen mafia) Serbian mafia Triads in China [12] Turkish mafia including Kurdish mafia and Mhallami mafia Yakuza in Japan Yardies in Jamaica Even particular organized sets of street and prison gangs are often referred to as mafias if they reached a higher level of sophistication. Examples are: Aryan Brotherhood, Bahala Na, Black Guerilla Family, Black Mafia Family, Black P. Stones, Bloods, Born To Kill, Crips, 18th Street Gang, Gangster Disciples, Latin Kings, Mara Salvatrucha, Cuban Marielitos, Menace of Destruction, Ñetas, Nuestra Familia, Rollin' 30s Harlem Crips, Sons of Samoa, Trinitarios, Tiny Rascal gang, Vice Lords and Zoe Pound in the United States of America. The Tottenham Mandem, Woolwich Boys and Cheetham Hillbillies in the United Kingdom. The Manitoba Warriors and Indian Posse in Canada No Limit Soldiers in Curaçao and the Netherlands References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 109 2.Jump up ^ This etymology is based on the books Mafioso by Gaia Servadio; The Sicilian Mafia by Diego Gambetta; and Cosa Nostra by John Dickie (see Books below). 3.^ Jump up to: a b Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia. pp. 259-261. 4.Jump up ^ Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 136. 5.Jump up ^ Lupo, The History of the Mafia, p. 3. 6.Jump up ^ Lupo, History of the Mafia, pp. 1–2 7.Jump up ^ Diego Gambetta (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection 8.Jump up ^ Glenny, Misha (2008). McMafia: A Journal Through the Global Criminal Underworld. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-4000-4411-5. 9.Jump up ^ Mafia and Mafia-type organizations in Italy, by Umberto Santino, in: Albanese, Das & Verma, Organized Crime. World Perspectives, pp. 82-100 10.Jump up ^ Seindal, Mafia: money and politics in Sicily, p. 20 11.Jump up ^ Art. 416-bis, codice penale - Associazione di tipo mafioso 12.Jump up ^ Wang, Peng (2013). "The rise of the Red Mafia in China: a case study of organised crime and corruption in Chongqing". Trends in Organized Crime 16 (1): 49–73. Sources[edit] Albanese, Jay S., Dilip K. Das & Arvind Verma , (eds.) (2003). Organized Crime. World Perspectives, Prentice-Hall, ISBN 9780130481993 Dickie, John (2007). Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia, Hodder. ISBN 978-0-340-93526-2 Gambetta, Diego (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-80742-1 Paoli, Letizia (2003). Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian Style, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-515724-9 Seindal, René (1998). Mafia: money and politics in Sicily, 1950-1997, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, ISBN 87-7289-455-5 Servadio, Gaia (1976), Mafioso. A history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day, London: Secker & Warburg ISBN 0-436-44700-2 Categories: Organized crime Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Tools Print/export Languages العربية Azərbaycanca Български Bosanski Brezhoneg Català Čeština Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch Eesti Español Esperanto Euskara فارسی Français Gaeilge 한국어 हिन्दी Hrvatski Bahasa Indonesia Italiano ქართული Қазақша Latina Latviešu Lietuvių Magyar Македонски മലയാളം Malti Bahasa Melayu Nederlands 日本語 Napulitano Norsk bokmål Occitan Oʻzbekcha Polski Português Русский Scots Shqip Sicilianu Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Suomi Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் ไทย Türkçe Українська Vèneto Vepsän kel’ Tiếng Việt ייִדיש 粵語 中文 Edit links This page was last modified on 10 April 2014 at 17:45. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view Wikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki

Mafia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Mafia (disambiguation). Mafia is a type of organized crime syndicate that primarily practices protection racketeering — the use of violent intimidation to manipulate local economic activity, especially illicit trade; secondary activities may be practiced such as drug-trafficking, Loan sharking and fraud. Being bonded together by a code of honour, in particular the code of silence (or omertà in southern Italy), safeguards the Mafia from outside intrusion and law enforcement action.[1] The term was originally applied to the Sicilian Mafia, but has since expanded to encompass other organizations of similar methods and purpose, e.g. "the Russian Mafia", "the Japanese Mafia", or "the Albanian Mafia". The term is applied informally by the press and public; the criminal organizations themselves have their own terms (e.g. the Sicilian and American Mafia calls itself "Cosa Nostra", the Mexican Mafia calls itself La Eme and the "Japanese Mafia" calls itself yakuza). When used alone, "Mafia" typically refers to either the Sicilian Mafia or the American Mafia. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 Definitions 2.1 Mafias as private protection firms 2.2 Mafia-type organizations under Italian law 3 International 3.1 Italy 3.2 Other countries 4 References 4.1 Sources Etymology[edit] The Italian term "Mafia" (sometimes spelled "Maffia" in early texts) was created in Sicily, but there are several theories about its origin. That area of Southern Italy, in fact, was an Islamic emirate (the Emirate of Sicily) between 827 and 1091. Therefore, the Sicilian adjective mafiusu (in Italian: mafioso) may derive from the slang Arabic mahyas (مهياص), meaning "aggressive boasting, bragging", or marfud (مرفوض) meaning "rejected". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but also fearless, enterprising, and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta.[2] In reference to a woman, however, the feminine-form adjective "mafiusa" means beautiful and attractive. Other possible origins from Arabic: maha = quarry, cave[3] mu'afa = safety, protection[3] The public's association of the word with the criminal secret society was perhaps inspired by the 1863 play "I mafiusi di la Vicaria" ("The Mafiosi of the Vicaria") by Giuseppe Rizzotto and Gaetano Mosca. The words Mafia and mafiusi are never mentioned in the play; they were probably put in the title to add a local flair. The play is about a Palermo prison gang with traits similar to the Mafia: a boss, an initiation ritual, and talk of "umirtà" (omertà or code of silence) and "pizzu" (a codeword for extortion money).[4] The play had great success throughout Italy. Soon after, the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon. The word made its first official appearance in 1865 in a report by the prefect of Palermo, Filippo Antonio Gualterio.[5] Definitions[edit] A formal definition of "mafia" can be hard to come by. The term was never officially used by Sicilian mafiosi, who prefer to refer to their organization as "Cosa Nostra". Nevertheless, it is typically by comparison to the Sicilian Mafia that other criminal groups earn the label. The expansion of the term has not been welcomed by all scholars. Giovanni Falcone, an anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Sicilian Mafia in 1992, objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general: While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia" ... nowadays people have gone so far in the opposite direction that it has become an overused term ... I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organized crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia.[6] —Giovanni Falcone, 1990 Mafias as private protection firms[edit] Scholars such as Diego Gambetta[7] and Leopoldo Franchetti have characterized the Sicilian Mafia as a "cartel of private protection firms", whose primary business is protection racketeering: they use their fearsome reputation for violence to deter people from swindling, robbing, or competing with those who pay them for protection. For many businessmen in Sicily, they provide an essential service when they cannot rely on the police and judiciary to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves (this is often because they are engaged in black market deals). Scholars have observed that many other societies around the world have criminal organizations of their own that provide essentially the same protection service through similar methods. For instance, in Russia after the collapse of Communism, the state security system had all but collapsed, forcing businessmen to hire criminal gangs to enforce their contracts and protect their properties from thieves. These gangs are popularly called "the Russian Mafia" by foreigners, but they prefer to go by the term "krysha". With the [Russian] state in collapse and the security forces overwhelmed and unable to police contract law, cooperating with the criminal culture was the only option [...] most businessmen had to find themselves a reliable krysha under the leadership of an effective vor. —excerpt from McMafia by Misha Glenny.[8] Mafia-type organizations under Italian law[edit] In Italy, the term associazione di tipo Mafioso ("Mafia-type organisation") is used to clearly distinguish the uniquely Sicilian Mafia from other criminal organisations that are structured like the Sicilian Mafia, such as the Camorra, the 'Ndrangheta, the Sacra Corona Unita.[9] Article 416-bis of the Italian Penal Code, under which all criminal organisations are prosecuted, defines an association as being of Mafia-type nature "when those belonging to the association exploit the potential for intimidation which their membership gives them, and the compliance and omertà which membership entails and which lead to the committing of crimes, the direct or indirect assumption of management or control of financial activities, concessions, permissions, enterprises and public services for the purpose of deriving profit or wrongful advantages for themselves or others."[10][11] International[edit] Mafia-proper can refer to either: Sicilian Mafia American Mafia Italy[edit] Other Italian criminal organizations include: Camorra, operating in the region of Campania 'Ndrangheta in Calabria Sacra Corona Unita in Apulia Stidda in Sicily Other countries[edit] Armenian mafia Azeri mafia Assyrian mafia Bosnian mafia Brazilian cartels (such as Comando Vermelho or Primeiro Comando da Capital) British crime firms including Turkish-Cypriot mafia and Pakistani mafia Bulgarian mafia Canadian Aboriginal organized crime Neo-paramilitary criminal gangs, also called BACRIM, in Colombia Corsican mafia Dixie Mafia in southern USA Dutch Penose including Riffian mafia and Kajahatan French Milieu including Caids des Cités Georgian mafia Greek mob Indo-Canadian organized crime including Tamil organized crime Irish Mob in Ireland and USA Israeli mafia Jewish-American organized crime Kkangpae, also known as Gundal/Jopok, in South Korea KKK or Klu Klux Klan in the USA Mexican cartels (such as Gulf Cartel, Juarez Cartel, Los Zetas, or Sinaloa Cartel) Mexican Mafia in the USA, also called "La Eme" Mitsri Mafia (Egyptian) that is commonly used as a term for a large community of Arabic people Montenegrin mafia Nigerian mafia Preman in Indonesia Pathan mafia in India Russian mafia (Organizatsiya) in Russia (such as Solntsevskaya Bratva and Tambovskaya Bratva) (including Chechen mafia) Serbian mafia Triads in China [12] Turkish mafia including Kurdish mafia and Mhallami mafia Yakuza in Japan Yardies in Jamaica Even particular organized sets of street and prison gangs are often referred to as mafias if they reached a higher level of sophistication. Examples are: Aryan Brotherhood, Bahala Na, Black Guerilla Family, Black Mafia Family, Black P. Stones, Bloods, Born To Kill, Crips, 18th Street Gang, Gangster Disciples, Latin Kings, Mara Salvatrucha, Cuban Marielitos, Menace of Destruction, Ñetas, Nuestra Familia, Rollin' 30s Harlem Crips, Sons of Samoa, Trinitarios, Tiny Rascal gang, Vice Lords and Zoe Pound in the United States of America. The Tottenham Mandem, Woolwich Boys and Cheetham Hillbillies in the United Kingdom. The Manitoba Warriors and Indian Posse in Canada No Limit Soldiers in Curaçao and the Netherlands References[edit] 1.Jump up ^ Paoli, Mafia Brotherhoods, p. 109 2.Jump up ^ This etymology is based on the books Mafioso by Gaia Servadio; The Sicilian Mafia by Diego Gambetta; and Cosa Nostra by John Dickie (see Books below). 3.^ Jump up to: a b Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia. pp. 259-261. 4.Jump up ^ Gambetta, The Sicilian Mafia, p. 136. 5.Jump up ^ Lupo, The History of the Mafia, p. 3. 6.Jump up ^ Lupo, History of the Mafia, pp. 1–2 7.Jump up ^ Diego Gambetta (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection 8.Jump up ^ Glenny, Misha (2008). McMafia: A Journal Through the Global Criminal Underworld. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-4000-4411-5. 9.Jump up ^ Mafia and Mafia-type organizations in Italy, by Umberto Santino, in: Albanese, Das & Verma, Organized Crime. World Perspectives, pp. 82-100 10.Jump up ^ Seindal, Mafia: money and politics in Sicily, p. 20 11.Jump up ^ Art. 416-bis, codice penale - Associazione di tipo mafioso 12.Jump up ^ Wang, Peng (2013). "The rise of the Red Mafia in China: a case study of organised crime and corruption in Chongqing". Trends in Organized Crime 16 (1): 49–73. Sources[edit] Albanese, Jay S., Dilip K. Das & Arvind Verma , (eds.) (2003). Organized Crime. World Perspectives, Prentice-Hall, ISBN 9780130481993 Dickie, John (2007). Cosa Nostra: A History of the Sicilian Mafia, Hodder. ISBN 978-0-340-93526-2 Gambetta, Diego (1993). The Sicilian Mafia: The Business of Private Protection. London: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-80742-1 Paoli, Letizia (2003). Mafia Brotherhoods: Organized Crime, Italian Style, Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-515724-9 Seindal, René (1998). Mafia: money and politics in Sicily, 1950-1997, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, ISBN 87-7289-455-5 Servadio, Gaia (1976), Mafioso. A history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day, London: Secker & Warburg ISBN 0-436-44700-2 Categories: Organized crime Navigation menu Create account Log in Article Talk Read Edit View history Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia Wikimedia Shop Interaction Tools Print/export Languages العربية Azərbaycanca Български Bosanski Brezhoneg Català Čeština Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch Eesti Español Esperanto Euskara فارسی Français Gaeilge 한국어 हिन्दी Hrvatski Bahasa Indonesia Italiano ქართული Қазақша Latina Latviešu Lietuvių Magyar Македонски മലയാളം Malti Bahasa Melayu Nederlands 日本語 Napulitano Norsk bokmål Occitan Oʻzbekcha Polski Português Русский Scots Shqip Sicilianu Simple English Slovenčina Slovenščina Српски / srpski Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски Suomi Svenska Tagalog தமிழ் ไทย Türkçe Українська Vèneto Vepsän kel’ Tiếng Việt ייִדיש 粵語 中文 Edit links This page was last modified on 10 April 2014 at 17:45. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Contact Wikipedia Developers Mobile view Wikimedia Foundation Powered by MediaWiki

Al-Qaeda From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Al-qaeda) Jump to: navigation, search Page semi-protected al-Qaeda القاعدة Participant in the Persian Gulf War, the Global War on Terrorism, the War in Afghanistan, the Iraq War, and the Syrian Civil War Active 1988-present Ideology Sunni Islamism[1][2] Islamic fundamentalism[3] Takfirism[4] Pan-Islamism Worldwide Caliphate[5][6][7][8][9] Qutbism Wahhabism[10] Salafist Jihadism[11][12] Leaders Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (1988-1989) Osama bin Laden (1989-2011) Ayman al-Zawahiri (2011-present) Area of operations Worldwide (predominantly in the Middle East) Strength In Afghanistan – 50–100[13] In Egypt – Unknown In Iraq – 2,500[14] In the Maghreb – 300–800 In Nigeria – Unknown In Pakistan – 300[15] In Philippines – Unknown In Saudi Arabia – Unknown In Somalia – Unknown In Syria – Unknown In Thailand – Unknown In Yemen – 500–600[16] Allies Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan East Turkestan Islamic Movement Al-Shabaab Islamic Courts Union (dis) Jundallah Lashkar-e-Taiba Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Boko Haram Abu Sayyaf Iraqi insurgents Caucasus Emirate FARC[17][18] Syria (alleged)[19][20] Qatar (alleged)[21] Opponents United States of America Israel International Security Assistance Force Syria Iran Afghanistan Pakistan Turkey Yemen Egypt Algeria Al-Qaeda around the world. Al-Qaeda (/ælˈkaɪdə/ al-KY-də; Arabic: القاعدة‎ al-qāʿidah, Arabic: [ælqɑːʕɪdɐ], translation: "The Base" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a global militant Islamist and takfiri organization founded by Abdullah Yusuf Azzam and Osama bin Laden in Peshawar, Pakistan,[22] at some point between August 1988[23] and late 1989,[24] with its origins being traceable to the Soviet War in Afghanistan.[25] It operates as a network comprising both a multinational, stateless army[26] and a radical Sunni Muslim movement calling for global Jihad and a strict interpretation of sharia law. It has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the European Union, the United Kingdom, the United States, India and various other countries (see below). Al-Qaeda has carried out many attacks on non-Sunni Muslims,[27] non-Muslims,[28][29] and other targets it considers kafir.[30] Al-Qaeda has attacked civilian and military targets in various countries, including the September 11 attacks, 1998 U.S. embassy bombings and the 2002 Bali bombings. The U.S. government responded to the September 11 attacks by launching the War on Terror. With the loss of key leaders, culminating in the death of Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's operations have devolved from actions that were controlled from the top-down, to actions by franchise associated groups, to actions of lone wolf operators. Characteristic techniques employed by al-Qaeda include suicide attacks and simultaneous bombings of different targets.[31] Activities ascribed to it may involve members of the movement, who have taken a pledge of loyalty to Osama bin Laden, or the much more numerous "al-Qaeda-linked" individuals who have undergone training in one of its camps in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq or Sudan, but who have not taken any pledge.[32] Al-Qaeda ideologues envision a complete break from all foreign influences in Muslim countries, and the creation of a new world-wide Islamic caliphate.[5][33][34] Among the beliefs ascribed to Al-Qaeda members is the conviction that a Christian–Jewish alliance is conspiring to destroy Islam.[35] As Salafist jihadists, they believe that the killing of civilians is religiously sanctioned, and they ignore any aspect of religious scripture which might be interpreted as forbidding the murder of civilians and internecine fighting.[11][36] Al-Qaeda also opposes man-made laws, and wants to replace them with a strict form of sharia law.[37] Al-Qaeda is also responsible for instigating sectarian violence among Muslims.[38] Al-Qaeda is intolerant of non-Sunni branches of Islam and denounces them by means of excommunications called "takfir". Al-Qaeda leaders regard liberal Muslims, Shias, Sufis and other sects as heretics and have attacked their mosques and gatherings.[39] Examples of sectarian attacks include the Yazidi community bombings, the Sadr City bombings, the Ashoura Massacre and the April 2007 Baghdad bombings.[40] The group is led by the Egyptian theologian Ayman al-Zawahiri. Contents [hide] 1 Organization 1.1 Leadership 1.2 Command structure 1.3 Field operatives 1.4 Insurgent forces 1.5 Financing 2 Strategy 3 Name 4 Ideology 5 Religious compatibility 6 History 6.1 Jihad in Afghanistan 6.2 Expanding operations 6.3 Gulf War and the start of U.S. enmity 6.4 Sudan 6.5 Refuge in Afghanistan 6.6 Call for global jihad 6.7 Fatwas 6.8 Iraq 6.9 Somalia and Yemen 6.10 United States operations 6.11 Death of Osama bin Laden 6.12 War in Syria 7 Attacks 7.1 1992 7.2 1993 World Trade Center bombing 7.3 Late 1990s 7.4 September 11 attacks 8 Designation as terrorist organization 9 War on Terrorism 10 Activities 10.1 Africa 10.2 Europe 10.3 Arab world 10.4 Kashmir 10.5 Internet 10.5.1 Online Communications 10.6 Aviation network 10.7 Involvement in military conflicts 11 Alleged CIA involvement 12 Broader influence 13 Criticism 14 See also 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links Organization Al-Qaeda's management philosophy has been described as "centralization of decision and decentralization of execution."[41] It is thought that al-Qaeda's leadership, following the War on Terror, has "become geographically isolated", leading to the "emergence of decentralized leadership" of regional groups using the al-Qaeda "brand".[42][43] Many terrorism experts do not believe that the global jihadist movement is driven at every level by al-Qaeda's leadership. Although bin Laden still held considerable ideological sway over some Muslim extremists before his death, experts argue that al-Qaeda has fragmented over the years into a variety of regional movements that have little connection with one another. Marc Sageman, a psychiatrist and former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) officer, said that al-Qaeda is now just a "loose label for a movement that seems to target the West". "There is no umbrella organisation. We like to create a mythical entity called [al-Qaeda] in our minds, but that is not the reality we are dealing with."[44] This view mirrors the account given by Osama bin Laden in his October 2001 interview with Tayseer Allouni: "... this matter isn't about any specific person and... is not about the al-Qa`idah Organization. We are the children of an Islamic Nation, with Prophet Muhammad as its leader, our Lord is one... and all the true believers [mu'mineen] are brothers. So the situation isn't like the West portrays it, that there is an 'organization' with a specific name (such as 'al-Qa`idah') and so on. That particular name is very old. It was born without any intention from us. Brother Abu Ubaida... created a military base to train the young men to fight against the vicious, arrogant, brutal, terrorizing Soviet empire... So this place was called 'The Base' ['Al-Qa`idah'], as in a training base, so this name grew and became. We aren't separated from this nation. We are the children of a nation, and we are an inseparable part of it, and from those public *** which spread from the far east, from the Philippines, to Indonesia, to Malaysia, to India, to Pakistan, reaching Mauritania... and so we discuss the conscience of this nation."[45] Others, however, see al-Qaeda as an integrated network that is strongly led from the Pakistani tribal areas and has a powerful strategic purpose. Bruce Hoffman, a terrorism expert at Georgetown University, said "It amazes me that people don't think there is a clear adversary out there, and that our adversary does not have a strategic approach."[44] Al-Qaeda has the following direct affiliates: Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb Al-Shabaab (Mujahideen Youth Movement) in Somalia Egyptian Islamic Jihad Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, which comprises Al Qaeda in Saudi Arabia, and Islamic Jihad of Yemen Al-Nusra Front in Syria and Lebanon Al-Qaeda has the following indirect affiliates: East Turkestan Islamic Movement Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan Taliban Caucasus Emirate Fatah al-Islam Lashkar-e-Taiba Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Abu Sayyaf Rajah Sulaiman movement Islamic Jihad Union Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa Moroccan Islamic Combatant Group Al-Qaeda Kurdish Battalions Leadership Pakistani journalist Hamid Mir interviewing then al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan, in 1997 Information mostly acquired from Jamal al-Fadl provided American authorities with a rough picture of how the group was organized. While the veracity of the information provided by al-Fadl and the motivation for his cooperation are both disputed, American authorities base much of their current knowledge of al-Qaeda on his testimony.[46] Osama bin Laden was the most historically notable emir, or commander, and Senior Operations Chief of al-Qaeda prior to his assassination on May 1, 2011 by US forces. Ayman al-Zawahiri, al-Qaeda's Deputy Operations Chief prior to bin Laden's death, assumed the role of commander, according to an announcement by al-Qaeda on June 16, 2011. He replaced Saif al-Adel, who had served as interim commander.[47] Bin Laden was advised by a Shura Council, which consists of senior al-Qaeda members, estimated by Western officials to consist of 20–30 people. Atiyah Abd al-Rahman was alleged to be second in command prior to his death on August 22, 2011.[48] On June 5, 2012, Pakistan intelligence officials announced that al-Rahman's replacement Abu Yahya al-Libi had been killed in Pakistan.[49] Al-Qaeda's network was built from scratch as a conspiratorial network that draws on leaders of all its regional nodes "as and when necessary to serve as an integral part of its high command."[50] The Military Committee is responsible for training operatives, acquiring weapons, and planning attacks. The Money/Business Committee funds the recruitment and training of operatives through the hawala banking system. U.S-led efforts to eradicate the sources of terrorist financing[51] were most successful in the year immediately following the September 11 attacks;[52] al-Qaeda continues to operate through unregulated banks, such as the 1,000 or so hawaladars in Pakistan, some of which can handle deals of up to $10 million.[53] It also provides air tickets and false passports, pays al-Qaeda members, and oversees profit-driven businesses.[54] In the 9/11 Commission Report, it was estimated that al-Qaeda required $30 million-per-year to conduct its operations. The Law Committee reviews Sharia law, and decides whether particular courses of action conform to it. The Islamic Study/Fatwah Committee issues religious edicts, such as an edict in 1998 telling Muslims to kill Americans. In the late 1990s, there was a publicly known Media Committee, which ran the now-defunct newspaper Nashrat al Akhbar (Newscast) and handled public relations. In 2005, al-Qaeda formed As-Sahab, a media production house, to supply its video and audio materials. Command structure When asked about the possibility of al-Qaeda's connection to the July 7, 2005 London bombings in 2005, Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Ian Blair said: "Al-Qaeda is not an organization. Al-Qaeda is a way of working... but this has the hallmark of that approach... al-Qaeda clearly has the ability to provide training... to provide expertise... and I think that is what has occurred here."[55] On August 13, 2005, however, The Independent newspaper, quoting police and MI5 investigations, reported that the July 7 bombers had acted independently of an al-Qaeda terror mastermind someplace abroad.[56] What exactly al-Qaeda is, or was, remains in dispute. Certainly, it has been obliged to evolve and adapt in the aftermath of 9/11 and the launch of the 'war on terror'. Nasser al-Bahri, who was Osama bin Laden's bodyguard for four years in the run-up to 9/11 gives a highly detailed description of how the organization functioned at that time in his memoir.[57] He describes its formal administrative structure and vast arsenal, as well as day-to-day life as a member. However, author and journalist Adam Curtis argues that the idea of al-Qaeda as a formal organization is primarily an American invention. Curtis contends the name "al-Qaeda" was first brought to the attention of the public in the 2001 trial of bin Laden and the four men accused of the 1998 US embassy bombings in East Africa: The reality was that bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri had become the focus of a loose association of disillusioned Islamist militants who were attracted by the new strategy. But there was no organization. These were militants who mostly planned their own operations and looked to bin Laden for funding and assistance. He was not their commander. There is also no evidence that bin Laden used the term "al-Qaeda" to refer to the name of a group until after September 11 attacks, when he realized that this was the term the Americans had given it.[58] As a matter of law, the US Department of Justice needed to show that bin Laden was the leader of a criminal organization in order to charge him in absentia under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, also known as the RICO statutes. The name of the organization and details of its structure were provided in the testimony of Jamal al-Fadl, who said he was a founding member of the organization and a former employee of bin Laden.[59] Questions about the reliability of al-Fadl's testimony have been raised by a number of sources because of his history of dishonesty, and because he was delivering it as part of a plea bargain agreement after being convicted of conspiring to attack U.S. military establishments.[46][60] Sam Schmidt, one of his defense lawyers, said: There were selective portions of al-Fadl's testimony that I believe was false, to help support the picture that he helped the Americans join together. I think he lied in a number of specific testimony about a unified image of what this organization was. It made al-Qaeda the new Mafia or the new Communists. It made them identifiable as a group and therefore made it easier to prosecute any person associated with al-Qaeda for any acts or statements made by bin Laden.[58] Field operatives The number of individuals in the organization who have undergone proper military training, and are capable of commanding insurgent forces, is largely unknown. Documents captured in the raid on bin Laden compound in 2011, show that the core Al-Qaeda membership in 2002 was 170.[61] In 2006, it was estimated that al-Qaeda had several thousand commanders embedded in 40 different countries.[62] As of 2009, it was believed that no more than 200–300 members were still active commanders.[63] According to the award-winning 2004 BBC documentary The Power of Nightmares, al-Qaeda was so weakly linked together that it was hard to say it existed apart from bin Laden and a small clique of close associates. The lack of any significant numbers of convicted al-Qaeda members, despite a large number of arrests on terrorism charges, was cited by the documentary as a reason to doubt whether a widespread entity that met the description of al-Qaeda existed.[64] Insurgent forces According to Robert Cassidy, al-Qaeda controls two separate forces deployed alongside insurgents in Iraq and Pakistan. The first, numbering in the tens of thousands, was "organized, trained, and equipped as insurgent combat forces" in the Soviet-Afghan war.[62] It was made up primarily of foreign mujahideen from Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Many went on to fight in Bosnia and Somalia for global jihad. Another group, approximately 10,000 strong, live in Western states and have received rudimentary combat training.[62] Other analysts have described al-Qaeda's rank and file as being "predominantly Arab," in its first years of operation, and now also includes "other peoples" as of 2007.[65] It has been estimated that 62% of al-Qaeda members have university education.[66] Financing Some financing for al-Qaeda in the 1990s came from the personal wealth of Osama bin Laden.[67] By 2001 Afghanistan had become politically complex and mired. With many financial sources for al-Qaeda, Bin Laden's financing role may have become comparatively minor. Sources in 2001 could also have included Jamaa Al-Islamiyya and Islamic Jihad, both associated with Afghan-based Egyptians.[68] Other sources of income in 2001 included the heroin trade and donations from supporters in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other Islamic countries.[67] A WikiLeaks released memo from the United States Secretary of State sent in 2009 asserted that the primary source of funding of Sunni terrorist groups worldwide was Saudi Arabia.[69] Strategy On March 11, 2005, Al-Quds Al-Arabi published extracts from Saif al-Adel's document "Al Qaeda's Strategy to the Year 2020".[70][71] Abdel Bari Atwan summarizes this strategy as comprising five stages to rid the Ummah from all forms of oppression: 1.Provoke the United States and the West into invading a Muslim country by staging a massive attack or string of attacks on U.S. soil that results in massive civilian casualties. 2.Incite local resistance to occupying forces. 3.Expand the conflict to neighboring countries, and engage the U.S. and its allies in a long war of attrition. 4.Convert al-Qaeda into an ideology and set of operating principles that can be loosely franchised in other countries without requiring direct command and control, and via these franchises incite attacks against the U.S. and countries allied with the U.S. until they withdraw from the conflict, as happened with the 2004 Madrid train bombings, but which did not have the same effect with the July 7, 2005 London bombings. 5.The U.S. economy will finally collapse by the year 2020 under the strain of multiple engagements in numerous places, making the worldwide economic system which is dependent on the U.S. also collapse leading to global political instability, which in turn leads to a global jihad led by al-Qaeda and a Wahhabi Caliphate will then be installed across the world following the collapse of the U.S. and the rest of the Western world countries. Atwan also noted, regarding the collapse of the U.S., "If this sounds far-fetched, it is sobering to consider that this virtually describes the downfall of the Soviet Union."[70] Name In Arabic, al-Qaeda has four syllables (al-qāʿidah, Arabic pronunciation: [ælˈqɑːʕɪdɐ] or [ælqɑːˈʕedæ]). However, since two of the Arabic consonants in the name (the voiceless uvular plosive [q] and the voiced pharyngeal fricative [ʕ]) are not phones found in the English language, the closest naturalized English pronunciations include /ælˈkaɪdə/, /ælˈkeɪdə/ and /ˌælkɑːˈiːdə/.[citation needed] al-Qaeda's name can also be transliterated as al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida, el-Qaida, or al-Qaeda.[72] The name comes from the Arabic noun qā'idah, which means foundation or basis, and can also refer to a military base. The initial al- is the Arabic definite article the, hence the base.[73] Bin Laden explained the origin of the term in a videotaped interview with Al Jazeera journalist Tayseer Alouni in October 2001: The name 'al-Qaeda' was established a long time ago by mere chance. The late Abu Ebeida El-Banashiri established the training camps for our mujahedeen against Russia's terrorism. We used to call the training camp al-Qaeda. The name stayed.[74] It has been argued that two documents seized from the Sarajevo office of the Benevolence International Foundation prove that the name was not simply adopted by the mujahid movement and that a group called al-Qaeda was established in August 1988. Both of these documents contain minutes of meetings held to establish a new military group, and contain the term "al-Qaeda".[75] Former British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook wrote that the word al-Qaeda should be translated as "the database", and originally referred to the computer file of the thousands of mujahideen militants who were recruited and trained with CIA help to defeat the Russians.[76] In April 2002, the group assumed the name Qa'idat al-Jihad, which means "the base of Jihad". According to Diaa Rashwan, this was "apparently as a result of the merger of the overseas branch of Egypt's al-Jihad (Egyptian Islamist Jihad, or EIJ) group, led by Ayman al-Zawahiri, with the groups Bin Laden brought under his control after his return to Afghanistan in the mid-1990s."[77] Ideology See also: Qutbism Part of the Politics series Islamism Fundamentals Islam (history) Caliphate· Political aspects of Islam Islam and secularism Islamic economics· Islamic culture Movements Muslim Brotherhood Jamaat-e-Islami· Hizb-ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution· Islam Hadhari Salafism· Taliban· Hamas Islamic democratic political parties Manifestations Islamization· Islamic democracy Islamic fundamentalism· Sex segregation Liberal movements within Islam Islamic Modernism Islamic revival· Pan-Islamism Concepts Khilafah· Ummah· Sharia Shura· Ijma· Jihad Key texts Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal, 1930s) Principles of State and Government (Asad, 1961) Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones") (Qutb, 1965) Islamic Government (Khomeini, 1970) Politics portal v· t· e The radical Islamist movement in general and al-Qaeda in particular developed during the Islamic revival and Islamist movement of the last three decades of the 20th century, along with less extreme movements. Some have argued that "without the writings" of Islamic author and thinker Sayyid Qutb, "al-Qaeda would not have existed."[78] Qutb preached that because of the lack of sharia law, the Muslim world was no longer Muslim, having reverted to pre-Islamic ignorance known as jahiliyyah. To restore Islam, he said a vanguard movement of righteous Muslims was needed to establish "true Islamic states", implement sharia, and rid the Muslim world of any non-Muslim influences, such as concepts like socialism and nationalism. Enemies of Islam in Qutb's view included "treacherous Orientalists"[79] and "world Jewry", who plotted "conspiracies" and "wicked[ly]" opposed Islam. In the words of Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, a close college friend of bin Laden: Islam is different from any other religion; it's a way of life. We [Khalifa and bin Laden] were trying to understand what Islam has to say about how we eat, who we marry, how we talk. We read Sayyid Qutb. He was the one who most affected our generation.[80] Qutb had an even greater influence on bin Laden's mentor and another leading member of al-Qaeda,[81] Ayman al-Zawahiri. Zawahiri's uncle and maternal family patriarch, Mafouz Azzam, was Qutb's student, then protégé, then personal lawyer, and finally executor of his estate—one of the last people to see Qutb before his execution. "Young Ayman al-Zawahiri heard again and again from his beloved uncle Mahfouz about the purity of Qutb's character and the torment he had endured in prison."[82] Zawahiri paid homage to Qutb in his work Knights under the Prophet's Banner.[83] One of the most powerful of Qutb's ideas was that many who said they were Muslims were not. Rather, they were apostates. That not only gave jihadists "a legal loophole around the prohibition of killing another Muslim," but made "it a religious obligation to execute" these self-professed Muslims. These alleged apostates included leaders of Muslim countries, since they failed to enforce sharia law.[84] Religious compatibility Abdel Bari Atwan writes that: While the leadership's own theological platform is essentially Salafi, the organization's umbrella is sufficiently wide to encompass various schools of thought and political leanings. Al-Qaeda counts among its members and supporters people associated with Wahhabism, Shafi'ism, Malikism, and Hanafism. There are even some whose beliefs and practices are directly at odds with Salafism, such as Yunis Khalis, one of the leaders of the Afghan mujahedin. He is a mystic who visits tombs of saints and seeks their blessings—practices inimical to bin Laden's Wahhabi-Salafi school of thought. The only exception to this pan-Islamic policy is Shi'ism. Al-Qaeda seems implacably opposed to it, as it holds Shi'ism to be heresy. In Iraq it has openly declared war on the Badr Brigades, who have fully cooperated with the US, and now considers even Shi'i civilians to be legitimate targets for acts of violence.[85] History This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. Please help improve this article by clarifying or removing superfluous information. (May 2011) The Guardian has described five distinct phases in the development of al-Qaeda: beginnings in the late 1980s, a "wilderness" period in 1990–96, its "heyday" in 1996–2001, a network period from 2001 to 2005, and a period of fragmentation from 2005 to today.[86] Jihad in Afghanistan Main articles: Soviet war in Afghanistan and Islamic mujahid movement CIA-funded and ISI-trained Afghan mujahideen fighters crossing the Durand Line border to fight Soviet forces and the Soviet-backed Afghan government in 1985. The origins of al-Qaeda as a network inspiring terrorism around the world and training operatives can be traced to the Soviet War in Afghanistan (December 1979 – February 1989).[25] The U.S. viewed the conflict in Afghanistan, with the Afghan Marxists and allied Soviet troops on one side and the native Afghan mujahideen, some of whom were radical Islamic militants, on the other, as a blatant case of Soviet expansionism and aggression. A CIA program called Operation Cyclone channeled funds through Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence agency to the Afghan Mujahideen who were fighting the Soviet occupation.[87] At the same time, a growing number of Arab mujahideen joined the jihad against the Afghan Marxist regime, facilitated by international Muslim organizations, particularly the Maktab al-Khidamat,[88] which was funded by the Saudi Arabia government as well as by individual Muslims (particularly Saudi businessmen who were approached by bin Laden). Together, these sources donated some $600 million a year to jihad.[89][page needed] In 1984, Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), or the "Services Office", a Muslim organization founded to raise and channel funds and recruit foreign mujahideen for the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan, was established in Peshawar, Pakistan, by bin Laden and Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, a Palestinian Islamic scholar and member of the Muslim Brotherhood. MAK organized guest houses in Peshawar, near the Afghan border, and gathered supplies for the construction of paramilitary training camps to prepare foreign recruits for the Afghan war front. Bin Laden became a "major financier" of the mujahideen, spending his own money and using his connections with "the Saudi royal family and the petro-billionaires of the Gulf" to influence public opinion about the war and raise additional funds.[90] Omar Abdel-Rahman From 1986, MAK began to set up a network of recruiting offices in the U.S., the hub of which was the Al Kifah Refugee Center at the Farouq Mosque on Brooklyn's Atlantic Avenue. Among notable figures at the Brooklyn center were "double agent" Ali Mohamed, whom FBI special agent Jack Cloonan called "bin Laden's first trainer,"[91] and "Blind Sheikh" Omar Abdel-Rahman, a leading recruiter of mujahideen for Afghanistan. Al-Qaeda evolved from MAK. Azzam and bin Laden began to establish camps in Afghanistan in 1987.[92] U.S. government financial support for the Afghan Islamic militants was substantial. Aid to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, an Afghan mujahideen leader and founder and leader of the Hezb-e Islami radical Islamic militant faction, alone amounted "by the most conservative estimates" to $600 million. Later, in the early 1990s, after the U.S. had withdrawn support, Hekmatyar "worked closely" with bin Laden.[93] In addition to receiving hundreds of millions of dollars in American aid, Hekmatyar was the recipient of the lion's share of Saudi aid.[94] There is evidence that the CIA supported Hekmatyar's drug trade activities by giving him immunity for his opium trafficking, which financed the operation of his militant faction.[95] MAK and foreign mujahideen volunteers, or "Afghan Arabs," did not play a major role in the war. While over 250,000 Afghan mujahideen fought the Soviets and the communist Afghan government, it is estimated that were never more than 2,000 foreign mujahideen in the field at any one time.[96] Nonetheless, foreign mujahideen volunteers came from 43 countries, and the total number that participated in the Afghan movement between 1982 and 1992 is reported to have been 35,000.[97] Bin Laden played a central role in organizing training camps for the foreign Muslim volunteers.[98][99] The Soviet Union finally withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989. To the surprise of many, Mohammad Najibullah's communist Afghan government hung on for three more years, before being overrun by elements of the mujahideen. With mujahideen leaders unable to agree on a structure for governance, chaos ensued, with constantly reorganizing alliances fighting for control of ill-defined territories, leaving the country devastated. Expanding operations This article reads like an editorial or opinion piece. Please help improve this article by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style to make it neutral in tone. See WP:No original research and WP:NOTOPINION for further details. (May 2011) “ The correlation between the words and deeds of bin Laden, his lieutenants, and their allies was close to perfect—if they said they were going to do something, they were much more than likely to try to do it. Their record in this regard puts Western leaders to shame. ” —Michael Scheuer, CIA Station Chief[100] Toward the end of the Soviet military mission in Afghanistan, some mujahideen wanted to expand their operations to include Islamist struggles in other parts of the world, such as Israel and Kashmir. A number of overlapping and interrelated organizations were formed, to further those aspirations. One of these was the organization that would eventually be called al-Qaeda, formed by bin Laden with an initial meeting held on August 11, 1988, at Peshawar, Pakistan.[22][101] Notes of a meeting of bin Laden and others on August 20, 1988, indicate al-Qaeda was a formal group by that time: "basically an organized Islamic faction, its goal is to lift the word of God, to make His religion victorious." A list of requirements for membership itemized the following: listening ability, good manners, obedience, and making a pledge (bayat) to follow one's superiors.[102] In his memoir, bin Laden's former bodyguard, Nasser al-Bahri, gives the only publicly available description of the ritual of giving bayat when he swore his allegiance to the al-Qaeda chief.[103] According to Wright, the group's real name wasn't used in public pronouncements because "its existence was still a closely held secret."[104] His research suggests that al-Qaeda was formed at an August 11, 1988, meeting between "several senior leaders" of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Abdullah Azzam, and bin Laden, where it was agreed to join bin Laden's money with the expertise of the Islamic Jihad organization and take up the jihadist cause elsewhere after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan.[105] Bin Laden wished to establish non-military operations in other parts of the world; Azzam, in contrast, wanted to remain focused on military campaigns. After Azzam was assassinated in 1989, the MAK split, with a significant number joining bin Laden's organization. In November 1989, Ali Mohamed, a former special forces Sergeant stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, left military service and moved to California. He traveled to Afghanistan and Pakistan and became "deeply involved with bin Laden's plans."[106] A year later, on November 8, 1990, the FBI raided the New Jersey home of Ali Mohammed's associate El Sayyid Nosair, discovering a great deal of evidence of terrorist plots, including plans to blow up New York City skyscrapers.[107] Nosair was eventually convicted in connection to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. In 1991, Ali Mohammed is said to have helped orchestrate bin Laden's relocation to Sudan.[108] Gulf War and the start of U.S. enmity Main article: Gulf War Following the Soviet Union's withdrawal from Afghanistan in February 1989, bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 had put the Kingdom and its ruling House of Saud at risk. The world's most valuable oil fields were within easy striking distance of Iraqi forces in Kuwait, and Saddam's call to pan-Arab/Islamism could potentially rally internal dissent. In the face of a seemingly massive Iraqi military presence, Saudi Arabia's own forces were well armed but far outnumbered. Bin Laden offered the services of his mujahideen to King Fahd to protect Saudi Arabia from the Iraqi army. The Saudi monarch refused bin Laden's offer, opting instead to allow U.S. and allied forces to deploy troops into Saudi territory.[109] The deployment angered Bin Laden, as he believed the presence of foreign troops in the "land of the two mosques" (Mecca and Medina) profaned sacred soil. After speaking publicly against the Saudi government for harboring American troops, he was banished and forced to live in exile in Sudan. Sudan From around 1992 to 1996, al-Qaeda and bin Laden based themselves in Sudan at the invitation of Islamist theoretician Hassan al-Turabi. The move followed an Islamist coup d'état in Sudan, led by Colonel Omar al-Bashir, who professed a commitment to reordering Muslim political values. During this time, bin Laden assisted the Sudanese government, bought or set up various business enterprises, and established camps where insurgents trained. A key turning point for bin Laden, further pitting him against the Sauds, occurred in 1993 when Saudi Arabia gave support for the Oslo Accords, which set a path for peace between Israel and Palestinians.[110] Zawahiri and the EIJ, who served as the core of al-Qaeda but also engaged in separate operations against the Egyptian government, had bad luck in Sudan. In 1993, a young schoolgirl was killed in an unsuccessful EIJ attempt on the life of the Egyptian prime minister, Atef Sedki. Egyptian public opinion turned against Islamist bombings, and the police arrested 280 of al-Jihad's members and executed 6.[111] Due to bin Laden's continuous verbal assault on King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, on March 5, 1994 Fahd sent an emissary to Sudan demanding bin Laden's passport; bin Laden's Saudi citizenship was also revoked. His family was persuaded to cut off his monthly stipend, $7 million ($11,100,000 today) a year, and his Saudi assets were frozen.[112][113] His family publicly disowned him. There is controversy over whether and to what extent he continued to garner support from members of his family and/or the Saudi government.[114] In June 1995, an even more ill-fated attempt to assassinate Egyptian president Mubarak led to the expulsion of EIJ, and in May 1996, of bin Laden, by the Sudanese government. According to Pakistani-American businessman Mansoor Ijaz, the Sudanese government offered the Clinton Administration numerous opportunities to arrest bin Laden. Those opportunities were met positively by Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, but spurned when Susan Rice and counter-terrorism czar Richard Clarke persuaded National Security Advisor Sandy Berger to overrule Albright. Ijaz’s claims appeared in numerous Op-Ed pieces, including one in the Los Angeles Times[115] and one in The Washington Post co-written with former Ambassador to Sudan Timothy M. Carney.[116] Similar allegations have been made by Vanity Fair contributing editor David Rose,[117] and Richard Miniter, author of Losing bin Laden, in a November 2003 interview with World.[118] Several sources dispute Ijaz's claim, including the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks on the U.S. (the 9–11 Commission), which concluded in part: Sudan's minister of defense, Fatih Erwa, has claimed that Sudan offered to hand Bin Ladin over to the U.S. The Commission has found no credible evidence that this was so. Ambassador Carney had instructions only to push the Sudanese to expel Bin Ladin. Ambassador Carney had no legal basis to ask for more from the Sudanese since, at the time, there was no indictment out-standing.[119] Refuge in Afghanistan Main articles: Taliban's rise to power and Afghan training camp After the Soviet withdrawal, Afghanistan was effectively ungoverned for seven years and plagued by constant infighting between former allies and various mujahideen groups. Throughout the 1990s, a new force began to emerge. The origins of the Taliban (literally "students") lay in the children of Afghanistan, many of them orphaned by the war, and many of whom had been educated in the rapidly expanding network of Islamic schools (madrassas) either in Kandahar or in the refugee camps on the Afghan-Pakistani border. According to Ahmed Rashid, five leaders of the Taliban were graduates of Darul Uloom Haqqania, a madrassa in the small town of Akora Khattak.[120] The town is situated near Peshawar in Pakistan, but largely attended by Afghan refugees.[120] This institution reflected Salafi beliefs in its teachings, and much of its funding came from private donations from wealthy Arabs. Bin Laden's contacts were still laundering most of these donations, using "unscrupulous" Islamic banks to transfer the money to an "array" of charities which serve as front groups for al-Qaeda, or transporting cash-filled suitcases straight into Pakistan.[121] Another four of the Taliban's leaders attended a similarly funded and influenced madrassa in Kandahar. Many of the mujahideen who later joined the Taliban fought alongside Afghan warlord Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi's Harkat i Inqilabi group at the time of the Russian invasion. This group also enjoyed the loyalty of most Afghan Arab fighters. The continuing internecine strife between various factions, and accompanying lawlessness following the Soviet withdrawal, enabled the growing and well-disciplined Taliban to expand their control over territory in Afghanistan, and it came to establish an enclave which it called the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. In 1994, it captured the regional center of Kandahar, and after making rapid territorial gains thereafter, conquered the capital city Kabul in September 1996. After the Sudanese made it clear, in May 1996, that bin Laden would never be welcome to return,[clarification needed] Taliban-controlled Afghanistan—with previously established connections between the groups, administered with a shared militancy,[122] and largely isolated from American political influence and military power—provided a perfect location for al-Qaeda to relocate its headquarters. Al-Qaeda enjoyed the Taliban's protection and a measure of legitimacy as part of their Ministry of Defense, although only Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates recognized the Taliban as the legitimate government of Afghanistan. While in Afghanistan, the Taliban government tasked al-Qaeda with the training of Brigade 055, an elite part of the Taliban's army from 1997–2001. The Brigade was made up of mostly foreign fighters, many veterans from the Soviet Invasion, and all under the same basic ideology of the mujahideen. In November 2001, as Operation Enduring Freedom had toppled the Taliban government, many Brigade 055 fighters were captured or killed, and those that survived were thought to head into Pakistan along with bin Laden.[123] By the end of 2008, some sources reported that the Taliban had severed any remaining ties with al-Qaeda,[124] while others cast doubt on this.[125] According to senior U.S. military intelligence officials, there were fewer than 100 members of al-Qaeda remaining in Afghanistan in 2009.[126] Call for global jihad [icon] This section requires expansion. (September 2009) Around 1994, the Salafi groups waging jihad in Bosnia entered into a seemingly irreversible decline. As they grew less and less aggressive, groups such as EIJ began to drift away from the Salafi cause in Europe. Al-Qaeda decided to step in and assumed control of around 80% of the terrorist cells in Bosnia in late 1995. At the same time, al-Qaeda ideologues instructed the network's recruiters to look for Jihadi international, Muslims who believed that jihad must be fought on a global level. The concept of a "global Salafi jihad" had been around since at least the early 1980s. Several groups had formed for the explicit purpose of driving non-Muslims out of every Muslim land, at the same time, and with maximum carnage. This was, however, a fundamentally defensive strategy.[clarification needed] Al-Qaeda sought to open the "offensive phase" of the global Salafi jihad.[127] Bosnian Islamists in 2006 called for "solidarity with Islamic causes around the world", supporting the insurgents in Kashmir and Iraq as well as the groups fighting for a Palestinian state.[128] Fatwas Khobar Towers bombing In 1996, al-Qaeda announced its jihad to expel foreign troops and interests from what they considered Islamic lands. Bin Laden issued a fatwa (binding religious edict),[129] which amounted to a public declaration of war against the U.S. and its allies, and began to refocus al-Qaeda's resources on large-scale, propagandist strikes. In June 1996, the Khobar Towers bombing took place in Khobar, Saudi Arabia, attributed by some to al-Qaeda, killing 19 Americans and one Saudi local, and wounding 372.[130] On February 23, 1998, bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri, a leader of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, along with three other Islamist leaders, co-signed and issued a fatwa calling on Muslims to kill Americans and their allies where they can, when they can.[131] Under the banner of the World Islamic Front for Combat Against the Jews and Crusaders, they declared: [T]he ruling to kill the Americans and their allies—civilians and military—is an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it, in order to liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque [in Jerusalem] and the holy mosque [in Mecca] from their grip, and in order for their armies to move out of all the lands of Islam, defeated and unable to threaten any Muslim. This is in accordance with the words of Almighty Allah, 'and fight the pagans all together as they fight you all together,' and 'fight them until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah'.[132] Neither bin Laden nor al-Zawahiri possessed the traditional Islamic scholarly qualifications to issue a fatwa. However, they rejected the authority of the contemporary ulema (which they saw as the paid servants of jahiliyya rulers), and took it upon themselves.[133][unreliable source?] Former Russian FSB agent Alexander Litvinenko, who was later killed, said that the FSB trained al-Zawahiri in a camp in Dagestan eight months before the 1998 fatwa.[134][135] Iraq Main article: Al-Qaeda in Iraq Al-Qaeda is Sunni, and often attacked the Iraqi Shia majority in an attempt to incite sectarian violence and greater chaos in the country.[136] Al-Zarqawi purportedly declared an all-out war on Shiites[137] while claiming responsibility for Shiite mosque bombings.[138] The same month, a statement claiming to be by AQI rejected as "fake" a letter allegedly written by al-Zawahiri, in which he appears to question the insurgents' tactic of indiscriminately attacking Shiites in Iraq.[139] In a December 2007 video, al-Zawahiri defended the Islamic State in Iraq, but distanced himself from the attacks against civilians committed by "hypocrites and traitors existing among the ranks".[140] U.S. and Iraqi officials accused AQI of trying to slide Iraq into a full-scale civil war between Iraq's majority Shiites and minority Sunni Arabs, with an orchestrated campaign of civilian massacres and a number of provocative attacks against high-profile religious targets.[141] With attacks such as the 2003 Imam Ali Mosque bombing, the 2004 Day of Ashura and Karbala and Najaf bombings, the 2006 first al-Askari Mosque bombing in Samarra, the deadly single-day series of bombings in which at least 215 people were killed in Baghdad's Shiite district of Sadr City, and the second al-Askari bombing in 2007, they provoked Shiite militias to unleash a wave of retaliatory attacks, resulting in death squad-style killings and spiraling further sectarian violence which escalated in 2006 and brought Iraq to the brink of violent anarchy in 2007.[142] In 2008, sectarian bombings blamed on al-Qaeda killed at least 42 people at the Imam Husayn Shrine in Karbala in March, and at least 51 people at a bus stop in Baghdad in June. As of 2014, the group controls the city of Falluja.[143] Somalia and Yemen Main articles: Al-Shabaab (militant group) and al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula In Somalia, al-Qaeda agents had been collaborating closely with its Somali wing, which was created from the al-Shabaab group. In February 2012, al-Shabaab officially joined al-Qaeda, declaring loyalty in a joint video.[144] The Somalian al-Qaeda actively recruit children for suicide-bomber training, and export young people to participate in military actions against Americans at the AfPak border.[145] The percentage of terrorist attacks in the West originating from the Afghanistan-Pakistan (AfPak) border declined considerably from almost 100% to 75% in 2007, and to 50% in 2010, as al-Qaeda shifted to Somalia and Yemen.[146] While al-Qaeda leaders are hiding in the tribal areas along the AfPak border, the middle-tier of the movement display heightened activity in Somalia and Yemen. “We know that South Asia is no longer their primary base,” a U.S. defense agency source said. “They are looking for a hide-out in other parts of the world, and continue to expand their organization.“ In January 2009, al-Qaeda’s division in Saudi Arabia merged with its Yemeni wing to form al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula.[147] Centered in Yemen, the group takes advantage of the country's poor economy, demography and domestic security. In August 2009, they made the first assassination attempt against a member of the Saudi royal dynasty in decades. President Obama asked his Yemen counterpart Ali Abdullah Saleh to ensure closer cooperation with the U.S. in the struggle against the growing activity of al-Qaeda in Yemen, and promised to send additional aid. Because of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the U.S. was unable to pay sufficient attention to Somalia and Yemen, which could cause problems in the near future.[148] In December 2011, U.S. Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta said that the U.S. operations against al-Qaeda "are now concentrating on key groups in Yemen, Somalia and North Africa."[149] Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula claimed responsibility for the 2009 bombing attack on Northwest Airlines Flight 253 by Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab.[150] The group released photos of Abdulmutallab smiling in a white shirt and white Islamic skullcap, with the al-Qaeda in Arabian Peninsula banner in the background. United States operations Anwar al-Awlaki In December 1998, the Director of Central Intelligence Counterterrorist Center reported to the president that al-Qaeda was preparing for attacks in the USA, including the training of personnel to hijack aircraft.[151] On September 11, 2001, al-Qaeda attacked the United States, hijacking four airliners and deliberately crashing them.[152] The attackers killed 2,977 people.[153] U.S. officials called Anwar al-Awlaki an "example of al-Qaeda reach into" the U.S. in 2008 after probes into his ties to the September 11 attacks hijackers. A former FBI agent identifies Awlaki as a known "senior recruiter for al-Qaeda", and a spiritual motivator.[154] Awlaki's sermons in the U.S. were attended by three of the 9/11 hijackers, as well as accused Fort Hood shooter Nidal Malik Hasan. U.S. intelligence intercepted emails from Hasan to Awlaki between December 2008 and early 2009. On his website, Awlaki has praised Hasan's actions in the Fort Hood shooting.[155] An unnamed official claimed there was good reason to believe Awlaki "has been involved in very serious terrorist activities since leaving the U.S. [after 9/11], including plotting attacks against America and our allies.”[156] In addition, "Christmas Day bomber" Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab said al-Awlaki was one of his al-Qaeda trainers, meeting with him and involved in planning or preparing the attack, and provided religious justification for it, according to unnamed U.S. intelligence officials.[157][158][159] In March 2010, al‑Awlaki said in a videotape delivered to CNN that jihad against America was binding upon himself and every other able Muslim.[160][161] U.S. President Barack Obama approved the targeted killing of al-Awlaki by April 2010, making al-Awlaki the first U.S. citizen ever placed on the CIA target list. That required the consent of the U.S. National Security Council, and officials said it was appropriate for an individual who posed an imminent danger to national security.[162][163][164][165] In May 2010, Faisal Shahzad, who pleaded guilty to the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt, told interrogators he was "inspired by" al-Awlaki, and sources said Shahzad had made contact with al-Awlaki over the internet.[166][167][168] Representative Jane Harman called him "terrorist number one", and Investor's Business Daily called him "the world's most dangerous man".[169][170] In July 2010, the U.S. Treasury Department added him to its list of Specially Designated Global Terrorists, and the UN added him to its list of individuals associated with al-Qaeda.[171] In August 2010, al-Awlaki's father initiated a lawsuit against the U.S. government with the American Civil Liberties Union, challenging its order to kill al-Awlaki.[172] In October 2010, U.S. and U.K. officials linked al-Awlaki to the 2010 cargo plane bomb plot.[173] In September 2011, he was killed in a targeted killing drone attack in Yemen.[174] It was reported on March 16, 2012 that Osama bin Laden plotted to kill United States President Barack Obama.[175] Death of Osama bin Laden Main article: Death of Osama bin Laden View of Osama bin Laden's compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, where he was killed on May 1, 2011. On May 1, 2011 in Washington, D.C. (May 2, Pakistan Standard Time), U.S. President Barack Obama announced that Osama bin Laden had been killed by "a small team of Americans" acting under Obama's direct orders, in a covert operation in Abbottabad, Pakistan,[176][177] about 50 km (31 mi) north of Islamabad.[178] According to U.S. officials a team of 20–25 US Navy SEALs under the command of the Joint Special Operations Command and working with the CIA stormed bin Laden's compound in two helicopters. Bin Laden and those with him were killed during a firefight in which U.S. forces experienced no injuries or casualties.[179] According to one US official the attack was carried out without the knowledge or consent of the Pakistani authorities.[180] In Pakistan some people were reported to be shocked at the unauthorized incursion by US armed forces.[181] The site is a few miles from the Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul.[182] In his broadcast announcement President Obama said that U.S. forces "took care to avoid civilian casualties."[183] Details soon emerged that three men and a woman were killed along with Bin Laden, the woman being killed when she was “used as a shield by a male combatant”.[180] DNA from bin Laden's body, compared with DNA samples on record from his dead sister,[184] confirmed bin Laden's identity.[185] The body was recovered by the US military and was in its custody[177] until, according to one US official, his body was buried at sea according to Islamic traditions.[178][186] One U.S. official stated that "finding a country willing to accept the remains of the world's most wanted terrorist would have been difficult."[187] U.S State Department issued a "Worldwide caution" for Americans following Bin Laden's death and U.S Diplomatic facilities everywhere were placed on high alert, a senior U.S official said.[188] Crowds gathered outside the White House and in New York City's Times Square to celebrate Bin Laden's death.[189] War in Syria Main article: Syrian civil war See also: Al-Nusra Front and Islamic State of Iraq and Syria Following the mass protests that took place in 2011 demanding the resignation of President Bashar Al-Assad, Al-Qaeda affiliated organizations and Sunni sympathizers soon began to constitute the most effective fighting force in the Syrian oppostion.[190] Until then, al-Qaeda's presence in Syria was not worth mentioning, but its growth thereafter was rapid.[191] Groups such as the Al-Nusra Front and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have recruited many foreign Mujahideen to train and fight in what has gradually become a highly sectarian war.[192][193] Ideologically, the Syrian Civil War has served the interests of Al-Qaeda as it pits a mainly Sunni opposition against a Shia backed Alawite regime. Viewing Shia Islam as heretical, Al-Qaeda and other fundamentalist Sunni militant groups have invested heavily in the civil conflict, actively backing and supporting the Syrian Opposition despite its clashes with moderate opposition groups such as the Free Syrian Army (FSA).[194][195] On February 2, 2014, Al-Queda distanced itself from ISIS and its actions in Syria.[196] Attacks Main article: Timeline of al-Qaeda attacks Map of major attacks attributed to al-Qaeda: 1. United States The Pentagon, US – Sep 11, 2001 2. United States World Trade Center, US – Sep 11, 2001 3. Turkey Istanbul, Turkey – Nov 15, 2003; Nov 20, 2003 4. Yemen Aden, Yemen – Oct 12, 2000 5. Kenya Nairobi, Kenya – Aug 7, 1998 6. TanzaniaDar es Salaam, Tanzania – Aug 7, 1998 Al-Qaeda has carried out a total of six major terrorist attacks, four of them in its jihad against America. In each case the leadership planned the attack years in advance, arranging for the shipment of weapons and explosives and using its privatized businesses to provide operatives with safehouses and false identities. Al-Qaeda usually does not disburse funds for attacks, and very rarely makes wire transfers.[197] 1992 On December 29, 1992, al-Qaeda's first terrorist attack took place as two bombs were detonated in Aden, Yemen. The first target was the Movenpick Hotel and the second was the parking lot of the Goldmohur Hotel. The bombings were an attempt to eliminate American soldiers on their way to Somalia to take part in the international famine relief effort, Operation Restore Hope. Internally, al-Qaeda considered the bombing a victory that frightened the Americans away, but in the U.S. the attack was barely noticed. No Americans were killed because the soldiers were staying in a different hotel altogether, and they went on to Somalia as scheduled. However little noticed, the attack was pivotal as it was the beginning of al-Qaeda's change in direction, from fighting armies to killing civilians.[198] Two people were killed in the bombing, an Australian tourist and a Yemeni hotel worker. Seven others, mostly Yemenis, were severely injured. Two fatwas are said to have been appointed by the most theologically knowledgeable of al-Qaeda's members, Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, to justify the killings according to Islamic law. Salim referred to a famous fatwa appointed by Ibn Taymiyyah, a 13th-century scholar much admired by Wahhabis, which sanctioned resistance by any means during the Mongol invasions.[199][unreliable source?] 1993 World Trade Center bombing Ramzi Yousef Main article: World Trade Center bombing In 1993, Ramzi Yousef used a truck bomb to attack the World Trade Center in New York City. The attack was intended to break the foundation of Tower One knocking it into Tower Two, bringing the entire complex down. Yousef hoped this would kill 250,000 people. The towers shook and swayed but the foundation held and he succeeded in killing only six people (although he injured 1,042 others and caused nearly $300 million in property damage).[200][201][page needed] After the attack, Yousef fled to Pakistan and later moved to Manila. There he began developing the Bojinka plot plans to implode a dozen American airliners simultaneously, to assassinate Pope John Paul II and President Bill Clinton, and to crash a private plane into CIA headquarters. He was later captured in Pakistan.[200] None of the U.S. government's indictments against bin Laden have suggested that he had any connection with this bombing, but Ramzi Yousef is known to have attended a terrorist training camp in Afghanistan. After his capture, Yousef declared that his primary justification for the attack was to punish the U.S. for its support for the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories and made no mention of any religious motivations.[201] Late 1990s 1998 Nairobi embassy bombing Main articles: 1998 United States embassy bombings and USS Cole bombing In 1996, bin Laden personally engineered a plot to assassinate Clinton while the president was in Manila for the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. However, intelligence agents intercepted a message just minutes before the motorcade was to leave, and alerted the U.S. Secret Service. Agents later discovered a bomb planted under a bridge.[202] The 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa resulted in upward of 300 deaths, mostly locals. A barrage of cruise missiles launched by the U.S. military in response devastated an al-Qaeda base in Khost, Afghanistan, but the network's capacity was unharmed. In October 2000, al-Qaeda militants in Yemen bombed the missile destroyer U.S.S. Cole in a suicide attack, killing 17 U.S. servicemen and damaging the vessel while it lay offshore. Inspired by the success of such a brazen attack, al-Qaeda's command core began to prepare for an attack on the U.S. itself. September 11 attacks Main article: September 11 attacks See also: Responsibility for the September 11 attacks Aftermath of the September 11 attacks The September 11, 2001 attacks were the most devastating terrorist acts in American history, killing approximately 3,000 people. Two commercial airliners were deliberately flown into the World Trade Center towers, a third into The Pentagon, and a fourth, originally intended to target the United States Capitol, crashed in a field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. The attacks were conducted by al-Qaeda, acting in accord with the 1998 fatwa issued against the U.S. and its allies by military forces under the command of bin Laden, al-Zawahiri, and others.[203] Evidence points to suicide squads led by al-Qaeda military commander Mohamed Atta as the culprits of the attacks, with bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and Hambali as the key planners and part of the political and military command. Messages issued by bin Laden after September 11, 2001 praised the attacks, and explained their motivation while denying any involvement.[204] Bin Laden legitimized the attacks by identifying grievances felt by both mainstream and Islamist Muslims, such as the general perception that the U.S. was actively oppressing Muslims.[205] Bin Laden asserted that America was massacring Muslims in 'Palestine, Chechnya, Kashmir and Iraq' and that Muslims should retain the 'right to attack in reprisal'. He also claimed the 9/11 attacks were not targeted at women and children, but 'America's icons of military and economic power'.[206] Evidence has since come to light that the original targets for the attack may have been nuclear power stations on the east coast of the U.S. The targets were later altered by al-Qaeda, as it was feared that such an attack "might get out of hand".[207][208] Designation as terrorist organization Al-Qaeda has been designated a terrorist organization by the following countries and international organizations: Australia Australia[209] Brazil Brazil[210] Canada Canada[211] European Union European Union[212] France France[213] India India[214] Republic of Ireland Ireland Israel Israel[215] Japan Japan[216] NATO NATO[217][218] Netherlands Netherlands[219] New Zealand New Zealand[220] Philippines Philippines[citation needed] Russia Russia[221] South Korea South Korea[222] Sweden Sweden[223] Switzerland Switzerland[224] Turkey Turkey[225] United Kingdom United Kingdom[226] United Nations United Nations Security Council[227] United States United States[228] War on Terrorism Main article: War on Terror U.S. troops in Afghanistan In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, the U.S. government decided to respond militarily, and began to prepare its armed forces to overthrow the Taliban regime it believed was harboring al-Qaeda. Before the U.S. attacked, it offered Taliban leader Mullah Omar a chance to surrender bin Laden and his top associates. The first forces to be inserted into Afghanistan were Paramilitary Officers from the CIA's elite Special Activities Division (SAD). The Taliban offered to turn over bin Laden to a neutral country for trial if the U.S. would provide evidence of bin Laden's complicity in the attacks. U.S. President George W. Bush responded by saying: "We know he's guilty. Turn him over",[229] and British Prime Minister Tony Blair warned the Taliban regime: "Surrender bin Laden, or surrender power".[230] Soon thereafter the U.S. and its allies invaded Afghanistan, and together with the Afghan Northern Alliance removed the Taliban government in the war in Afghanistan. As a result of the U.S. using its special forces and providing air support for the Northern Alliance ground forces, both Taliban and al-Qaeda training camps were destroyed, and much of the operating structure of al-Qaeda is believed to have been disrupted. After being driven from their key positions in the Tora Bora area of Afghanistan, many al-Qaeda fighters tried to regroup in the rugged Gardez region of the nation. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed after his arrest in Rawalpindi, Pakistan, in March 2003. Again, under the cover of intense aerial bombardment, U.S. infantry and local Afghan forces attacked, shattering the al-Qaeda position and killing or capturing many of the militants. By early 2002, al-Qaeda had been dealt a serious blow to its operational capacity, and the Afghan invasion appeared an initial success. Nevertheless, a significant Taliban insurgency remains in Afghanistan, and al-Qaeda's top two leaders, bin Laden and al-Zawahiri, evaded capture. Debate raged about the exact nature of al-Qaeda's role in the 9/11 attacks, and after the U.S. invasion began, the U.S. State Department also released a videotape showing bin Laden speaking with a small group of associates somewhere in Afghanistan shortly before the Taliban was removed from power.[231] Although its authenticity has been questioned by some,[232] the tape appears to implicate bin Laden and al-Qaeda in the September 11 attacks and was aired on many television channels all over the world, with an accompanying English translation provided by the U.S. Defense Department. In September 2004, the US government 9/11 Commission investigating the September 11 attacks officially concluded that the attacks were conceived and implemented by al-Qaeda operatives.[233] In October 2004, bin Laden appeared to claim responsibility for the attacks in a videotape released through Al Jazeera, saying he was inspired by Israeli attacks on high-rises in the 1982 invasion of Lebanon: "As I looked at those demolished towers in Lebanon, it entered my mind that we should punish the oppressor in kind and that we should destroy towers in America in order that they taste some of what we tasted and so that they be deterred from killing our women and children."[234] By the end of 2004, the U.S. government proclaimed that two-thirds of the most senior al-Qaeda figures from 2001 had been captured and interrogated by the CIA: Abu Zubaydah, Ramzi bin al-Shibh and Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri in 2002;[235] Khalid Sheikh Mohammed in 2003; and Saif al Islam el Masry in 2004.[citation needed] Mohammed Atef and several others were killed. The West was criticised for not being able to comprehend or deal with Al-Qaida despite more than a decade of the war. This also meant no progress has been made in global state security.[236] Activities Africa Main article: Al-Qaeda involvement in Africa Front page of The Guardian Weekly on the eighth anniversary of the September 11 attacks. The article claimed that al-Qaeda's activity is "increasingly dispersed to 'affiliates' or 'franchises' in Yemen and North Africa."[237] Al-Qaeda involvement in Africa has included a number of bombing attacks in North Africa, as well as supporting parties in civil wars in Eritrea and Somalia. From 1991 to 1996, bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leaders were based in Sudan. Islamist rebels in the Sahara calling themselves al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb have stepped up their violence in recent years.[238] French officials say the rebels have no real links to the al-Qaeda leadership, but this is a matter of some dispute in the international press and amongst security analysts. It seems likely that bin Laden approved the group's name in late 2006, and the rebels "took on the al Qaeda franchise label", almost a year before the violence began to escalate.[239] In Mali, the Ansar Dine faction was also reported as an ally of Al-Qaeda in 2013.[240] The Ansar al Dine faction aligned themselves with the AQIM.[241] Following the Libyan Civil War, the removal of Gaddafi and the ensuing period of post-civil war violence in Libya allowed various Islamist militant organizations affiliated with Al-Qaeda to expand their operations in the region.[242] The 2012 Benghazi attack, which resulted in the death of U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and 3 other Americans, is suspected of having been carried out by various Jihadist networks, such as Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, Ansar al-Sharia and several other Al-Qaeda affiliated groups.[243][244] The capture of Nazih Abdul-Hamed al-Ruqai, a senior Al-Qaeda operative wanted by the United States for his involvement in the 1998 United States embassy bombings, on October 5, 2013 by U.S. Navy Seals, FBI and CIA agents illustrates the importance the U.S. and other Western allies have placed on North Africa.[245] Europe Main article: Al-Qaeda involvement in Europe Before the 9/11 attacks and the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan, recruits at Al-Qaeda training camps who had Western backgrounds were especially sought after by Al-Qaeda's military wing for conducting operations overseas. Language skills and knowledge of Western culture were generally found among recruits from Europe, such was the case with Mohamed Atta, an Egyptian national studying in Germany at the time of his training, and other members of the Hamburg Cell. Osama bin Laden and Mohamed Atef would later designate Atta as the ringleader of the 9/11 hijackers. Following the attacks, Western intelligence agencies determined that Al-Qaeda cells operating in Europe had aided the hijackers with financing and communications with the central leadership based in Afghanistan.[246][247] In 2003, Islamists carried out a series of bombings in Istanbul killing fifty-seven people and injuring seven hundred. Seventy-four people were charged by the Turkish authorities. Some had previously met Bin Laden, and though they specifically declined to pledge allegiance to al-Qaeda they asked for its blessing and help.[248][249] In 2009, three Londoners, Tanvir Hussain, Assad Sarwar and Ahmed Abdullah Ali, were convicted of conspiring to detonate bombs disguised as soft drinks on seven airplanes bound for Canada and the U.S. The massively complex police and MI5 investigation of the plot involved more than a year of surveillance work conducted by over two hundred officers.[250][251] British and U.S. officials said the plan—unlike many recent homegrown European terrorist plots—was directly linked to al-Qaeda and guided by senior Islamic militants in Pakistan.[252][253] In 2012, Russian Intelligence indicated that al-Qaeda had given a call for "forest jihad" and has been starting massive forest fires as part of a strategy of "thousand cuts".[254] Arab world Main articles: Al-Qaeda involvement in the Middle East, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, and USS Cole bombing USS Cole after the October 2000 attack Following Yemeni unification in 1990, Wahhabi networks began moving missionaries into the country in an effort to subvert the capitalist north. Although it is unlikely bin Laden or Saudi al-Qaeda were directly involved, the personal connections they made would be established over the next decade and used in the USS Cole bombing.[255] Concerns grow over Al Qaeda's group in Yemen.[256] In Iraq, al-Qaeda forces loosely associated with the leadership were embedded in the Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad organization commanded by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Specializing in suicide operations, they have been a "key driver" of the Sunni insurgency.[257] Although they played a small part in the overall insurgency, between 30% and 42% of all suicide bombings which took place in the early years were claimed by Zarqawi's organization.[258] Reports have indicated that oversights such as the failure to control access to the Qa'qaa munitions factory in Yusufiyah have allowed large quantities of munitions to fall into the hands of al-Qaida.[259] In November 2010, the Islamic State of Iraq militant group, which is linked to al-Qaeda in Iraq, threatened to "exterminate Iraqi Christians".[260][261] Significantly, it was not until the late 1990s that al-Qaeda began training Palestinians. This is not to suggest that resistance fighters are underrepresented in the network as a number of Palestinians, mostly coming from Jordan, wanted to join and have risen to serve high-profile roles in Afghanistan.[262] Rather, large groups such as Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad—which cooperate with al-Qaeda in many respects—have had difficulties accepting a strategic alliance, fearing that al-Qaeda will co-opt their smaller cells. This may have changed recently, as Israeli security and intelligence services believe al-Qaeda has managed to infiltrate operatives from the Occupied Territories into Israel, and is waiting for the right time to mount an attack.[262] Kashmir Main article: Kashmir conflict Bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri consider India to be a part of the ‘Crusader-Zionist-Hindu’ conspiracy against the Islamic world.[263] According to the 2005 report 'Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment' by Congressional Research Service, bin Laden was involved in training militants for Jihad in Kashmir while living in Sudan in the early nineties. By 2001, Kashmiri militant group Harkat-ul-Mujahideen had become a part of the al-Qaeda coalition.[264] According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees al-Qaeda was thought to have established bases in Pakistan-administered Kashmir (in Azad Kashmir, and to some extent in Gilgit–Baltistan) during the 1999 Kargil War and continued to operate there with tacit approval of Pakistan's Intelligence services.[265] Many of the militants active in Kashmir were trained in the same Madrasahs as Taliban and al-Qaeda. Fazlur Rehman Khalil of Kashmiri militant group Harkat-ul-Mujahideen was a signatory of al-Qaeda's 1998 declaration of Jihad against America and its allies.[266] In a 'Letter to American People' written by bin Laden in 2002 he stated that one of the reasons he was fighting America is because of her support to India on the Kashmir issue.[267][268] In November 2001, Kathmandu airport went on high alert after threats that Bin Laden planned to hijack a plane from there and crash it into a target in New Delhi.[269] In 2002, U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, on a trip to Delhi, suggested that al-Qaeda was active in